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O  F 

I  N 



Treating  of  the  Original  of  their  Incas  or  Kings :  Of  their  Idola- 
try :  Of  their  Laws  and  Government  both  in  Peace  and  War  :  Of  the  Reigns 
and  Conquefts  of  the  Incas .-  With  many  other  Particulars  relating  to  their 
Empire  and  Policies  before  fuch  time  as  the  Spaniards  invaded  their  Countries. 


Defcribing  the  manner  by  which  that  new  World  was  conquered 

by  the  Spaniards.  Alfo  the  Civil  Wars  between  the  Pi^arrifts  and  the  Alma- 
grians,  occafioned  by  Quarrels  arifing  about  the  Divifion  of  that  Land.  Of 
the  Rife  and  Fall  of  Rebels ;  and  other  Particulars  contained  in  that  Hiftory. 

piufttateD  toitl)  Sculptures* 

Written  originally  in  Spanifb, 

By  the  Inca   GARCILASSO  DE  LA   VEGA, 

And  rendred  into  Englijh,  by  Sir  PAV  L  RTCA  V  T,  K\ 


Printed  by  Miles  Flejher,  for  Jacob  Ton/on  at  the  Judges-Head  in 

Chancery-Lane  near  Fleetftreet,   MDCLXXXV1II. 

Let  this  Book  be  Printed, 

Auguft  3. 



Royal  Commentaries 

O  F 


IN    TWO    PARTS. 


Treating  of  the  Original  of  their  hicas  or  Kings, :  Of  their  Idola- 
try :  Of  their  Laws  and  Government  both  in  Peace  and  War: 
Of  the  Reigns  and  Conquers  of  the  lncas :  With  many  other 
Particulars  relating  to  their  Empire  and  Policies  before  fuch 
time  as  the  Spaniards  invaded  their  Countries. 


Defcribins;  the  manner  by  which  that  new  World  was  conquered 
by  the \  Spaniards.  Alfo  the  Civil  Wars  between  the  Pic.arrifts 
and  the  Almagrians ,  occafioned  by  Quarrels  arifing  about  the 
Divifion  of  that  Land.  Or  the  Rife  and  Fall  of  Rebels ;  and 
other  Particulars  contained  in  that  Hiftory. 

Written  originally  in  Spanijh , 

By  the  Inca  GARCILASSO  DE  LA  VEGA, 

And  rendred  into  Englijh ,  »- 

By  Sir  P  A  V  L     RTCAVT,  Knight 


Printed  by  Miles  Flejher ,  for  Jacob  To?ifon  at  the  Judges-head  in 
Chancery-lane  near  Fleet [ireet,  1688. 


Let  this  Book  be  Printed, 

Augufl  J. 


T  O 

JAMES     II. 

By  the  Grace  of  God, 


FRANCE  and  IRELAND, &c. 

Defender  of  the  Faith. 

May  it  pleafe  your  Moft  Excellent  Majefty, 

THIS  Translation  out  of  Spanifh,  having 
the  Name  ojf  Royal  Commentaries,  feems 
jujily  to  claim  a  Title  to  Tour  MAJE- 
ST  T'S  gratious  Favour  and  Protection  :  And  lif\e- 
wife  Tour  M  A  f  EST  T'S  Dominions  being  adja- 
cent and  almofl  contiguous  to  the  Countries  which  are 
the  fubjetl  of  this  Hiftory,  mafy  Tour  MAJESTT 
a  Party  concerned  in  the  Affairs  of  the  New  World,  and 
fofupreme  an  Arbitrator  in  the  Government  thereof  that 
to  fuffrejs  the  Robberies  and  Infolence  of  certain  Pi- 
rates who  infejl  thofe  Coafts,  Tour  MAJESTTS 
Royal  Arms  are  called  for ,  as  the  moft  proper  Means 
and  Power  to  reduce  them.  Great  aljo  is  Tour  M  A- 
J  E  ST  T'S  Fame  in  the  Eaft  as  well  as  in  the 
Weft- Indies  :  And  may  all  the  World  court  Tour 
Friendship  and  Alliance,  and  doe  honour  to  Tour  Roy- 
al Standard. 

(  2  )  May 

The  Epiftle  Dedicatory. 

May  Tour  MA  JEST  T  be  fill  happy  with 
Jncreafe  of  Glory  and  Honour  both  at  home  and  abroad, 
untill  fuch  time  as  that  you  exchange  this  mortal  Crown 
for  me  everlafi-ing  in  the  World  to  come.  VVhicbtis 
the  fervent  Prayer  of 

Dread  Sovereign, 


mod:  obedient, 

moil;  dutifull, 

and  mod  loyal 

Subject  and  Servant, 

Paul  Rye  ant. 





R   E   A  D  E  R. 

TH  E  Authour  of  this  Hiftory  was  one  of  thofe  vohom  the  Spani- 
ards called  Meztizo's ,  that  is  ,  one  bom  of  a  Spanilh  Father  and 
an  Indian  Mother.     And  though  he  was  a  Native  of  Peru  ,  and 
by  the  Mother  s  fide  inclined  to  thefimple  Temperament,  which  is  natural  to 
that  Count rey  ;  yet  it  feems  the  Spanilh  humour  was  moft  prevalent  in  him, 
fo  that  he  delighted  much  to  tell  in ,  as  in  divers  places ,  that  he  was  the 
Son  o/Garcjlaflb  de  la  Vega,  one  of  the  fir  ft  Conquer  ours  of  the  new  World, 
who  was  by  the  direQ  Line  defcended  from  that  brave  Cavalier  Garcipe- 
rez  de  Vargas ,  from  whom  came  the  valiant  Gomez  Suarez  de  Figueroa , 
the  fir  ft  Count  of  Feria,  his  Great-grandfather,  and  Ynigo  Lopez  de  Men- 
do^a ,  from  whom  the  Duke  of  Infantado  was  defcended ;  who  was  Brother 
to  his  Great-grandmother  and  to  Alonfo  de  Vargas ,  Lord  of  the  Black- 
mountain  ,  his  Grand  father ,  from  whom  came   Alonfo  de  Hineftrofa  de 
Vargas,  Lord  of  Valde  Sevilla,  who  was  Father  to  Garc^laflb  de  la  Vega, 
of  whom  came  our  Authour.     Nor  lefs  illuftrious  doth  he  tell  you,  that  he 
was  by  the  Mother's  fide ,  who  was  the  Daughter  of  Inca  Huallpa  Topac , 
one  of  the  Sons  of  Topac  Inca  Yupanqui  and  of  Palla  Mama  Occlo,  his 
lawfull  Wife ,  from  whom  came  Huayna  Capac  Inca,  the  lafl  King  0/Peru. 
Wherefore  this  Authour  in  all  his  Writings  ftyles  him/elf  Gareilafto  Inca, 
lecau/e  he  derived  his  Pedigree  from  the  Kings  of  Peru,  who  were  called 
Inca's ,  a  name  it  feems  given  to  none  but  the  Royal  Family. 

This  Hiftory  is  divided  into  two  Parts.  The  fir  ft  treats  of  their  Govern- 
ment before  the  time  of  the  Inca's,  which  was  by  the  Head  of  their  Tribes 
%and  Families  called  Curacas ;  and  then  it  proceeds  unto  the  Original  of  the 
Inca's,  and  of  their  Government ,  and  in  what  manner  that  falvage  People 
was  civilized  and  inft rutted  in  the  Laws  of  Humane  Nature,  and  to  live 
in  a  Political  Society  by  Manco  Capac  their  fir  ft  King ;  How  alfo  the  Men 
were  taught  by  him  to  plow  and  cultivate  their  Lands,  and  exercife  fome 
fort  of  Husbandry  :  and  how  the  Women,  by  his  Wife  Coya  Mama,  (who 
by  their  Law  was  to  be  his  Sifter)  were  taught  tofpin,  and  weave,  and  make 
their  own  Garments. 

It  it  probable  that  a  great  part  of  this  Hiftory,  as  far  as  concerns  the  0- 
riginJ  of  the  Inca's  and  the  foundation  of  their  Laws,  is  fabulous  :  howfo- 

A  z  ever 

The  Tranflator  to  the  Reader. 

ever,  being,  as  our  Ant  hour  fays,  delivered  by  Tradition,  and  commonly  be- 
lieved amongft  their  People  of  the  better  degree  ,  it  may  contain  divers 
Truths  mixed  with  abundance  of  Fittions  andfoolift)  Inventions.  But  this 
is  no  more  than  what  hath  happened  to  Nations  of  more  refined  underftan- 
ding  ;  for  what  account  can  we  our  /elves  give  of  Great  Britain  before  the 
Romans  entred  into  it  >  Nay,  What  can  France  or  Spain  fay  of  the  An- 
cient Inhabitants  of  their  own  Countries ,  or  of  the  manner ,  how  they  came 
fir  ft  to  be  Chriftians  ?  Vnlefs  it  be  that  which  ignorant  men  have  devifed , 
and  what  the  Learned  men  are  now  afhamed  to  believe  or  fay  after  them  ? 
And  then,  what  wonder  is  it  that  fuch  poor  Salvages ,  born  in  a  part  of  the 
World  undifcovered  to  us ,  untill  the  year  1484  ;  and  of  whofe  Original  we 
have  no  certain  knowledge  ;  nor  have  any  light  bejides  fancy  and  conjetture, 
from  whence  the  Continent  of  America  hath  been  peopled:  How  then  ,  I 
fay ,  can  it  be  expected  that  thefe  illiterate  Creatures  fhould  be  able  to 
give  an  account  of  their  Extraction,  or  of  Matters  which  puffed  in 
thofe  Ages ;  of  which  the  Learned  parts  of  the  World  acknowledge  their 
ignorance ,  and  confefs  themfelves  to  be  in  the  dark  even  as  to  thofe 
Matters  which  concern  their  own  Hi/lories  ? 

But  becaufe  it  is  in  the  nature  of  Mankind  to  tife  reflell  Alls  on  their 
own  being ,  and  retreat  with  their  Thoughts  back  to  fome  beginning  „•  fa 
thefe  poor  Souls  derive  the  Original  of  their  firft  being  from  divers  Crea~ 
tures,  of  which  they  had  the  great  eft  opinion  and  admiration  :  fome  living 
near  a  great  Lake  which  Jupplied  them  with  ft  ore  of  Fifh,  called  that  their 
Parent ,  from  whence  they  emerged :  and  ethers  efteemed  the  Mighty 
Mountains  of  Antis  to  have  been  their  Parent ,  and  to  have  iffued  out 
of  thefe  Caverns ,  as  from  the  Womb  of  a  Mother ;  others  fanjied  them- 
felves to  be  defended  from  that  great  Fowl  called  Cuntur  ,  which  fpreads 
a  very  large  Wing ,  which  pie  a  fed  fome  Nations  of  the  Indians,  that  they 
would  look  no  farther  for  a  Parent  than  to  that  Fowl,  and  in  token 
thereof,  upon  days  of  folemnity  and  feftival ,  carried  the  Wings  thereof 
fa  fine  el  to  their  Armes.  But  then  ,  as  to  their  Inca's  or  Kings  ,  whofe  O- 
riginal  was  to  be  derived  from  fomething  higher  than  fublunary  Creatures, 
being  of  better  compofition  than  their  poor  and  mean  Vaffals  ,  the  Sun  was 
efteemed  a  fit  Parent  for  thofe  who  were  come  from  Divine  race  :  fo  that 
when  they  adored  the  Sun  ,  whom  they  acknowledged  for  their  God,  they 
gave  honour  to  their  Kings  who  were  defended  from  him.  Various  have 
been  the  opinions  amongjl  Hiftorians  concerning  the  Original  of  this  Peo- 
ple ;  of  which  the  moft  probable  ,  as  I  conceive ,  is  ,  that  they  proceeded 
from  the  Race  of  the  Northern  Tartar ,  whom  they  refemble  in  the  fhape 
and  air  of  their  features  ,  and  in  their  barbarous  way  of  living ;  but 
then  we  muft  fanfie,  as  fome  Geographers  do  ,  that  the  Weft  fide  of  A- 
merica  is  Continent  with  Tartary  ,  or  at  leaft  disjoyned  from  thence  by 
fome  narrow  ftrait ;  of  which  I  am  well  perfuaded  we  have  no  certain 

But  to  let  thefe  Matters  pafi,  and  confide r  the  Condition  in  which  the 
Spaniards  found  the  Inhabitants  of  Peru ,  when  they  firft  came  amongft  them, 
they  were,  I  fay,  a  naked  People ,  fimple  and  credulous,  believing  every 
thing  that  the  Spaniards  told  and  promifed  them  :  To  which  they  were  in- 
duced out  of  an  opinion  that  the  Spaniards  were  Viracocha's  or  the  Oft- 
fpring  of  the  Sun  ,  whom  they  adored  for  God,  and  in  whom  they  believed, 
according  to  the  Light  of  Nature  ,  that  there  could  be  no  falfity  or  fhadow 
of  untruth.  Wherefore  they  were  ftrangely  furprized ,  whilft  in  a  peace- 

The  Tranflator  to  the  Reader. 

able  manner  they  were  treating  with  the  good  men ,  and  whilft  Friar 
Valverde,  with  a  Crofi  in  his  hand,  teas  preaching  to  Atahualpa  their 
King ;  that  then ,  without  any  Caufe  given,  they  fhould  be  killed  with 
Swords  and  Lances ,  and  jive  thoufand  of  them  maffacred  before  the  face 
of  their  Prince  ;  And  yet  they  would  not  foregoe  this  foolifh  imagina-  • 
tion  •  though  afterwards  ,  contrary  to  the  faith  given ,  they  faw  their 
King  imprijbned ,  and  his  liberty  promifed  upon  a  vafl  ranfome  of  Gold 
and  Silver  ;  which  when  paid  and  fully  complied  with ,  he  was  notwith- 
flanding  fir  angled  in  prijon ,  and  no  other  liberty  given  him  than  that 
freedom  which  Death  beflows  upon  all  mankind.  And  yet  this  filly  People 
could  not  but  entertain  a  high  efteem  of  the  Spaniards,  as  of  thofe  who 
were  come  to  teach  them  a  better  Law ,  and  flill  called  them  Viracocha's , 
or  People  dejcended  from  their  Father  the  Sun  ,  imagining  that  this  new  Tfie  Indians 
fort  of  People  in  Beards  and  Ruffs  had  received  Commiflion  from  that  glori-  Beards. 
ota  Light,  which  they  adored,  for  punifhment  of  their  Offences,  to  fwear 
and  lye,  and  violate  all  the  Bands  of  humane  kind.  And  yet  that  which 
farther  /hews  the  fimplicity  and  good  nature  of  this  People  is,  that  in  de- 
fpight  of  all  the  ill  ufage  received  from  ^Spaniards,  they  would  prove 
flill  faithfull  to  them,  upon  a  principle  they  had  received,  that  to  whom- 
foever  they  had  yielded  themj elves  in  War,  they  were  to  be  faithfull,  with 
fuch  uncorrupted  Loyalty  and  Truth ,  that  no  confideration  either  of  King  , 
Wife,  Father,  Family  or  Countrey  could  abfolve  them  from  the  Obligation 
and  Duty  they  owed  to  their  Countrey  (  vid.  p.  487.  j  And  hence  it  was 
that  fo  many  Indians  fought  againfl  their  Countrey-men  in  union  with  the 
Spaniards,  and  Jerved  them  for  Spyes  ,  to  give  them  intelligence  of  what- 
foever  was  defigned  in  the  Camp  of  the  Indians. 

But  this  flexible  and  good  nature  of  this  People  did  not  fof ten  the  haugh- 
ty mind  of  the  Spaniards  towards  them  ,  who  efteeming  the  reft  of  the 
World  Slaves  to  them,  oppreffed  the  Indians  with  fuch  fervitude  and  fla- 
ry  as  the  nature  of  man  was  not  able  to  fuflain.  Of  which  that  wife  and 
good  Emper  our ,  Charles^/'*?  Fifth,  taking  notice ,  he  difpatched  newOr~ 
ders  to  Peru  ,  for  eafe  of  the  Natives  ,  and  to  exempt  them  from  that 
inhumane  Tyranny  which  one  man  ought  not  to  exercife  towards  another  : 
But  this  gratiom  Indulgence  of  the  Prince  ferved  to  raife  greater  Diflur- 
bances  amongji  the  Conquerours ,  who  rejufing  to  quit  their  Commands  and 
exempt  thejr  Indians  from  their  Vaffalage  and  Services,  openly  oppofed  the 
Governours  and  Officers  which  were  fent  to  put  the  new  Ordinances  in  execu- 
tion :  which  afterwards  proceeded  to  an  open  War  and  Rebellion ,  which 
with  various  jucceffes  continued  for  many  years  :  till  at  length  the  King 
of  Spain  was  forced  to  moderate  the  rigour  of  his  new  regulations,  and  con- 
defcend  to  his  Subjects,  by  conferving  to  them  that  tyrannical  Power  which 
they  pretended  unto  by  right  of  Conquefl  over  the  Indians  :  in  which  they 
'werefounmercifull,  that  had  not  King  Philip  the  Second  contrived  a  fup- 
ply  of  Negro's  out  cf  Africa  to  work  in  the  Mountain  of  Potofi  and  other 
Mines,  the  whole  Indian  Nation  had  before  this  been  utterly  extinguijhed. 

But  God ,  who  is  jufl  and  compaffionate  of  the  Creatures  which  he  hath 
made  ,  would  not  fuffer  thefe  Cruelties  to  pafi  unpunijh'd,  but  caufed  the. 
Spaniards  tbemfehes  to  be  inftruments  of  his  vengeance  on  each  other. 
So  Francifco  Pi^arro  and  Diego  Almagro,  after  having  conquered  the  Coun- 
trey, fell  at  variance  about  flaring  the  Government  and  dividing  the  Spoil,  \ 
which  was  decided  by  the  Sword:  Then  Goncalo  Pi^arro  pretended  to  the 
Government  of  Peru  for  his  Life,  by  virtue  of  the  Patent  which  the  Em- 


The  Tranflator  to  the  R  eader. 

perour  had  given  to  his  Brother  the  Marquis  Picarro,  and  in  defence  there- 
of, and  in  oppofition  to  the  new  Laws  before  mentioned  ,  he  raijed  Wars 
againfi  the  Juftices  and  the  Vice-king  Blafco  Nunnez,  whom,  after  feve- 
ral  Fights  and  Skirmifhes  he  killed  in  Battel.  And  though  this  Picarro 
was  afterwards  fubdued  by  the  wife  conduct  of  the  Prefdent  Pedro  de  la 
Gafca ,  yet  things  did  not  continue  long  quiet  before  they  broke  out  again 
into  new  difturbances.  So  Don  Sebaftian  de  Cadi' la  made  a  Rebellion 
and  headed  the  Male-contents  ,  who  being  difappointed  of  the  reward  they 
expelled  for  the  fervices  they  had  done  againfi  Gonjralo  Picarro,  endea- 
voured to  right  them] "elves  by  their  own  Power  ,  and  killed  the  General 
Don  Pedro  de  Hinojofa.  Then  Vafco  de  Godinez  killed  Don  Sebaftian 
deCaftilla,  and '  fet  up  for  himfelf,  but  was  foon  fubdued,  and  put  to  death 
by  Alonfo  de  Alvarado.  Then  Egas  de  Guzman,  a  bold  and  bloudy  Vil- 
lain pretended  to  be  the  Head  of  a  Party ,  but  he  and  his  Complices  were 
foon  difperfed  for  want  of  Affociates  to  abet  their  Caufe.  And  laflly,  Fran- 
cifco  Hernandez  Giron ,  with  about  twelve  or  thirteen  more  began  a  Re- 
bellion  in  Cozco,  and  with  that/mall  number  killed  moft  of  the  Magijlrates 
of  the  City,  and  put  moft  of  the  Inhabitants  to  flight;  with  whom  after- 
wards many  difcontented  Souldiers  joining ,  they  carryed  on  a  War  againfi 
the  Government  for  fever al years  with  much  bloud,  and  cruelties  ailed  upon 
each  other ;  for  now  the  common  Souldiers  were  become  fo  mutinous,  for 
want  of  employment ,  that  they  were  ready  to  join  with  any  perfon  that 
pretended  to  a  refentment  :  And  indeed  there  was  not  an  ordinary  Fellow 
but  who  had  fo  great  a  value  for  himfelf  on  the  honour  of  being  a  Spaniard 
and  a  Souldier,  that  he  fwallowed  in  his  vain  thoughts  all  the  Riches  of  the 
Indies  ,  andfanfied  that  the  whole  Government  and  Wealth  of  Peru  was 
not  afufficient  Reward  for  a  perfon  of  his  high  Mir  it  and  Ex  trail  ion.  In 
this  manner  was  Peru  conquered ,  and  with  this  fort  of  People  hath  it  been 
fince  that  time  planted ,  ivhich  we  have  reafon  to  believe  have  buried 
themfelves  infloth  and  luxury.  How  well  they  have  improved 'that  Count rey 
and  ufed  thofe  Riches  which  God  hath  given  them  ,  and  how  humanely  they 
have  treated  the  poor  Natives ;  I  leave  to  the  Hiftorians  of  our  modern 
times  :  and  for  the  Valour  and  Bravery  which  of  late  years  they  have  ufed 
in  defence  of  that  Countrey;  I  refer  myfelf  to  the  Relation  of  the  Buca- 
niers.    And  fo  proceed  on  with  this  Hifiory. 


Royal  Commentaries. 

B  o  o  K   I. 

C  H  A  P.    I. 

How  the  New  World  was  Vifcovered. 

BOUT  the  Yean 


84,  a  certain  Pilot,  Native  of  Helva  in  the 

County  of  Niebla,  called  Alonfo  Sanchez,^  ufually  Traded  in  a  fmall 
Veflel  from  Spain  to  t 

Veflel  from  Spain  to  the  Canaries  5  and  there  Lading  the  Commo- 
dities of  that  Countrey,  failed  to  the  Maderas,  and  thence  freigh- 
ted with  Sugar  and  Conferves,  returned  home  into  Spain  •?  this  was 
his  conftant  courfe  and  trafick,  when  in  one  of  thefe  Voyages  mee- 
ting with  a  moft  violent  Tempeft,  and  not  able  to  bear  fail,  he  was  forced  to  put 
before  the  Wind  for  the  fpace  of  a 8  or  29  days,  not  knowing  where  or  whither 
he  went,  for  in  all  that  time  he  was  not  able  to  take  an  obfervation  of  the  height 
of  the  Sun ;  and  fo  grievous  was  the  ftorm,  that  the  Mariners  could  with  no  con- 
venience either  eat  or  fleep :  At  length,  after  fo  many  long  and  teadious  days,  the 
Wind  abating ,  they  found  themfelves  near  an  Ifland,  which  it  was,  is  not  cer- 
tainly known ,  but  it  is  believed  to  have  been  St.  Domingo,  becaufe  that  lyes  tuft 
Weft  from  the  Canaries,  whence  a  ftorm  at  Eaft  had  driven  the  Ship,  which  is 
the  more  ftrange,  becaufe  the  Eafterly  Winds  feldom  blow  hard  in  thofeSeas,  and 
rather  make  fair  weather,  than  tempeftuous.  But  God,  who  is  all-fufficient,  in- 
tending to  beftow  his  mercies,  can  make  caufes  produce  effects  contrary  to  their 
nature  •,  as  when  he  drew  water  from  the  Rock,  and  cured  the  blind  with  Clay  ; 
in  like  manner  his  immenfe  goodnefs  and  compaffion  defigning  to  tranfmit  the 
light  of  the  true  Gofpel  into  the  new  World,  made  ufe  of  thefe  onufual  means' 
to  convert  them  from  the  Idolatry  of  Gentilifm ,  and  from  their  foolilh  and  dark 
iuperftitions ,  as  (hall  be  related  in  the  fequel  of  this  Hiftory. 

The  Mafter  landing  on  the  more ,  obferved  the  height  of  the  Sun,  and  Co  no-' 
ted  particularly  in  writing  what  he  had  feen,  and  what  had  happened  in  this  Voy- 
age out,  and  home :  and  having  fupplied  himfelf  with  frefh  water  and  wood , 
he  put  to  Sea  again  •,  but  having  not  well  obferved  his  courfe  thither,  his  way  to 
return  was  the  more  difficult,  and  made  his  Voyage  Co  long,  that  he  began  to  want 
both  water  and  provisions,  which  being  added  to  their  former  fufferings,  the  peo- 
ple fell  lick,  and  died  in  that  manner,  that  of  1 7  perfons  which  came  out  of  Spain, 
there  remained  but  live  onely  alive ,  when  they  arrived  at  the  Terceras,  of  which 
the  Mafter  was  one.  Thefe  came  all  to  lodge  at  the  Houfe  of  that  famous  Ge- 
xocfe,  called  Chriftopher  *  Colon ,  becaufe  they  knew  him  to  be  a  great  Seaman  and  *  Or  ohm- 
Cofmographer,  and  one  who  made  Sea-carts  to  fail  by  $  and  for  this  reafon  he bus- 
received  them  with  much  kindnefs,  and  treated  them  with  all  things  neceflary, 
that  fo  he  might  learn  from  them  the  particulars  which  occurred,  and  the  difcoveries 
they  had  made  in  this  laborious  Voyage :  but  in  regard  they  brought  a  languishing 
'diitemper  with  them,  caufed  by  their  Sufferings  at  Sea,  and  of  which  they  could 
not  be  recovered  by  the  kind  ufage  of  Colon,  they  all  happened  to  dye  in  his  houfe, 
leaving  their  labours  for  his  inheritance  ■-,  the  which  he  improved  with  fuch  readi- 
nefs  ef  mind,  that  he  underwent  more,  and  greater,  than  they,  in  regard  that  they 

B  lafted 

Royal  Commentaries.  Book  I. 

Med  longer ;  and  at  length  he  fo  well  fucceeded  in  his  enterprize,  that  he  be- 
ftowed  the  New  World ,  with  all  its  riches ,  upon  Spain ,  and  therefore  defer- 
vedly  obtained  this  Motto  to  be  infcribed  on  his  Armes : 

To  Caftile,  and  to  Leon, 

The  New  World  was  given  by  Colon. 

In  this  manner  the  New  World  was  firft  difcovered,  for  which  greatnefs  Spain 
is  beholding  to  that  little  Village  of  Helva,  which  produced  fuch  a  Son,  as  gave 
Colon  information  of  things  not  feen,  or  known  before  •,  the  which  fecrets,  like  a 
prudent  perfon,  he  concealed,  till  under  affurances  of  filence  he  firft  difclofed 
them  to  fuch  perfons  of  authority  about  the  Catholick  Kings,  as  were  to  be  afli- 
ftant  and  ufefull  to  him  in  his  defign,  which  could  never  have  been  laid,  or  chal- 
ked out  by  the  art  of  Cofmography,  or  the  imagination  of  man,  had  not  Alonfo  de 
Sanchez  given  the  firft  light  and  conjefture  to  this  difcovery ;  which  Colon  fo  rea- 
dily improved,  that  in  78  days  he  made  his  Voyage  to  the  lfle  of  Guanatianko, 
though  he  was  detained  fome  days  at  Gomera  to  take  in  Provisions. 

CHAP.    II. 

The  derivation  of  the  word  Peru ,  and  how  the  Countrey  came 
to  be  fo  called. 

Since  we  are  to  treat  of  the  Countrey  of  Peru,  it  will  be  requifite  to  enquire,' 
how  it  came  to  be  fo  called,  in  regard  the  Indians  have  no  fuch  word  in  their 
language :  to  which  end  we  muft  know,  That  a  certain  Gentleman,  Native  of 
Xerez,  called  Bano  Nunnez,  having  in  the  year  151 3,  been  the  firft  Spaniard,  who 
difcovered  the  Sea  of  Zur,  or  the  Pacifick  Sea-,  in  reward  thereof  the  Kings  of 
Spain  honoured  him  with  the  title  of  Admiral  of  thofe  Seas,  and  with  the  go- 
vernment of  thofe  Kingdoms  and  Countries  which  he  (hould  farther  difcover  and 
conquer.  During  thofe  few  years  he  lived  after  thefe  Honours  (for  his  Son-in- 
law  Pedro  Arias  de  Avila  being  Governour,  in  recompence  of  all  his  Services,  cut 
off  his  head )  his  great  care  was  to  difcover,  and  know  what  that  Countrey  was 
called,  which  from  Panama  runs  all  along  the  coaft  of  the  Sea  of  Zur  ■■,  to  which 
purpofe  he  built  three  or  four  Veflels,  and  employed  them  in  feveral  quarters  to 
make  their  difcoveries  •,  every  one  of  which  did  afterwards  return  with  relations 
of  great  tra&s  of  land  running  along  that  coaft .-  one  of  which  Veflels  ftretching 
farther  than  the  others  to  the  very  Equino&ial  line,  and  failing  by  the  more,  they 
efpied  an  Indian,  as  he  was  fifhing  at  the  mouth  of  a  River,  of  which  there  are 
many,  which  in  that  Countrey  fall  into  the  Sea;  fo  foon  as  the  Spaniards  faw  him, 
they  landed  four  of  their  men  with  all  privacy  imaginable,  fuch  as  could  run  and 
fwim  well,  that  fo  he  might  not  be  able  to  efcape  them  either  by  land  or  water. 
Having  fo  done,  they  pafled  with  their  Ship,  as  near  as  was  poflible  before  the 
Indian,  that  whilft  he  amufed  himfelf  with  the  ftrangenefs  of  the  objecl:,  he  might 
more  eafily  be  taken  by  the  ambufh  which  was  laid  for  him :  the  Indian  behold- 
ing fo  unufual  a  fight  as  a  Ship  fwimming  with  all  her  Sails  on  the  Sea,  which  he 
had  never  before  feen  or  heard  of,  his  eyes  were  fo  fixed ,  and  his  imagination  fo 
taken  up  with  looking,  and  confidering  what  thing  that  was,  which  offered  it  felf 
to  his  fight ,  that  he  was  not  fenfible  of  the  fnare  laid  for  him ,  untill  he  found 
himfelf  taken  in  the  Armes  of  the  Spaniards,  who  with  great  joy  and  fport  brought 
him  to  their  Veflel  -,  the  poor  man  was  fo  amazed  with  the  furprizal,  and  to  fee 
the  Spaniards  with  Beards,  and  in  a  different  habit  to  his,  and  to  find  himfelf  in 
a  Ship,  and  under  Sails,  that  it  is  no  wonder  if  he  laboured  under  the  greateft 
confirmation  imaginable  -,  but  the  Spaniards  ufing  all  kind  means  to  treat  and  ca- 
refs  him,  he,  in  a  (hort  time,  recovered  himfelf  from  the  diftra&ion  of  his  fear: 
and  then  they  asked  him  by  figns  and  words,  what  Countrey  that  was,  and  how 
it  was  called  ?  The  Indian  by  their  motion  and  geftures  knew  that  they  asked  him 
ibme  queftion ,  but  could  not  underftand  what  they  demanded ,  but  anfwering 


Book  I.  Royal  Commentaries. 

readily,  left  they  fliould  doe  him  fome  hurt,  faid  Beru,  which  was  his  own  proper 
name,  and  then  added  Pelu  5  which  was  as  much  as  to  fay,  if  you  ask  me  my 
name,  I  am  called  Beru ;  but  if  you  ask  me  of  the  place,  where  I  was,  it  is  Pelu  $ 
for  that  fignifies  a  River  in  the  Indian  language :  from  which  time,  which  was  in 
the  year  1  j  1 5,  the  Spaniards  have  ever  called  this  great  and  rich  Countrey  by  the 
name  of  Peru  •,  other  Hiftorians  corrupting  the  letters,  call  it  PWu,  inftead  of  Peru  .- 
and  this  place,  where  this  Indian  was  furprized,  we  may  certainly  denote  as  the  ut- 
moft  border  of  that  Dominion  which  was  under  the  Jurifdiction  and  Conqueft  of 
thofe  Kings,  which  were  called  Incas  •,  and  which  was  ever  after  named  Peru  from 
that  very  place  which  is  over-againft  Quita  to  Charcas,  and  is  the  principal  Domi- 
nion of  the  Incas,  containing  700  Leagues  in  length ;  although  their  Empire  did 
reach  as  far  as  Chile,  which  contains  joo  Leagues  more,  and  is  another  moft  rich 
and  fertile  Kingdom. 

CHAP.    III. 

The  Definition  of  Peru,  with  the  Story  of  Peter  Serrano. 

TH  E  four  limits  and  borders  of  that  Empire  which  the  Incas  poflefled  before 
the  Spaniards  invaded  them ,  were  thefe.    To  the  North  it  was  bounded 
with  the  River  Ancarmaya,  which  runs  between  the  Confines  of  ^mta  and  Pajfau, 
and  fignifies  in  the  common  language  of  Peru,  the  Azure  River,  being  fituated  al- 
moft  perpendicularly  under  the  Equinoctial  line :  to  the  South  its  limits  are  con- 
fined by  the  River  Mauli,  which  runs  Eaft  and  Weft  through  the  Kingdom  of 
Chili,  before  it  comes  to  the  Araucos,  which  is  40  degrees  of  South  latitude  from 
the  Equinoctial.    The  diftance  between  thefe  two  Rivers  they  account  little  left 
than  1300  Leagues  by  Land.    That  which  is  properly  called  Peru,  contains  7 so 
Leagues  in  length,  reaching  from  the  River  Ancarmaya  to  the  Chkhas,  which  is  the 
farthermoft  Province  of  the  Choreas,  and  lyes  North  and  South,  as  alfo  doth  that 
which  is  called  the  Kingdom  otchilo,  which  contains  about  ss°  Leagues  in  length, 
reckoning  from  the  fartheft  part  of  the  Province  Chkhas  to  the  River  Mauli. 
To  the  Eaft  it  is  bordered  by  that  Mountain  which  is  inacceifible  for  men,  beafts 
or  fowls,  called  the  Cordillera,  becaufe  it  is  always  covered  with  Snow,  and  runs 
from  St.  Man  a  to  the  Straits  of Magellan,  wliich  the  Indians  call  Ritirgu,  and  is  as 
much  as  the  Countrey  of  Snow.    To  the  Weft  it  hath  the  Sea  oiZur  for  its 
Confines,  running  all  along  the  coaft  to  the  Cape  Pajfau,  which  is  under  the  Equi- 
noctial, and  extends  to  the  Mauli,  which  alfo  falls  into  the  Sea  of  Zur  •,  from  the 
Eaft  to  the  Weft  the  Kingdom  is  efteemed  but  narrow,  the  broadeft  place  of  it 
being  from  the  Province  Mugupafa  to  the  City  Trugillo,  which  is  fituated  on  the 
Sea-coaft,  and  contains  120  Leagues  in  breadth,  being  in  the  narroweft  place, 
which  is  from  the  Port  Arica ,  to  the  Province  called  Laricoffa,  about  the  {pace  of 
70  Leagues.  Thefe  are  the  four  bounds  of  that  Dominion  which  the  Incas  poflef- 
fed,  the  Hiftory  of  which  we  intend,  by  divine  affiftence,  for  to  write.    But  be- 
fore we  proceed  forward,  it  will  be  requifite  to  recount  the  Story  of  Peter  Serrano, 
for  which  we  have  place  fufficient  in  this  ihort  Chapter. 

Peter  Serrano  efcaped  from  fhipwreck  by  fwimming  to  that  defert  Ifland,  which 
from  him  received  its  name,  being,  as  he  reported,  about  two  Leagues  in  com- 
pafs,  and  for  fo  much  it  is  laid  down,  in  the  Waggoner,  which  pricks  three  little 
Iflands  in  the  Cart,  with  divers  {hallow  places  about  them  •,  lb  that  all  Ships  keep 
at  a  diftance  from  them  avoiding  them  with  all  poffible  care  and  circum- 

It  was  Peter  Serrano's  misfortune  to  be  loft  upon  thefe  places,  and  to  fave  his 
life  on  this  difconfolate  Ifland,  where  was  neither  water,  nor  wood,  nor  grafs,  nor 
any  thing  for  fupport  of  humane  life,  at  leaft  not  for  maintenance  of  him  for  fo 
long  a  time,  as  untill  fome  Ship  pafling  by  might  redeem  him  from  periihing  by 
hunger  and  thirft,  which  languishing  manner  of  death  is  much  more  miferable, 
than  by  a  fpeedy  fuifocation  in  the  waters.    With  the  fad  thoughts  hereof  he 

B  z  pafled 

a  Royal  Commentaries.  Book  I. 

parted  the  firft  night ,  lamenting  his  affli&ion  with  as  many  melancholy  reflexi- 
ons, as  we  may  imagine,  capable  to  enter  into  the  mind  of  a  wretch  in  like  ex- 
tremities •,  fo  foon  as  it  grew  day,  he  began  to  traverfe  his  Illand,  and  found  on 
the  (bore  fome  Cockles,  Shrimps ,  and  other  creatures  of  like  nature ,  which  the 
Sea  nad  thrown  up,  and  which  he  was  forced  to  eat  raw,  becaufe  he  wanted  fire 
wherewith  to  roaft  them :  And  with  this  fmall  entertainment  he  palled  his  time,  till 
*  a  fort  of  obferving  fome  *  Turtles  not  far  from  the  (bore,  he  watch'd  a  convenience  untill 
Fifli.  they  came  within  his  reach,  and  then  throwing  them  on  their  backs,  (which  is 

the  manner  of  taking  that  fort  of  fiih )  he  cut  the  throat,  drinking  the  bloud  in- 
ftead  of  water  5  and  dicing  out  the  flefln  with  a  knife  which  was  faftned  to  his 
girdle,  he  laid  the  pieces  to  be  dried,  and  roafted  by  the  Sun  •,  the  iliell  he  made 
ufe  of  to  rake  up  rain-water,  which  lay  in  little  puddles,  for  that  is  a  Countrey  of- 
ten fubjecl:  to  great  and  fudden  rains.    In  this  manner  he  parted  the  firft  of  his 
days  by  killing  all  the  Turtles  that  he  was  able,  fome  of  which  were  fo  large,  that 
their  (hells  were  as  big  as  Targets  or  Bucklers ;  others  were  fo  great,  that  he  was 
not  able  to  turn  them,  nor  to  ftop  them  in  their  way  to  the  Sea ,  fo  that  in  a 
fhort  time  experience  taught  him,  which  fort  he  was  able  to  deal  with,  and  which 
were  too  unwieldy  for  his  force :  with  his  leffer  (hells  he  poured  water  into  the 
greater,  fome  of  which  contained  1 2  Gallons ;  fo  that  having  made  fufficient  pro- 
vifions  both  of  meat  and  drink,  he  began  to  contrive  fome  way  to  (hike  fire, 
that  fo  he  might  not  onely  drefs  his  meat  with  it,  but  alfo  make  a  fmoak  to  give 
a  fign  to  any  Ship,  which  was  parting  in  thofe  Seas  •-,  confidering  of  this  invention, 
( for  Seamen  are  much  more  ingenious  in  all  times  of  extremity,  than  men  bred  at 
Land )  he  fearched  every-where  to  find  out  a  couple  of  hard  pebles  inrtead  of 
flints,  his  knife  ferving  in  the  place  of  a  fteel 3  but  the  Ifland  being  all  covered 
with  a  Dead  Sand ,  and  no  ftone  appearing ,  he  fwam  into  the  Sea ,  and  diving 
often  to  the  bottom ,  he  at  length  found  a  couple  of  (tones  fit  for  his  purpofe, 
which  he  rubbed  together,  untill  he  got  them  to  an  edge,  with  which  being  able 
to  ftrike  fire,  he  drew  fome  threads  out  of  his  (birt ,  which  he  worked  fo  fmall, 
that  it  was  like  cotton,  and  ferved  for  tinder  -7  fo  that  having  contrived  a  means 
to  kindle  fire,  he  then  gathered  a  great  quantity  of  Sea-weeds,  thrown  up  by  the 
waves,  which  with  the  lhells  of  Fifb.,  and  planks  of  Ships,  which  had  been  wrec- 
ked on  thofe  (holes,  afforded  nourithment  for  his  fuel :  and  left  fudden  thowres 
fhould  extinguifh  his  fire,  he  made  a  little  covering,  like  a  finall  Hut,  with  the 
(hells  of  the  largeft  Turtles  or  Tortoifes  that  he  had  killed,  taking  great  care  that 
his  fire  (hould  not  go  out.    In  the  fpace  of  two  months,  and  (boner,  he  was  as 
unprovided  of  all  things,  as  he  was  at  firft,  for  with  the  great  rains,  heat  and  moi- 
fture  of  that  climate,  his  provifions  were  corrupted  5  and  the  great  heat  of  the 
Sun  was  fo  violent  on  him,  having  neither  cloths  to  cover  him,  nor  fhadow  for  a 
(belter,  that  when  he  was,  as  it  were,  broiled  in  the  Sun,  he  had  no  remedy  but 
to  run  into  the  Sea.    In  this  mifery  and  care  he  parted  three  years,  during  which 
time  he  faw  feveral  Ships  at  Sea,  and  as  often  made  his  fmoak  5  but  none  turned 
out  of  their  way  to  fee  what  it  meant,  for  fear  of  thofe  Shelves  and  Sands,  which 
wary  Pilots  avoid  with  all  imaginable  circumfpection ;  fc  that  the  poor  wretch 
defpairing  of  all  manner  of  relief,  efteemed  it  a  mercy  for  him  to  dye,  and  ar- 
rive at  that  period  which  could  onely  put  an  end  to  his  miferies  3  and  being  ex- 
pofed  in  this  manner  to  all  weathers,  the  hair  of  his  body  grew  in  that  manner, 
that  he  was  covered  all  over  with  briftles,  the  hair  of  his  head  and  beard  reaching 
to  his  wafte,  that  he  appeared  like  fome  wild  and  favage  creature.    At  the  end  of 
three  years  Sen-am  was  ftrangely  furprized  with  the  appearance  of  a  Man  in  his 
Illand,  whofe  Ship  had,  the  night  before,  been  caft  away  upon  thofe  Sands,  and 
had  faved  himfelf  on  a  plank  of  the  Veflel :  fo  foon  as  it  was  day,  he  efpied 
the  fmoak,  and  imagining  whence  it  wras,  he  made  towards  it.   So  foon,  as  they 
faw  each  the  other,  it  is  hard  to  fay,  which  was  the  moft  amazed  $  Serrano  ima- 
gined, that  it  was  the  Devil  who  came  in  the  (hape  of  a  Man  to  tempt  him  to 
defpair :  the  New-comer  believes  Serrano  to  be  the  Devil  in  his  own  proper  (hape 
and  figure,  being  covered  over  with  hair  and  beard  :  in  fine,  they  were  both  afraid, 
flying  one  from  the  other.    Peter  Serrano  cried  out ,  as  he  ran ,  fefus,  fefus,  dt 
me  from  the  Devil :  the  other  hearing  this,  took  courage,  and  returning  again  to 

him,  called  OUt,  Brother,  Brother,  don't  fly  from  me,  for  I  am  A  Chrifiian,  as  thou  art  . 

and) becaufe  he  faw  that  Serrano  ftill  ran  from  him,  he  repeated  the  Credo,  or  Apo- 
ftle's  Creed,  in  words  aloud  5  which  when  Serrano  heard,  he  knew  it  was  no 


Book  I.  Koyal  Commentaries.  « 

Devil,  that  would  recite  thofe  words,  and  thereupon  gave  a  flop  to  his  flight, 
and  returning  to  him  with  great  kindnefs,  they  embraced  each  other,  with  fighs 
and  tears  lamenting  their  fad  Eftate,  without  any  hopes  of  deliverance:  Serrano 
fuppofing  that  his  Gueft  wanted  refreflimeht,  entertained  him  with  fuch  provifi- 
ons,  as  his  miferable  life  afforded  •,  and  having  a  little  comforted  each  other,  they 
began  to  recount  the  manner  and  occafion  of  their  fad  difafters.  Then  for  the 
better  government  in  their  way  of  living,  they  defigned  their  hours  of  day  and 
night  to  certain  Cervices ;  fuch  a  time  was  appointed  to  kill  Fifh  for  eating,  fuch 
hours  for  gathering  weeds,  Fifh  bones,  and  other  matters,  which  the  Sea  threw 
up  to  maintain  their  conflant  fire ;  and  efpecial  care  they  had  to  obferve  their 
watches,  and  relieve  each  other  at  certain  hours,  that  fo  they  might  be  fure  their 
fire  went  not  out.  In  this  manner  they  lived  amicably  together,  for  certain  days, 
for  many  did  not  pafs  before  a  quarrel  arofe  between  them*  fo  high;  that  they 
were  ready  to  fight  j  the  occafion  proceeded  from  fome  words  that  one  gave  the 
other,  that  Ire  took  not  that  ca're  and  labour  as  the  extremity  of  their  condition 
required^  and  this  difference  foencreafed,  (fortofuchmifery.doourpaffions  often 
betray  us)  that  at  length  they  feparated,  and  lived  apart  one  from  the  other :  how- 
foever  in  a  ihort  time  having  experienced  the  want  of  that  comfort  which  mu- 
tual fociety  procures,  their  choler  was  appeafed,  and  fo  they  returned  to  enjoy 
converfe,  and  the  affiftence  which  Friendthip  and  Company  afforded,  in  which 
condition  they  pafled  four  Years  ^  during  ail  which  time  they  faw  many  Ships 
fail  near  them,  yet  none  would  be  fo  charitable  or  curious,  as  to  be  invited  by 
their  Smoak  and  blame-,  fo  that  being  now  almoft  defperate,  they  expe&ed  no 
other  remedy  befides  Death,  to  put  an  end  to  their  Miferies. 

Howfoever  at  length  a  Ship  adventuring  to  pafs  nearer  than  ordinary,  efpied  the 
Smoak,  and  rightly  judging,  that  it  muft  be  made  by  fome  Shipwrecked  Perfons 
efcaped  to  thofe  Sands,  hoifted  out  their  Boat  to  take  them  in.  Serrano  and  his 
Companion  readily  ran  to  the  place  where  they  faw  the  Boat  coming  5  but  fo 
fbon  as  the  Mariners  were  approached  fo  near,  as  to  diftinguifh  the  ftrange  Figure 
and  Looks  of  thefe  two  Men,  they  were  fo  affrighted,  that  they  began  to  row 
back ;  but  the  poor  men  cryed  out,  and  that  they  might  believe  them  too  not  to 
be  Devils,  or  evil  Spirits,  they  rehearfed  the  Creed,  and  called  aloud  upon  the 
Name  of  Jefus-,  with  which  words  the  Mariners  returned,  took  them  into  the 
Boat,  and  carried  them  to  the  Ship,  to  the  great  wonder  of  all  there  prefent,  who 
with  admiration  beheld  their  hairy  fhapes,  not  like  Men,  but  Beafts,  and  with 
lingular  pleafure  heard  them  relate  the  ftory  of  their  paft  misfortunes.  The  Com- 
panion dyed  in  his  Voyage  to  Spain,  but  Serrano  lived  to  come  thither,  from 
whence  he  travelled  into  Germany,  where  the  Emperour  then.refided:  all  which 
time  he  nourifhed  his  Hair  and  Beard,  to  ferve  as  an  Evidence  and  Proof  of  his 
paft  Life:  wherefoever  he  came  the  People  preffed,  as  a  Sight,  to  fee  him  for  Mo- 
ney ■■,  Perfons  of  Quality  having  alfo  the  fame  curioficy,  gave  him  fufficient  to  de- 
fray his  charges,  and  his  Imperial  Majefty  having  feen,  and  heard  his  Difcourfes, 
beftowed  a  Rent  upon  him  of  Four  thoufand  Pieces  of  Eight  a  Year,  which 
make  4800  Ducats  in  Peru-.,  and  going  to  the  Poileffion  of  this  Income,  he  dyed 
at  Panama,  without  farther  Enjoyment.  All  this  Story  was  related  to  me  by  a 
Gentleman  called  Garci  Sanchez,  de  Figueroa,  one  who  was  acquainted  with  Serrano, 
and  heard  it  from  his  own  Mouth-,  and  that  after -he  had  feen  the  Emperour  he 
then  cut  his  Hair  and  his  Beard  to  fome  convenient  length,  becaufe  that  it  was  fo 
long  before,  that  when  he  turned  himfelf  on  his  Bed,  he  often  lay  upon  it,  which 
incommoded  him  fo  much  as  to  difturb  his  fleep, 


$  Royal  Commentaries.  Book  I. 

CHAP.     IV. 

Of  the  Idolatry  and  Gods  which  the  Ancient  Iricas  adored,  and 
Manner  of  their  Sacrifices. 

FOR  better  underftanding  of  the  Life,  Cuftoms  and  Idolatry  of  the  Indians 
of  Peru,  it  will  be  neceflary  to  diftinguifli  the  times  before  the  heat,  from 
thofe  wherein  their  Rule  and  Empire  began,  their  Gods  and  Sacrifices  and 
Cuftoms  being  much  different,  according  to  the  Agesj  for  the  Men  them- 
felves,  in  the  firft  times,  were  at  beft  but  as  tamed  Beafts,  and  others  were 
worfe  than  the  fierceft  Creatures.  Tp  begin  with  their  Gods,  we  muft  know, 
that  they  were  agreeable  to  the  quality  of  their  own  corrupt  and  abominable  man- 
ners, and  every  Nation,  Province,  Tribe  and  Houfe  had  its  particular,  God; 
for  their  Opinion  was,  that  one  God  would  have  bufinefs  fufficient  to  take  care 
of  one  Province,  or  Family,  and  that  their  Power  was  fo  confined,  that  It  could 
have  no  virtue  or  extent  within  the  Jurifdi&ion  of  another:  and  becaufe  their 
Fancies  were  not  fo  fublimated,  as  to  frame  abftradled  Notions  of  Deities,  fuch 
as  Hope,  Viclory,  Peace,  and  the  like,  as  the  Romans  did  in  the  time  ofGenti- 
lifm;  they  adored  whatfoiver  they  faw,  fuch  as  Flowers,  Plants,  Herbs,  Trees, 
efpecially,  Pines  and  Elmes^  Caves,  Stones,  Rivers  j  and  particularly  in  that 
Province,  which  is  called  the  Old  Port,  they  had  a  high  Veneration  for  the  Ef- 
merald,  becaufe  it  is  the  Pretious  Stone  of  that  Countrey,  and  the  Diamond  and 
Ruby  are  in  no  efteem,  becaufe  they  are  not  known  to  them  •,  they  alfo  wor- 
fhipped  the  Lion ,  Tyger  and  Bear,  for  their  fiercenefs,  and  with  that  fubmiffion 
and  humility,  that  they  would  hot  fly  from  them,  but  offer  themfelves  to  be  de- 
voured by  them.  In  fine  they  adored  any  thing  wherein  they  obferved  an  Excel- 
lency ^  as  the  Fox  and  Monky  for  Craft,  the  Hart  for  his  Swiftnefs,  the  Falcon 
for  his  Agility  and  Courage,  and  the  Eagle  for  the  Acutenels  of  his  Sight :  fuch  was 
the  vanity  aud  folly  in  the  imagination  of  this  favage  People,  who  had  no  Scrip- 
tures to  teach  and  enlighten  them,  nor  Prince  to  govern  and  protect  them. 

Howfoever  there  were  other  Nations  more  confiderate  in  choice  of  their 
Deities,  adoring  none  but  fuch  as  afforded  them  benefit  and  advantage  ^  as  Foun- 
tains, and  cool  Springs  which  yielded  them  Drink,  Rivers  that  watered  their  Pa- 
ftures^  the  Earth  they  called  their  Mother,  and  worfliipped,  becaufe  it  yielded 
them  Food,  the  Air,  becaufe  they  breatked  in  it,  and  was  their  Life,  the  Fire, 
becaufe  it  warmed  them,  and  drefled  their  Meats  fome  alfo  made  choice  of 
Sheep,  and  Corn,  and  Cattel,  and  every  thing  that  abounded  moft  in  their  Coun- 
trey, and  ferved  for  nourishment,  to  be  a  God,  and  worthy  of  Divine  Honour. 
The  Inhabitants  near  the  Cordillera  worfliipped  that  Mountain  for  its  height,  thofe 
of  the  Coaft  made  the  Sea  their  God,  which  in  their  language  they  call  Mam*- 
choca,  and  is  as  much  as  to  fay,  the  Mother  Sea  i  the  Whale  for  hs  prodigious 
bignefs  was  in  no  lefs  Veneration  than  the  reft,  and  every  fort  of  Fifti  which  aboun- 
ded amongft  them  was  deified ,  becaufe  they  believe  that  the  firft  Fiih  In  the 
World  above  them,  takes  always  care  to  provide  them  with  a  number  of  the  like 
fort  or  Jpecies  fufficient  to  maintain  and  nourifli  them.  Befides  thefe  there  are 
two  Nations  which  are  Cbirihuanas,  and  others  living  about  the  Cape  of  Pajfau, 
(which  are  die  North  and  South  Borders  of  Peru,)  that  have  no  thoughts  or  incli- 
nations to  Religion,  and  worfliip  nothing  either  above  or  below  •,  but  giving  them- 
felves over  toftupidity  and  ilotb,  neither  having  fear  nor  love,  live  with  the  fame 
ienfuality  that  Beafts  do,  becaufe  they  have  not  as  yet  had  the  happinefs  to  receive 
the  ipftru&ions,  dodtrine  and  government  of  the  Incas,  who  are  the  Indian  Kings. 
The  Sacrifices  which  they  made  to  thefe  Gods  were  as  cruel  and  barbarous  as  the 
Gods  were  ftupid  arid  fenfelefs,  to  whom  they  offered  them  •,  for  befides  Beafts,  and 
Fruits,  and  Corn,  they  facrificed  Men  and  Women  of  all  ages,  which  they  had 
taken  in  the  War :  And  fome  Nations  of  thefe  exceeded  fo  far  in  their  inhuma- 
nity, that  they  offered  not  onely  their  Enemies,  but  on  fome  occafions  their  very 


Book  I.  Royal  Commentaries. 

i ! 

Children  to  thefe  Idols.  The  manner  of  thefe  Sacrifices  were  to  rip  open  their 
breafts  whilft  they  were  alive ,  and  fo  tear  out  their  Heart  and  Lungs ,  with  the 
Bloud  of  which,  whilft  warm,  they  fprinkled  their  Idols:  then  they  infpe&ed 
the  Lunus  and  Heart,  to  take  an  omen  of  good  or  bad,  and  know  whether  the 
Sacrifice  had  been  acceptable  to  the  Idol  •,  then  they  burnt  the  Entrails,  and  ate 
the  Flelh  themfelves  with  great  joy  and  feftivity,  though  it  were  of  their  own 
Child,  or  other  Relation  of  the  fame  bloud. 

Bias  Valera  a  certain  Authour  who  in  loofe  Papers  wrote  of  the  indies,  defctibes 
thole  Nations  by  diftinguilhing  the  former  from  the  latter  ages,  and  faith.  That 
thofe  who  live  in  Antn  eat  Mens  Flelh ,  and  are  more  brutith  than  the  Beafts 
themfelves,  for -they  know  neither  God,  nor  Law,  norVertue,  nor  have  they  Idols, 
or  any  Worlhip  •,  unlefs  fomerimes  when  the  Devil  prefents  himfelf  to  them  in 
the  form  of  a  Serpent,  or  other  Animal ,  they  then  adore  and  worfhip  him. 
When  they  take  any  in  the  War*  if  he  be  an  ordinary  Fellow,  they  quarter  him, 
dnd  divide  him  to  be  eaten  by  their  Wives,  Children  and  Servants,  or  perhaps 
fell  him  to  the  Shambles-,  but  if  he  be  of  Quality,  or  Noble,  they  call  their 
Wives  and  Children  together,  and  like  Officers  of  the  Devil,  they  (trip  him  of 
his  garments,  and  tye  him  to  a  ftake,  and  then  alive  as  he  is,  they  cut  him  with 
Knives,  and  fharp  Stones,  paring  oft  dices  from  the  more  flefhy  parts,  as  from 
the  Buttocks,  Calves  of  the  Legs,  and  the  brawny  places  of  the  Arme;  then  with 
the  Bloud  they  fprinkle  the  principal  Men  and  Women,  and  the  remainder  they 
drink,  and  eat  the  Flelh  as  faft  as  they  can,  before  it  is  half  broiled,  left  the  re- 
ferable Wretch  fhould  dye  before  he  hath  feen  his  flefh  devoured,  and  intombed 
in  their  bowels:  The  Women,  more  cruel  and  inhumane  than  the  Men*  wet 
the  nipples  of  their  Breafts  with  the  bloud,  that  fo  the  Infants  which  fuck  them 
may  take  a  lhare  of  the  Sacrifice.  All  this  is  performed  by  way  of  a  religious 
Offering  with  mirth  and  triumph,  till  the  Man  expires \  and  then  they  complete 
the  Feaft  in  devouring  all  the  remainder  of  his  Flefh  and  Bowels,  eating  it  with 
filence  and  reverence,  as  facred,  and  partaking  of  a  Deity.  If  in  execution  of  all 
this  torment  the  Patient  was  obferved  to  figh  and  groan,  or  make  any  diftoited 
feces,  then  they  broak  his  Bones,  and  with  contempt  threw  them  into  the  fields 
and  waters-,  but  if  he  appeared  ftout,  and  enduring  the  anguifh  and  pains  without 
(blinking  at  them,  then  his  Bones  and  Sinews  were  dryed  in  the  Sun,  and  lodged 
On  the  tops  of  the  higheft  Hills,  where  they  were  deified,  and  Sacrifices  offered 
to  them.  Such  are  the  Idols  and  manner  of  living  of  thefe  Brutes,  becaufe  the 
Government  of  the  Inca*  was  never  received  into  their  Countrey,  nor  hath  it  any 
Power  there  at  this  day.  This  Generation  of  Men  came  out  from  the  parts  about 
Mexico,  and  fpread  themfelves  from  Panama  and  Darien,  over  all  thofe  great  moun- 
tains which  run  as  far  as  the  new  Kingdom  of  Granada,  and  on  the  other  fide  as 
far  as  the  Cape  of  St.  Martha.  All  which  particulars  we  have  received  from  Fa- 
ther Bias  Valera,  who  in  the  Narrative  he  gives  of  their  Lives  and  Manners  much 
more  aggravates  their  diabolical  Pradices,  than  by  any  thing  we  have  here  re- 

But  other  Indians  lefs  cruel ,  and  of  a  more  mild  Nature,  though  they  mingled 
humane  Bloud  with  their  Sacrifices,  yet  they  did  it  not  with  the  death  of  any  5 
but  drew  it  from  Veins  of  the  Arme  or  Leg,  or  from  the  Noftrils,  in  cafe  of 
pains  in  the  Head,  and  from  other  parts,  as  the  nature  or  folemnity  of  the  Sacrir 
fice required.  Others  offered  Sheep,  and  Lambs,  Conies,  Partridges,  and  all 
forts  of  Fowl,  Herbs,  and  the  Cocar-Nut,  fo  much  in  efteem  amongft  them 4 
with  their  Mayz,  which  is  a  fort  of  Wheat,  as  alfo  Pulfe,  Annife  and  Cummin, 
and  fweet  Woods,  which  rendred  a  perfume }  the  which  were  feverally  facrificed 
according  to  the  nature  of  the  Deity  they  adored.  And  thus  much  fhall  be  fuffi- 
cient  to  have  been  delivered  concerning  their  Sacrifices,  and  Gods  of  the  Ancient 

C  i  CHAP, 

8  Royal  Commentaries*,  Book  I. 

■  I 

CHAR    V. 

Of  the  Government  i  Viet  and  C loathing  of  the  Ancient 

THefe  People  were  as  barbarous  in  their  manner  of  living  in  their  Houfes  and 
Habitations,  as  they  were  in  the  Worfhip  of  their  Gods,  and  Sacrifices ; 
fuch  of  them  as  obferved  any  thing  of  a  Political  Government,  lived  in  a  kind  of 
Society,  having  houfes  near  together,  placed  without  order  of  Streets  or  Paflages, 
appearing  rather  like  Pens  or  Sneepfolas,  than  humane  Habitations:  Others,  by 
reafon  of  the  Wars  and  Variances  amongft  themfelves,  lived  on  Rocks  and  Moun- 
tains, and  places  inacceffible  for  their  Enemies  5  others  dwelt  in  little  Cottages, 
fcattered  over  the  fields  and  vallies-,  and  every  one  feated  himfelf  as  well  as  he 
thought  convenient  for  commodioufnefs  of  Vi&uals  and  Water,  whether  it  were 
in  Caves  under  ground,  or  in  the  hollow  of  Trees,  the  neceffities,  rather  than  the 
conveniences  of  living  being  provided  for-,  and  of  this  fort  of  People  there  are 
fome  yet  remaining  about  the  Cape  of  Pajfau,  as  the  ChWihmr.M  and  other  Nati- 
ons, whom  the  hcas  have  conquered,  and  who  ftill  continue  their  ancient  barba- 
rity, and  favage  manners:  and  thefe  are  the  mod  difficult  of  any  to  be  reduced  to 
the  fubjection  of  the  Spaniards,  or  the  Chriftian  Religion ;  for  having  never  had 
Learning,  or  fcarce  Language  fufficient  to  underftand  each  other,  they  live  like 
Beads,  without  Communication,  Friendmip  or  Commerce. 

Thofe  amongft  them  who  had  mod  of  Understanding ,  or  of  a  Spirit  moft 
daring,  took  the  privilege  to  Rule,  and  govern  the  others,  whom  he  treated  as 
his  Slaves,  with  fuch  Tyranny  and  Cruelty,  that  he  made  ufe  of  their  Wives  and 
Daughters  at  his  pleafure,  all  things  being  confounded  with  War  and  Ruine.  In 
fome  Provinces,  they  flead  the  Captives  taken  in  War,  and  with  their  Skins  co- 
vered their  Drums ,  thinking  with  the  found  of  them  to  affright  their  Enemies  5 
for  their  opinion  was.  that  when  their  Kindred  heard  the  rumbling  noife  of  thofe 
Drums,  they  would  be  immediately  feized  with  fear,  and  put  to  flight.  For  the 
mod  part  they  lived  by  Robberies,  and  the  Spoils  each  of  other ;  the  ftronger 
preying  upon  the  weaker  was  the  caufe  of  feveral  petty  Kings  ■-,  fome  of  which  per- 
haps being  of  a  more  gentle  nature  than  others,  and  who  treated  their  Subjects 
with  lefs  rigour  and  cruelty,  were  for  that  reafon  adored  by  them  for  Gods,  fra- 
ming to  themfelves  fome  reprefentation  of  Divinity  in  the  good  actions  of  fuch 
men,  who  had  fome  allays  in  their  cruel  and  tyrannical  Government.  In  other  parts, 
they  lived  without  Lords,  or  order  of  a  Common-wealth-,  but  like  fo  many  Sheep 
pa  fled  together  in  all  fimplicity,  not  that  Vertue  moderated  their  malice,  but 
their  ftupidity  and  ignorance  made  them  fenfelefs  and  uncapable  of  good  or 

Their  manner  of  Cloathing,  or  covering  their  Bodies,  were  in  fome  Countries 
as  immodeft  as  they  were  ridiculous  ■■,  their  Diet  alfo  was  fo  foul  and  barbarous, 
that  we,  who  know  better,  may  wonder  at  the  beaftiality.  In  the  hot  Coun- 
tries, which  were  moft  fruitfull,  they  fowed  little  or  nothing,  but  contented 
themfelves  with  Herbs,  and  Roots,  and  wild  Fruits,  and  with  that  which  the 
Earth  produced  of  it  felf,  for  they,  requiring  no  more  than  natural  fuftenance,  li- 
ved with  little,  and  created  no  accidental  necefTities  for  fupport  of  Life.  In  fome 
Countries  they  were  fuch  great  lovers  of  Man's  Flefh,  that  when  they  were  kil- 
ling an  Indian,  they  would  fuck  his  bloud  at  the  Wound  they  had  given  him  5  and 
when  they  quartered  his  body,  they  would  lick  their  fingers,  that  not  one  drop 
of  bloud  mould  be  wafted :  in  their  Shambles  they  commonly  fold  Mens  Bodies, 
making  Saufages  of  their  Guts,  fluffing  them  with  flefh,  that  nothing  might  be 
loft.  Peter  oiCieca  in  the  26th  Chapter  of  his  Book,  declares  fb  much,  and  af- 
firms, that  he  faw  it  with  his  own  Eyes-,  and  that  fo  far  their  gluttony  pro- 
voked them  in  this  kind,  that  they  did  not  fpare  thofe  very  Children,  which  they 


Book  I.  Royal  Commentaries, 

begot  upon  thofe  Women  whom  they  had  taken  Captives  in  the  War,  but  bree- 
ding them  with  fuch  care  and  diet  as  might  make  them  fat  5  to  foon  as  they  came 
to  be  twelve  years  of  age,  and  that  they  were  plump  and  tender,  they  dreffed  them 
for  their  Table,  and  devoured  them  with  their  Mothers,  unlefs  they  were  with 
Child  •■>  for  then  they  referred  them  till  they  were  delivered,  and  had  nurfed  up 
their  brood.  Moreover  to  thole  Men  whom  they  took  in  the  War  they  gave 
Women,  and  their  breed  they  nourilhed  and  fatned,  with  intent  to  eat  them,  as 
we  do  Lambs,  and  Calves,  and  the  young  ones  of  our  heards  and  flocks,  without 
regard  to  Bloud  or  Parentage,  which  even  in  brute  beafts  hath  fome  effecT:  of  love 
and  tendernefs.  But  what  was  moft  abominable  above.aH,  was  a  cuftome  amongft 
fome  Indians  toeat  the  Flefli  of  their  Parents,  (b  foon  as  they  were  dead;  accoun- 
ting it  a  part  of  their  relpeft  and  duty  to  bury  and  intomb  them  within  their  own 
Entrails ,  which  they  boiled ,  or  roafted ,  according  to  the  quantity  ;  if  the  body 
was  lean,  and  extenuated ,  they  boiled  the  fleih  to  make  it  the  more  tender ,  and 
if  it  were  grofs  and  flelhy,  then  it  was  roafted  •,  and  for  the  bones ,  they  buried 
them  with  fome  Ceremony,  either  in  the  holes  of  Rocks,  or  the  hollow  Trees: 
but  this  fort  of  People  know  no  Gods,  nor  adore  any  thing,  and  inhabit  for  the 
moftpart  in  the  hotter,  and  not  in  colder  Regions  of  this  Continent.  In  the  more 
cold  and  barren  Countries,  where  the  earth  is  noc  fo  fruitful!,  neceflity  compel  Is 
them  to  fovv  Mayz,  which  is  their  Indian  Wheat,  and  other  forts  of  pulfe  or  grain, 
but  they  diftinguiih  neither  times,  nor  feafons  for  it  -,  and  in  their  filhing  and 
fowling,  and  in  all  other  things  the  like  barbarity  of  manners  predominates. 

As  to  their  manner  of  Cloathing,  the  modefty'  of  an  Hiftorian  obligeth  me  ra- 
ther to  pafs  it  by,  than  to  defcribe  it,  left  I  mould  feem  offeniive  to  chaft  and 
modeft  Ears:  but  to  exprefcit  with  as  much  decency  as  I  am  able;  we  are  to 
know,  that  the  Indians  in  the  firft  ages  wore  no  other  covering  than  the  Skins 
■which  Nature  gave  them.  Some  perhaps  of  them  for  curiofity,  or  affectation , 
girt  themfelves  about  the  Wafte  with  a  clout  of  courfe  thread,  which  they  eftee- 
med  a  Cloathing  fufficient  for  them.    I  remember,  that  in  the  Year  1 570.  when 

I  came  into  New  Spain,  that  I  met  in  the  ftreetS  of  Cartagena  with  five  Indians,  all 

naked,  walking  one  after  the  other,  like  fo  many  Cranes,  fo  little  had  the  conver 
lation  and  fociety  of  the  Spaniards  in  fo  long  a  time  prevailed  to  the  alteration  of 
their  Humours,  Manners  or  Barbarity. 

The  Women  wear  no  other  garments  than  the  Men  •,  onely  the  married  Wives 
girt  a  firing  about  them  to  which  they  faften  a  clout  of  Cotton,  a  yard  fquare, 
like  an  Apron,  and  where  they  cannot  or  will  not  learn  to  .weave,  they  cover 
their  nakednels  with  the  rine  or  broad  leaves  of  trees.  The;  Maidens^  alio  wear 
fomething  girt  about  them,  to  which  they  add  fom'e  other  mark,  as  a  fign  of  their 
Virginity.  Modefty  forbids  us  to  enlarge  farther  on  tins  Subject,  it  being  fuffici- 
ent what  we  have  declared ,  that  in  hot  Counnies  they  went  naked ,  without 
other  covering ,  or  ornament ,  than  that  which  Nature  furnilhes  to  brute  Beafts ; 
whence  we  may  imagine  how  barbarous  thofe  Indians  were  before  the  times  in 
which  the  Mas  gained  a  Sovereignty  over  them. 

In  colder  Countries  they  ufed  Garments,  not  for  modefty,  or  decency,  but  for 
neceflity  to  defend  them  from  the  cold :  their  cloathing  was  commonly  with  the 
Skins  of  beafts,  and  with  a  fort  of  Matt,  which  they  wove  with  ftraw  or  rufhes. 
Other  Nations  of  them,  who  had  more  ingenuity,  wore  a  fort  of  Mantles ,  ill- 
made,  and  fpun  with  a  courfe  thread,  and  worfe  woven  with  wool,  or  wild  hemp, 
which  they  call  Chahuar  ■.,  and  fome  ornament  about  their  necks ,  and  a  covering 
about  their  waftes,  was  all  the  cloathing  which  their  cuftoms  and  manners  required  * 
and  in  this  habit  the  Spaniards  found  tnofe  Indians,  over  whom  the  Incas  had  not 
extended  their  Dominion-,  and  which  even  to  this  day  continues  amongft  them; 
for  they  have  fuch  an  averfion  to  garments,  that  even  thofe  who  live  familiarly 
with  the  Spaniards,  and  are  their  domeftick  Servants,  are  rather  forced  by  im- 
portunity to  ufe  them,  than  that  they  chufe  them  out  of  inclination,  or  any  confi- 
deration  of  decency  or  modefty  •,  the  like  humour  is  alfo  common  to  the  Women  •, 
fo  that  the  Spaniards  ufe  in  jeft  to  tell  them  that  they  were  bad  Spinfters,  and  to 
ask  them  whether  they  would  not  doath  themfelves  becaufe  they  would  not  fpin, 
qr  would  not  fpin,  because  they  would  not  be  cloathed.- 


io  Royal  Commentaries.  Book  I. 

CHAP.    VI. 

Of  the  different  ways  of  Marriages ,  and  diver fity  of  Lan- 
guages amongft  them.  And  of  the  Poifons  and  Witch- 
crafts that  they  ufedt 

SUch  as  thefe  Indians  were  in  their  eating  and  cloathing,  fuch  were  they  in 
their  Marriages,  in  which  they  were  as  beftial ,  as  in  their  other  manners, 
exercifing  coition  in  the  fame  way  as  Beafts ;  for  having  not  Wives  in  property, 
they  ufed  their  Women  as  Nature  incited,  or  as  accidentally  they  occurred; 
without  regard  to  Mothers,  Daughters,  or  Sifters,  or  the  neareft  proximity  of 
bloud-  In  fome  Countries,  where  a  certain  fort  of  Marriage  was  ufual,  thofe 
Women  that  were  free  of  their  Bodies,  were  moft  efteemed,  and  obtained  the 
beft  Husbands,  becaufe  they  were  accounted  adive,  and  bufie  in  their  calling, 
when  others  of  a  more  chaft  and  cold  Nature,  were  rejeded  as  drones,  dull  and 
unfit  for  love.  In  other  Countries  they  obferved  a  different  cuftome  5  for  the 
Mothers  preferved  their  Daughters  with  great  refped  and  care,  till  the  time  of 
their  Marriage,  when  bringing  them  into  publick,  they  fhewed  the  Tokens  of 
their  Virginity.  In  other  parts  the  Father,  or  near  of  kindred,  claimed  a  title  to 
the  Maidenhead  of  the  Bride  by  conditions  of  the  Marriage,  before  (he  was  given 
to  the  Husband.  Peter  de  Cieca  in  the  24th  Chapter  of  his  Book  affirms  the  fame ; 
and  that  Sodomy  was  ufed  amongft  them,  but  yet  in  fecret,  and  as  a  crime: 
though  the  Devil  perfuaded  them  to  it  in  their  Temples,  as  a  pleafure  which  their 
Gods  delighted  in,  that  fo  under  the  guife  of  Religion  he  might  take  off  that  veil 
of  Modefty,  which  covered  humane  nature. 

There  were  fome,  both  men  and  Women,  that  pradifed  the  art  of  Poifoning, 
fo  that  they  could  kill  with  it  immediately,  or  in  a  certain  time,  or  could  make 
mad,  or  fools,  disfigure  the  countenance,  make  the  body  leprous,  and  the  Limbs 
to  wither  and  pine  away. 

Every  Province,  and  every  Nation  had  a  different  Tongue,  or  Dialed;  thofe 
who  fpake  the  fame  Language  they  efteemed  Friends  and  Kindred,  and  with  them 
they  kept  peace  and  confederacy ,  all  others  were  accounted  Enemies  and  Stran- 
gers, with  whom  they  maintained  a  perpetual  War,  eating  thofe  whom  they 
took,  as  if  they  had  been  Animals  of  another  [pedes. 

Witchcraft  was  more  commonly  ufed  by  the  Women,  than  by  the  Men,  who, 
to  gain  a  reputation  to  themfelves  of  Wifedom,  of  Prophecies  and  Predictions  of 
things  to  come,  like  Pythoneffes,  or  Sibyls,  treated  familiarly  with  the  Devil.  Thefe 
Women ,  out  of  malice  or  Envy  pradifed  this  Art  moft  commonly  on  the 
Men,  and  which  operated  the  fame  effed  as  their  Poifons-,  fuch  was  the  conftitu- 
tion  of  thefe  Indians  in  the  firft  age ,  and  in  the  time  of  their  Gentilifm ,  when 
they  had  no  other  guide  but  the  Devil  and  their  own  Natures-,  and  hereof  we 
fhall  more  particularly  treat  in  the  fequel  of  this  Hiftory,  when  coming  to  difcourfe 
of  the  Nations  apart,  we  fhall  have  occafion  to  mention  the  barbarifms  and  be- 
ftialities  which  are  refpedively  appropriated  unto  the  feveral  People. 


Book  I.  Royal  Commentaries.  i  i 


The  Original  of  the  InCas,  who  were  Kings  of  Peru. 

THefe  People  living  and  dying  in  that  manner,  as  we  have  before  declared,  it 
pleafed  God  at  laft  that  fome  little  light  mould  dawn  from  the  morning, 
and  through  the  dark  clouds  of  Ignorance  and  Stupidity  dart  a  fmall  ray  of  the 
Law  of  Nature  into  their  hearts,  that  learning  fomething  of  that  refpeft  which 
one  man  ought  to  bear  unto  another,  they  might  by  degrees  improve  in  morality, 
and  from  Beads  be  converted  into  Men,  and  made  capable  of  Reafon  and  Under- 
ftanding  •,  that  fo,  when  the  fame  God,  who  is  the  Sun  of Juftice,  mould  think 
fit  to  ifnie  out  the  light  of  his  Divine  Rays  on  thofe  poor  Idolaters,  they  might 
be  found  more  docible,  and  eafily  difpofed  to  receive  the  principles  of  the  Chri- 
ftian  faith*  the  which  will  plainly  appear  in  the  progrefs  of  this  Hiftory ;  and  that 
thofe,  whom  the  lncat  had  fubje&ed ,  and  reduced  to  fbme  terms  of  Humanity 
and  Political  Government,  were  much  better  and  eafier  to  receive  the  Evangelical 
Doctrine  preached  unto  them,  than  thofe  ignorant  wretches  who  lived  in  their  na- 
tural ftupidity,  and  who  to  this  day,  after  the  fpace  of  71  Years,  that  the  Spani- 
ards have  been  Matters  of  Peru,  have  made  no  ftep  or  improvement  towards  the 
Doftrine  of  Morality,  or  a  rational  Life.  And  now  that  we  may  proceed  for- 
ward, to  relate  thefe  obfcure  matters,  I  muft  acquaint  the  Reader,  that  having 
considered  with  my  felf  of  the  ways  and  methods  whereby  I  might  moft  clearly 
make  known  the  beginning  and,  original  of  the  Incas,  who  were  the  Natural 
Kings  of  Peru,  I  have  determined  with  my  felf,  that  there  is  no  more  expedite 
courfe,  nor  means  hereunto,  than  to  repeat  thofe  (lories  which  in  my  youth  I  re- 
ceived from  the  relation  of  my  Mother,  and  my  Uncles,  her  Brothers,  and  others' 
of  my  Kindred,  touching  this  fubjeft,  which  certainly  will  be  more  authentick 
and  fatisfadtory  than  any  account  we  can  receive  from  other  Authours,  and  there- 
fore mall  proceed  in  this  manner. 

My  Mother,  redding  at  Cozco,  which  was  her  own  Countrey,  thofe  few  Kin- 
dred and  Relations  of  hers  which  furvived,  and  efcaped  from  the  cruelties  and 
Tyrannies  of  Atanhualpa ,  (as  (hall  be  related  in  the  Hiftory  of  his  life)  came  al- 
moft  every  week  to  make  her  a  vifit*  at  which  their  ordinary  difcourfe  was  con- 
cerning the  Original  of  their  Kings,  the  Majefty,  and  greatnefs  of  their  Empire, 
their  Conquefts,  and  Policies  in  Government,  both  for  War  and  Peace,  together 
With  the  Laws  they  inftituted  for  the  good  and  benefit  of  their  fubje&s;  in  fhort, 
there  was  nothing  great  or  profpefous  amongft  them,  which  they  omitted  in  the 
Series  of  their  Difcourfe. 

From  their  pad  Happinefs  they  defcended  to  their  prefent  condition ,  and  be- 
wailed the  death  of  their  Kings,  by  whofe  deftru&ion  the  government  fell,  and 
the  Empire  was  transferred.  Thefe,  and  fuch  like  difcourfes,  the  lncat,  and  the 
Ladies  of  quality,  which  we  Call  P allot,  entertained  us  with  at  their  vifits,  which 
they  always  concluded  with  tears  and  fighs  in  remembrance  of  their  loft  happinefs, 
faying,  that  from  Governours  they  were  now  become  Slaves,  &c  During  thefe 
Difcourfes ,  I ,  that  was  a  Boy ,  often  ran  in  and  out,  pleafing  my  felf  with  fome 
pieces  of  the  ftory,  as  Children  do  with  the  tales  of  Nurfes.  In  this  manner  days, 
and  months,  and  years  paffing,  till  1  was  come  to  fixteen  or  feveriteert  years  of  age, 
being  one  day  prefent  with  my  Kindred,  who  were  difcourfing  of  their  Kings  and 
Anceftours,  it  came  into  my  mind  to  ask  the  moft  elderly  Perfbn  amongft  them , 
and  interrupt  his  Difcourfe  in  this  manner.    .  Inca,  [aid  I,  and  my  Vncle,  how  it  it 

foffible,  ftnct  you  have  no  Writings ,  that  you  have  been  able  to  conferve  the  memory  of 
things  fafi,  and  of  the  Original  of  our  Kings?  I obferve  that  the  Spaniards,  and  their 
fuighbouring  Nations,  have  their  Divine  and  Humane  Hiftories ,  -whereby  they  learn  the 
Ume  that  their  own  Kings,  and  the  Princes  of  other  Countries  began  their  Reigns,  when  and 
how  Empires  were  altered  and  transferred,  nay,  fo  far  they  proceed,  as  to  tell  hs  how  many 
tkwfand  years  are  fafi,  ftnce  God  ere  at  id  Heaven  and  Earth  1   all  which,  and  much  more, 

■      they 

12  Royal  Commentaries.  Book  I. 

they  have  learned  from  their  hooks  ;  but  at  for  your  farts,  in  what  manner  can  you  retain 
the  memory  of  your  Anceftors,  or  be  informed  of  the  Original  of  your  Incas  ?  as  who  was  the 
firfi  of  them  ,  or  what  was  his  name  ?  of  what  lineage ,  or  in  what  manner  he  began 
to  reign  ?  what  Nations  he  conquered,  and  when  he  gave  a  being  to  this  great  Empire,  and 
•with  what  Exploits  our  Ancefiors  atchieved  their  greatnefs  ? 

The  Inca  was  much  pleafcd  to  hear  me  make  thefe  enquiries,  becaufe  he  took  a 
delight  to  recount  thole  matters,  and  turning  himfelf  to  me,    Coufin,  (aid  he,  / 

mofi  willingly  comply  with  your  requeft  ;  for  it  concerns  you  to  hear  them,    and  keep  them 

in  your  heart,  (which  is  a  phrafe  that  they  ufe,  when  they  mean  that  it  fhould  be 

committed  to  Memory.)  You  mufi  know  therefore,  that  in  ages  pafi  all  this  Region  and 
Count  rey  you  fee  round  us,  was  nothing  but  mountains  ,  and  wild  fore  ft ,  and  the  People  in 
thofe  times  were  like  fo  many  brute  Beafts ,  without  Religion  or  Government;  they  neither 
/owed,  nor  ploughed,  nor  cloathed  themfelves,  becaufe  they  knew  not  the  art  of  weaving  with 
Cotton  or  I  fool:  They  dwelt  by  two  and  two,  or  three  and  three  together,  as  they  happened 
to  meet  in  Caves,  or  holes  in  the  Rock,s  and  Mountains ;  their  food  was  Herbs,  or  Grafs, 
Roots  of  Trees,  and  wild  Fruits,  and  Man  s  Elefh  ;  all  the  coverings  they  had  were  Leaves 
or  Barks  of  Trees,  and  Skins  of  Beafis:  Infhort,  they  were  altogether  favage,  making  ufe 
of  their  Women  as  they  accidentally  met ,  under  ft  anding  no  property ,  or  fngle  enjoyment  of 

And  now  1  pray  obferve  me  with  due  attention,  for  I  would  not  be  troubled  to  make  repe- 
tition of  what  I  have  faid.  Our  Father  the  Sun,  (for  this  is  the  language  ofthe  Incas, 
which  is  a  tide  of  Reverence  and  Refpeft,  which  they  always  adjoin,  fo  often  as 
they  name  the  Sun  •,  for  they  avail  themfelves  much  of  the  Honour  of  being  de- 
fended from  him ,  and  his  Name  is  fo  pretious,  that  it  is  blafphemy  for  any,  and 
by  Law  he  is  to  be  ftoried,  who  dares  to  take  this  Name  into  his  mouth,  who 
is  not  an  Inca,  or  defcended  from  that  Lineage. )    Our  Father  the  Sun  ( (aid  the 

Inca)  beholding  Men  fuch  as  before  related,  took  compaffion  of  them,  and  fent  a  Son  and  a 
Daughter  of  his  own  from  Heaven  to  Earth,  to  inftrutl  our  people  in  the  knowledge  of  Our 
father  the  Sun,  that  fo  they  might  worfhip  and  adore  him,  andefteem  him  for  their  God: 
giving  them  Laws  and  Precepts ,  whereunto  they  might  conform  their  Lives ,  like  Men  of 
Reafon  and  Civility ;    that  they  might  live  in  Houfes  and  Society,  learn  to  fow  the  Landt 
cultivate  Trees,  and  Plants ,  feed  their  Flocks ,    and  enjoy  them ,  and  other  Fruits  of  the 
Earth,  as  rational  Men,  and  not  as  brute  Beafts.     With  thefe  Orders  and  InftruBions 
Our  Father  the  Sun  placed  his  two  Children  in  the  Lake  Titicaca ,    which  is  about  eighty 
Leagues  from  hence,  giving  them  liberty  to  go,  and  travell  which  way  they  pleafed,  and  that 
in  what  place  foever  they  ft  aid  to  eat,  or  jleepx  they  fhould  ftrike  a  little  wedge  of  Gold  into 
the  ground,  (which  he  had  given  them,)  being  about  half ayard  long,  and  two  fingers  thick^, 
and  where  with  one  ftroke  this  wedge  fhould  fink,  into  the  Earth,  there  fhould  be  the  place  of 
their  Habitation,  and  the  Court  unto  which  all  People  fhould  refort.    Laftly,  he  ordered  them, 
that  when  they  fhould  have  reduced  People  to  thefe  Rules  and  Obedience,  that  then  they  fhould 
conferve  and  maintain  them  with  Reafon,  Juftice,  Piety,  Clemency  and  Gentlcnefs,  performing 
all  the  good  Offices  of  a  pious  Father  towards  thofe  Children  which  he  loves  with  tendernefs  5 
and  that  in  imitation  of  him,  and  by  his  example,  who  doeth  good  to  all  the  World,  affording1 
them  light  to  perform  their  bujinefs,  and  the  allions  of  Life,  warming  them  when  they  are 
cold,  making  their  paftures,  and  their  feeds  to  grow,  their  trees  .to  fruBifie,  and  their  flocks 
to  increafe,  watering  their  Lands  with  dew  from  above,  and  in  its  feafon  be  ft  owing  chearfull 
andfavourable  weather :  and  to  manifeft  his  care  of  all  things,  faid,  I  every  day  take  a  turn  round 
the  World,  to  fee  and  difcover  the  necejjities  and  wants  of  all  things,  that  fo  as  the  true  Fo- 
ment er  and  Parent  of  them,  I  may  apply  my  felf  to  their  fucc our  and  redrefs.    Thus  after  my 
example,  and  as  my  Children,  fent  upon  the  Earth,  I  would  have  you  to  imitate  me,  and  to 
infill  fuch  DoBrine  into  this  People ,  as  may  convert  them  from  Beafts  unto  Men  :    and 
from  henceforth  I  conftitute  and  ordain  you  Lords  and  Princes  over  this  People,  that  by  your 
InftruBions,  Reafon  and  Government,  they  may  be  conferved.     Thus  Our  Father  the  Sun, 
having  declared  his  pleafure  to  thefe  his  two  Children,  he  difpatched  them  from  him ,  and 
they  taking  their  journey  from  Titicaca  Northward,  at  everyplace  where  they  came  to  repofe, 
they  tryed  with  their  wedge  to  ftrike  it  in  the^Nund,  but  it  tookjio  place,  nor  would  it  enter  ; 
at  length  they  came  to  a  poor  Inn,  or  place  to  reft  in,  about  fieven  or  eight  Leagues  South- 
Ward  from  this  City,  which  to  this  day  is  called  Pacaiec  Tampu,  which  is  as  much  as  to 

fay,  the  Shining  or  Enlightned  Dormitory.    Tl^s  is  one  of  thofe  Colonies  which  this 

Prince  planted,  the  Inhabitants  whereof  boafl  of  this  Name  and  Title  which  our  Inca  be- 
flowed  upon  it ;  from  whence  he  and  his  ^ueen  defcended  to  the  Valley  of  CoZCO,  which  was 
then  onely  a  wild  and  barren  Mountain, 


Book  I.  Royal  Commentaries.  13 

Chap.   viii. 

The  Foundation  of  the  Imperial  City  of  Cozed. 

HE  fir  ft  flop  ( proceeded  the  Inca)  which  they  made  in  this  Valley }  wds  in  the  De- 
fart  called  Huanacauti ,  which  is  to  the  feuthward  of  this  City ,  and  there  they 
again  ftruck_  their  wedge  of  Gold  into  the  Earth,  which  received  it  with  great  facility,  and 
which  fucked  it  in  with  fo  much  eafe,  that  they  faw  it  no  more.  Tlicn  faid  the  Inca  to  his 
Sifter,  and  Wife,  in  this  Valley  Our  Father  the  Sun  hath  commanded  that  we  fhould  ft  ay, 
and  make  our  abode,  and  in  fo  doing  we  (hall  perform  his  Pleafure ;  in  pur  fiance  whereof  it 
is  neceffary  that  we  now  fcparate  each  from  the  other,  and  take  different  ways,  that  fo  we 
may  nffemble  and  draw  the  People  to  us,  in  fuch  manner  as  we  may  be  able  to  preach  and 
propagate  the  doblrine  among/}  them,  which  he  hath  committed  to  us.  Accordingly  our  firft 
Govemours  proceeded  by  divers  ways  from  the  Defirt  of  Huanacauti  to  convocate  the  Peo- 
ple, which  being  the  prft  place ,  of  which  we  had  knowledge,  that  they  had  hallowed  by  their 
Feet,  andfiom  whence  they  went  to  doe  good  unto  Men,  we  have  defervedly  (as  is  manifeft) 
eretJed  a  Temple,  wherein  to  adore  and  worfhip  our  Father  the  Sun,  and  remember  this  good 
and  benefit  he  hath  done  unto  the  World.  Our  Inca  the  Prince  took_  his  way  northward,  and 
the  Princefs  to  the  Southward,  and  to  all  the  Men  and  Women  which  they  met  in  the  wild 
thickets,  and  uncultivated  places,  they  declared  to  them,  that  their  Father  the  Sm  hadfent 
them  to  be  Teachers  and  Bcnefatlours  to  thofe  Inhabitants,  and  to  draw  them  from  that  rude 
andfavage  Life,  and  to  another  method  of  living,  more  agreeable  to  Reafon  and  Humane  So- 
ciety; and  in  farther  purfuance  of  the  Commands  of  their  Father  the  Sun,  they  came  to  ga- 
ther them  from  thofe  Mountains,  and  rude  places,  to  more  convenient  Habitations,  where 
they  might  live  in  Humane  Society,  and  to  affign  them  fuch  food,  as  was  appropriated  to  Men, 
and  not  to  Beafts.  Thefe,  and  fuch  like  matters,  thefe  Princes  declared  to  thofe  fav ages, 
whom  they  found  in  Dc farts  and  Amount  ains ,  who  beholding  thefe  two  perfuns  cloathed,  and 
adorned  with  fuch  Habit  as  Our  Father  the  Sun  had  vefted  them  in ,  and  obferving  that 
their  Ears  were  bored  through,  for  wearing  jewels ,  and  more  large  and  open  than  ufual^ 
that  they  might  hear  and  receive  the  Complaints  of  the  oppreffed;  (in  which  we  alfo  are  like 
them,  who  are  of  their  Offsfring  and  Family^}  and  that  by  the  gentlenefs  of  their  words,  and 
grace  of  their  Countenance,  they  manifeft ed  themfelves  to  be  Children  of  the  Sun,  and  fuch 
as  were  employed  to  affemble  People  into  focieties,  and  political  ways  of  living,  and  to  admi- 
nifter  fuch  forts  of  food  as  were  wholfome  and  appropriated  to  Humane  Suftenance,  they  were 
ft-'uck^  with  fuch  admiration  of  their  figure  and  Perfons,  and  allured  with  the  promt fes  they 
made  them,  that  they  gave  entire  credence  to  their  words,  adored  them  as  Children  of  the  Sun, 
and  obeyed  them  as  their  Princes :  And  thefe  poor  wretches  relating  thefe  matters  one  to  the 
other,  the  fame  thereof  fo  encreafed,  that  great  numbers,  both  of  Men  and  Women,  flocked 
together,  being  willing  to  follow  to  what  place  foever  they  fhould  guide  them. 

Thus  great  multitudes  of  People  being  affembled  together,  the  Princes  gave  order  that 
Provifon  fhould  be  made  of  fuch  fruits ,  as  the  Earth  produced  for  their  fuftenance ,  left 
being  fcattered  abroad  to  gain  their  food ,  the  main  body  fhould  be  divided,  and  the  number f 
etiminifhed:  others  in  the  mean  time  were  employed  in  building  houfes,  of  which  the  Prince 
gave  them  a  model  and  form.  ///  this  manner  our  Imperial  City  be^an  to  be  peopled,  being- 
divided  into  two  parts,  one  of  which  was  called  Hanan  Co7.CC»,  which  is  as  much  as  the  Up- 
per COZCO,  and  the  other  Hurin  COZCO,  which  is  the  Lower  CoZCO}  thofe  which  were 
affembled  under  the  King  were  of  the  Upper  Town,  and  thofe  under  the  Queen  were  of  the 
Lower :  Not  that  this  difference  wa:  made  out  of  any  refpetc  to  Superiority,  for  that  they 
were  to  be  Brothers,  arid  Children  of  the  fame  Father  and  Another,  and  in  the  fame  equality 
of  Fortune  ;  but  onth  it  fefved  to  diflinguifh  the  followers  of  the  King  from  thofe  of  the 
fffjieen;  and  to  remain  for  an  ever  la  fling  Aiemorial  of  their  fir  ft  Beginning  and  Original ; 
with  this  difference  onely,  that  the  Upper  CoZCO  fhould  be  as  the  Elder,  and  the  Lower  as 
the  younger  Children.  And  this  is  the  reafon  that  in  all  our  Empire  this  diverfity  of  lineage 
hath  remained,  being  ever fince  diftinguijhcd  into  Hanan  Ay  llll,  and  Hurin  Ayllu,  which  U 
the  upper  and  the  lower  Lineage,  and  Hanan  Sliyo,  and  HuiinSuyU,  which  is  the  upper 
and  the  lower  Tribe. 

D  the 

i  a  Royal  Commentaries.  Book  I. 

The  City  being  thus  Peopled;  Our  Inca  taught  his  Subjects  thofe  Labours  which  apper- 
tained unto  the  Men,  as  to  plough  and  fow  the  Land  with  divers  forts  of  Seeds,  which  were 
ufefull,  and  for  food;  to  which  end  he  inftrutJed  them  how  to  make  Ploughs  and  Harrows, 
and  other  Inftruments,  fit  and  necejfary  for  that  purpofe  •■,  he  (hewed  them  alfo  the  way  of 
cutting  chanels  for  the  Water,  which  now  runs  through  this  Valley  of  CoZCO,  and  to  make 
Shoes  for  their  Feet.  On  the  other  fide  the  fflucen  inftrucled  the  Women  in  good  Hufwifery, 
as  how  to  (pin  and  weave  Cotton  and  wool,  and  to  make  garments  for  their  Husbands,  their 
Children ,  and  themfelves  ,  -filth  other  Offices  appertaining  to  the  Houfe.  In  fum,  nothing 
was  omitted  conducing  to  humane  Wellfare,  which  the  King  did  not  teach  his  Men,  and  the 
Jgueen  her  Women,  making  them  both  their  Scholars  and  their  Subjects. 

CHAR    IX. 

The  Allions  of  the  fir  ft  Indian  Ring,  called  Manco  Capac 

THefe  Indians  being  in  this  manner  reduced,  looked  on  themfelves  much  bettered  in  con' 
dition  ;  and  with  fingular  acknowledgments  of  the  benefits  received,  and  with  great 
joy  and  fatisf action  travelled  through  the  Rocks  and  Thickets  to  communicate  the  happy  news 
of  thofe  Children  of  the  Sun,  who  for  the  common  good  of  all  appeared  on  the  Earth,  recoun- 
ting the  great  good  and  benefits  they  had  received  from  them ;  and  to  gain  belief  amongft  them 
they  Jhewed  them  their  new  Habit,  and  C loathing,  and  Diet,  and  that  they  lived  in  Houfe s 
and  in  political  Society.  This  relation  induced  this  wild  People  to  fee  thofe  wonders,  of  which 
being  fully  fatisfied  by  their  own  Eyes,  they  ranged  themfelves  amongfi  the  refi  to  learn,  and 
obey  ;  and  thus  one  calling  and  inviting  the  other ,  the  fame  fpread  far  and  near,  and  the 
people  increafed  in  finch  manner,  that  in  the  fir fl  fix  or  feven  years  the  Inca  had  compofed 
an  Army  fit  for  War  •■,  and  having  taught  them  how  to  make  Bows  and  Arrows,  and  Lances, 
and  finch  Weapons  as  we  ufe  to  this  day,  they  were  not  oneTy  capable  to  defend,  but  alfo  to  of- 
fend an  Enemy ,  and  to  compell  thofe  by  force  whofe  beftial  nature  detained  from  Humane 

And  that  I  may  not  be  tedious  in  the  relation  of  what  this  Our  fir  ft  Inca  ailed,  you  muft 
knowj  that  he  reduced  all  Eaftward,  as  far  as  the  River  called  Paucartampu,  and  eighty 
Leagues  Weftward,  to  the  great  River  called  Apurimac,  and  to  the  Southward  nine  Leagues 
to  Quequelana.  To  thefc  feveral  quarters  Our  Inca  fent  out  particular  Colonies,  to  the 
large  ft  a  hundred  Families,  and  to  the  leffer  according  to  their  capacity.  Thefe  are  the  be- 
ginning; of  this  our  City,  and  of  this  our  rich  and  famous  Empire,  which  your  Father,  and 
his  Adherents  have  defpoiled  us  of  Thefe  were  our  fir  ft  Incas,  and  Kings  in  the  fir  ft  aves 
of  the  World,  from  whom  the  fucceeding  Princes,  and  we  our  felves  are  defcended:  but  how 
many  years  it  may  be  Jincc  our  Father  the  Sun  fent  his  Offspring  amongft  us,  I  am  not  able 
frecifely  to  declare,  becaufe  my  Memory  may  fail  me  in  it,  but  I  imagine,  they  may  be  about 
400  Tears.  This  our  Inca  was  named  ManCoCapac,  and  his  ^ueen  Coya  Mama 
of  Huaco,  who  were,  at  I  have  fiaid ,  Brethren  of  the  Sun  and  Moon.  And  thus  having 
at  large  fatisfied  the  requeft  you  made  to  me,  in  relation  of  which  ,  that  I  might  not  incline 
you  tofadnefs,  I  abftained  from  venting  tears  at  my  Eyes,  which  notwithftanding  drop  with 
bloud  on  my  Heart,  caufied  by  that  inward  grief  I  feel,  to  fee  our  Ir.JUS,  and  their  Empire 
ruined  and  defrayed. 

This  large  Relation  of  the  Original  of  our  Kings ,  I  received  from  that  Ma 
which  was  my  Mothers  Brother ,  from  whom  I  requefted  it ,  and  which  I  have 
caufed  faithfully  to  be  tranflated  out  of  the  Indian  into  the  Spar&fh  Tongue  ^  which 
though  it  be  not  written  with  fuch  Majefty  of  words  as  the  Inca  fpake  it,  nor  with 
that  "(ignificancy  of  termes  as  that  Language  bears,  nor  fo  large  and  particular  (to 
avoid  tedioufnefs)  as  it  was  delivered  to  me,  howfoever  it  may  ferve  to  give 


Book  I.  Royal  Commentaries.  i  5 

fufficient  light  to  the  nature  and  knowledge  of  this  our  Hiftory.  Many  other 
things  of  like  fort,  though  of  no  great  moment,  this  he  a  often  recounted  in  his 
"~Vlwts  and  Difcourfes  he  made  me,  the  which  I  (hall  declare  in  their  due  places , 
being  now  troubled  that  I  made  no  farther  enquiries  into  other  matters,  for  which 
I  have  room  here  to  place  them  with  good  authority. 

CHAP.    X. 

Wherein  the  Authour  alledges  the  Authority  he  hath  for  the 
Trial)  of  his  Hiftory. 

HAving  thus  laid  the  firft  Foundation  whereon  to  build  our  Hiftory,  though 
as  to  the  Original  of  our  Kings  of  Peru,  it  may  feem  fomething  fabulous  5 
it  now  follows,  that  we  proceed  forward  to  relate  in  what  manner  the  Indians 
were  reduced  and  conquered ,  enlarging  the  particulars  which  the  he  a  gave  me, 
with  divers  other  additions  concerning  the  Natural  Indians,  and  their  Kings, 
which  the  firft  hca,  Mamo  Capae,  reduced  under  his  Government,  with  whom  I 
was  educated,  and  converfed -untill  I  arrived  to  the  age  of  twenty  years-,  during 
Which  time  I  became  informed  of  all  the  particulars  concerning  which  I  write, 
for  in  my  youth  they  related  thefe  ftories  to  me,  as  Nurfes  doe  tales,  or  fables  to 
their  Children.  Afterwards,  in  my  riper  years,  I  took  a  more  particular  notice 
of  their  Laws  and  Policies,  comparing  this  new  Government  of  the  Spaniards , 
with  that  of  the  Inou  ,  namely,  what  were  efteemed  faults  and  trefpafies,  and 
what  feverities  and  punimments  were  proportioned  to  the  fame:  they  informed 
me  alfo  of  the  Methods  which  their  Kings  ufed  in  War  and  Peace,  how  they  trea- 
ted their  Vafials,  and  what  feryices  they  required  from  them.  They  inftru&ed 
me  alfo  in  their  Idolatries,  Ceremonies  and  Sacrifices,  teaching  me  to  diftinguifti 
between  their  more  folemn  feftivals,  and  the  ordinary  holy-days,  and  how  they 
were  to  be  obferved  and  celebrated ;  they  told  me  alio  what  was  efteemed  fuper- 
ftitious,  and  of  abufe  in  their  Religion,  what  Omens  there  were  of  good  and  bad 
luck  j  in  fhort,  there  was  nothing  either  relating  to  their  Government  or  Man- 
ners, of  which  they  gave  me  not  a  diftincl:  Account ,  fo  that  mould  I  defcribe 
every  matter  received  from  them,  the  particulars  would  be  too  large  to  be  con- 
tained within  the  volume  of  this  Hiftory.  Befides  what  I  have  heard ,  I  have 
been  an  Eye-witnefs  for  the  moft  part  of  their  Idolatrous  Worfhip,  Feafts,  and 
other  fuperftitious  Cuftoms,  which  untill  the  twelvth  or  thirteenth  year  of  my 
age  were  not  wholly  abolifhed  amongft  them.  For  in  regard  1  was  born  eight 
years  after  the  Spaniards  became  Mafters  of  my  Countrey ,  and  that,  as  I  laid,  I 
was  educated  amongft  the  Indians  till  I  was  twenty  years  old,  I  had  opportunity  in 
all  that  time  to  obferve,  and  be  well  acquainted  with  their  Cuftoms ,  befides  all 
which,  fo  foon  as  I  took  a  refolution  to  write  this  Hiftory ,  I  acquainted  my 
Schoolfellows,  fuch  as  were  taught  the  art  of  Grammar,  of  this  my  intention,  de- 
firing  them  to  fearch  into  the  Archives  and  Regifters  of  their  Countries ,  and  to 
fend  me  the  various  fucceffes  of  them  -,  the  which  purpofe  of  mine  they  fo  well 
approved,  that  every  one  moft  readily  contributed  to  this  work,  fending  me  the 
Hiftory  of  the  Exploits  and  Actions  of  their  refpective  heat ,  and  is  the  fame 
which  the  Spanijk  Hiftorians  relate  on  this  Subject,  though  not  fo  particularly,  and 
largely  as  we  have  done.  And  in  regard  the  Beginning  and  Foundation  of  this 
Hiftory  confifts  of  the  actions  of  this  firft  Inca,  it  will  be  very  pertinent  to  this 
matter  to  particularife  them  diftinctly,  that  fo  we  may  not  be  obliged  to  repeat 
them  in  the  Lives  of  his  Succeflburs ,  who  having  a  great  value  for  his  Perfon 
and  Vertues,  made  it  their  chief  aim  and  intention  to  imitate  the  Humour,  Acti- 
ons and  Cuftoms  of  this  their  firft  Prince  Manco  Capac  -,  fo  that  we  (hall  endeavour 

D   S  TO 

1 6  Royal  Commentaries,  Book  I. 

to  reprefent  the  moft  important  matters,  which  he  acted,  omitting  things  left  per- 
tinent and  material.  And  though  many  things  herein  contained  may  feem  fabu- 
lous, yet  becaufe  they  are  fuch  as  the  Indians  make  the  Foundation  of  their  Hifto- 
ry,  and  of  thofe  greatnefles  which  the  Spaniards  do  now  in  reality  enjoy,  I  cannot 
pafs  them  by,  without  injury  and  prejudice  to  the  Beginning,  Progrefs  and  Pe- 
riod of  this  Monarchy :  Howfbever  having  fucked  in  a  fincerity  with  my  Milk, 
I  (hall  give  a  true  Account  of  all  that  I  heard,  and  received  from  my  Parents, 
promiling,  that  neither  favour  nor  affe&ion  to  my  People  and  Bloud  (hall  encline' 
me  either  to  conceal  the  bad,  or  beyond  Reafon  applaud  the  good  or  natural  Ver- 
mes of  them-,  for  though  Gentilifm  be  fuch  a  Sea  of  Errours,  that  every  thing 
may  be  believed  of  it,  which  is  new  and  prodigious  5  yet  I  (hall  deliver  nothing 
but  what  the  Spanijh  Hiftbrians  have  before  intimated  of  thofe  Kings  and 
Countries  ^  and  that  I  may  not  feem  to  obtrude  any  thing  out  of  partiality 
to  my  Kindred,  I  (hall  confine  my  felf  within  the  bounds  of  the  Spanijh  Writers, 
intending  that  thefe  Papers  (hall  fervefor  a  Comment  to  theirs,  and  to  redifie  the 
Errours  they  have  made,  as  to  Times,  Perfons  and  Countries :  which  indeed  is  no 
wonder,  if  confidering  the  little  knowledge  they  have  in  the  language,  they 
have  been  guilty  of  many  miftakes  relating  to  that  People. 

In  fine,  whatfoever  I  (hall  relate  of  thefe  People,  who  were  deftroyed,  before 
they  were  known  *  either  in  reference  to  their  ancient  Idolatry,  Government, 
Laws  and  Cuftoms ,  it  (hall  be  clearly  laid  down ,  without  comparing  it  with' 
divine  or  humane  Hiftories,  or  the  Governments  of  our  time  •-,  becaufe  all  compari- 
sons are  odious  •,  but  rather  leave  thofe  reflexions  to  the  Reader ,  who  finding 
fomething  of  (imilitude  herein  to  the  ftories  of  Holy  Writ,  and  to  the  Fables  of 
Ancient  Gentilifm ,  may  apply  them  according  to  his  own  fancy  and  humour. 
For  my  part,  I  having  been  a  natural  Indian  born,  and  educated  in  Arms,  have  little 
or  no  abilities  or  ftrength  of  my  own,  and  therefore  have  need  of  the  favour  and 
afliftence  of  the  Candid  Reader. 

CHAP.    XI. 

Of  thofe  People  which  the  firji  Inca  fent  to  inhabit  divers 

BUT  to  return  now  tothe/w4,  MancoCapac:  After  he  had  founded  the 
City  of  Cozco,  and  divided  it  into  two  parts,  (as  we  have  already  declared) 
he  planted  many  other  Colonies.  .  To  the  Eaftward  of  this  City  he  placed  thofe 
People,  which  now  extend  themfelves  over  that  tract  of  Land  which  runs  to  the 
River  called  Paucar  tampu;  and  thirteen  feveral  other  Nations  he  feated  on  both 
fides  of  the  Royal  way ,  called  Antifityu ,  which  for  brevity  fake  we  omit  parti- 
cularly to  nominate,  being  all  or  the  moft  part  of  the  Lineage,  or  Tribe  called 
Poqucs.  To  the  Weftward  in  the  fpace  of  eight  Leagues  in  breadth,  and  about 
nine  or  ten  in  length,  he  planted  thirty  feveral  Villages,  which  ipread  themfelves 
on  one  hand ,  and  the  other  as  far  as  the  Royal  way  oiCtmtifitju.  Thefe  People 
formed  three  different  Nations,  namely  Majca^  Chillqui,  Paperi.  To  the  North 
of  this  City  were  feated  twenty  Villages,  which  were  diftinguifhed  by  four 
names,  w.  Mayu,  Cancu,  Chinchapucyu,  Rimac  tampu;  the  remainder  of  the  Peo- 
ple feated  themfelves  in  the  pleafant  valley  of  Sacjahuanna ,  where  the  famous 
Battel  was  fought,  wherein  Gongak  Piqarro  was  taken  Prifoner.  To  the  South- 
ward of  the  City  thirty  eight  or  forty  other  Villages  were  planted,  eighteen  of 
which  were  of  the  Nation  of  Ajarmana ,  and  extended  themfelves  on  one  fide 
and  the  other  ofthe  Royal  high  way  of  Collafnjn,  for  the  fpace  of  thirty  Leagues 
in  length,  beginning  from  thofe  parts  which  are  overagainft  the  Salinas,  and  reach 


Book  I.  Royal  Commentaries.  \n 

within  a  little  League  of  the  City,  where  that  fatal  Battel  was  fought  of  Bon 
Diego  of  Almagro  the  Elder,  and  Hernando  Piqarro  •,  all  the  other  Nations  have  five 
or  fix  different  denominations,  which  are  J>uefpicancha,  Muyna,  Vrcos,  Jguehuar, 
Huaruc,  Cavima.  This  Nation  of  Cavinna  boaft  themfelves  much  of  being  de- 
scended from  Parents,  who  proceeded  from  a  certain  Lake,  where  they  report 
that  the  Souls  offuchwho  dye  do  enter,  and  thence  return  again  to  animate 
other  Bodies.  Thefe  People  adored  an  Idol  of  a  prodigious  figure,  and  offered  a 
ftrange  fort  of  Sacrifice  to  it^  but  the  Inca,  Manco  Capac,  deftroyed  the  Idol,  and 
abohlhed  their  rites,  and  compelled  them  as  he  did  all  his  other  fubje&s  to  adore 
the  Sun. 

Thefe  People,  who  were  not  much  above  a  hundred  in  number,  were  but 
fmall  in  the  beginning,  the  greateft  not  exceeding  a  hundred  families,  and 
the  lefler  confiding  of  about  twenty  five  or  thirty ,  which  afterwards  by 
the  privileges  and  encouragements,  which  the  inca,  Manco  Capac,  beftowed  upon 
them ,  (as  we  (ball  hereafter  declare)  they  increafed  exceedingly,  many  of  them 
extending  themfelves  into  a  thoufand  Families,  and  the  lefler  to  three  or  four  hun- 
dred at  leaft-,  the  which  immunities  and  favours  being  confirmed,  and  augmented 
by  Manco  Capac  and  his  Succeflburs,  the  people  increafed  and  flourimed,  till  all 
was  deftroyed  by  the  barbarous  Tyranny  of '  Atauhualpa.  Now  in  thefe  our  times, 
and  about  twenty  years  paft  thofe  Colonies  which  Mam  Capac  planted  on  this 
fide,  and  almoft  all  the  People  of  Peru  do  not  now  poflefs  their  ancient  dwellings  ■-, 
becaufe  a  Vice-Roy,  as  we  (hall  (hew  in  its  proper  place,  joined  them  afterwards, 
uniting  five  or  fix  into  one,  and  fometimes  feven  or  eight,  as  was  moft  agreeable 
to  his  purpofe,  from  whence  many  inconveniences  accrued  to  that  People,  which 
we  omit,  becaufe  they  are  grievous  and  ungratefull  to  repeat. 

CHAP.    XII. 

In  what  manner  the  Inca  taught  and  infirutied  his 

THE  Inca,  Manco  Capac,  as  he  planted  his  Colonies,  lb  every  where  he  taught 
them  to  plow,  and  cultivate  the  Land,  how  to  make  Aqueducts  and  Con- 
fervatories  for  their  Water,  and  all  other  matters  tending  to  the  more  commodi- 
ous well-being  of  humane  Life-,  he  gave  them  alfo  fbme  rules  of  Civility  necefla- 
ry  in  fociety  for  maintenance  of  Friendfhip  and  Brotherhood ,  as  the  Laws  of 
Nature  and  Reafon  dictated ;  that  laying  afide  all  animofities  and  paffions  one 
againft  the  other,  they  ihould'doe  as  they  would  be  done  by,  maintaining  without 
partiality  the  fame  Law  for  others  which  they  allow  for  themfelves:  but  above 
all  he  recommended  to  them  a  refpedt  which  they  ought  to  bear  towards  the  Bo- 
dies of  their  Wives  and  Daughters,  for  in  that  vice  they  were  the  moft  blameable 
and  barbarous  •,  and  in  order  hereunto  he  made  Adultery,  Murther  and  Robbery 
mortal  crimes ,  and  punilhable  with  death.  He  ordered  that  no  man  fhould 
have  more  than  one  Wife  at  a  time,  and  that  in  their  Marriages  they  mould  con- 
fine themfelves  to  their  Tribes,  that  they  might  not  make  a  confufion  in  the  Line- 
age, and  that  from  twenty  years  and  upwards  they  might  marry,  becaufe  before 
that  time  their  prudence  was  not  ripe  enough  to  manage  their  Affairs,  nor.  go- 
vern their  Families.  He  employed  others  to  gather  the  more  gentle  fort  of  Cattle 
into  flocks,  which  ran  difperfed  and  wild  through  the  Woods  and  Fields,  caufing 
them  to  make  garments  of  their  Wool ,  according  to  the  Art  which  the  Queen 
Mama  Ocllo  Buaco  had  taught  them  for  fpinning  and  weaving-,  he  (hewed  them 
alfo  how  to  make  that  fort  of  Shoes  which  they  now  wear,  and  which  they  call 
Vfuta.    Over  every  one  of  thefe  Colonies  he  ordained  a  Chief,  which  they  called 




18  Royal  Commentaries.  Book  I. 

Curacn,  and  is  the  fame  which  Cacique  figmfies  in  the  Language  oiCuba,  and 
SanBo  Bom'mgo,  which  is  as  much  as  a  Ruler  over  Subjects :  and  thefe  were  chofen 
for  their  merits-,  for  when  any  one  was  more  gentle,  affable,  pious,  ingenious 
and  more  zealous  for  the  publick  good  than  others,  he  was  presently  advanced  to 
Government,  and  to  be  an  Inftructor  of  the  ignorant  Indians,  who  obeyed  him 
with  as  much  reverence,  as  Children  do  their  Parents-,  and  till  thefe  things  could 
be  put  into  execution,  and  till  the  Earth  could  produce  thefe  fruits,  which  by  la- 
bour and  art  of  Cultivation  might  be  expected,  a  general  ftore  of  Provisions 
were  collected  into  a  common  place,  to  be  diftributed  agreeable  to  the  neceflt- 
ties  and  largenefs  of  Families.  And  that  they  might  not  live  without  Religion, 
t  he  prefcribed  the  Rites  and  Ceremonies  for  their  Idolatry :  he  appointed  out  the 
place  and  defign  where  and  how  to  erect  a  Temple  to  the  Sun ,  that  they  might 
facrifice  to  him  5  for  in  regard  they  efteemed  him  the  great  God  of  all,  by  whole 
heat  and  light  they  lived,  the  Fields  produced  their  Fruits,  and  their  Cattle  mul- 
tiplied, andthat  they  received  a  thoufand  favours  and  benefits  from  him;  it  was 
but  natural  reafon  for  them  to  acknowledge  thefe  benefits ,  and  efpecially  they 
efteemed  themfelves  obliged  to  render  fervice  and  adoration  to  the  Sun  and  Moon, 
for  having  fent  their  own  Children  to  them,  who  had  reduced  them  from  a  Life 
of  Beafts,  to- the  preterit  condition  and  ftate  of  humane  Reafon.  It  was  like  wife 
ordained,  that  a  Houfe  (hould  be  built  for  Virgins  dedicated  to  the  Sun,  and  thac 
the  fame  mould  be  pofTefled  by  none,  but  fuch  as  were  of  the  Royal  Bloud  and 
Family,  and  fupplied  from  thence,  fo  foon  as  the  number  of  the  Royal  Race  was 
fufficiently  increafed.  All  which  he  ordained  and  appointed  to  his  People,  thac 
they  mould  inviolably  obferve  in  gratefull  acknowledgment  of  the  benefits  recei- 
ved 5  promifing  on  the  other  fide,  that  in  reward  thereof  they  might  expect  per- 
petual additions  of  good  to  them  from  the  bleffings  of  the  Sun  who  had  revealed 
thefe  fecrets,  and  fent  his  Meflengers  to  the  Indians  to  inftruct  and  guide  them  in 
the  ways'ofWlfedom:  all  which  matters,  and  much  more,  the  poor  Indians  be= 
lieved,  and  by  tradition  have  conferved  to  thefe  our  days ;  it  being  the  main  point 
of  their  belief,  that  the  Inca  was  a  Child  of  the  Sun-,  of  which  and  of  fuch  like 
fables  they  greatly  boaft,  and  that  none  but  fuch  as  was  of  Divine  progeny  was 
able  to  have  directed  or  prefcribed  things  of  fuch  fublime  and  elevated  an  under* 
ftanding,  as  thefe. 


Of  the  Titles,  and  Dignities  which  the  Inca  for  diftintlion 
fakf? ,  and  to  procure  greater  Honour  and  Reverence  be- 
fiowedon  hh  own  Family. 

THE  Inca,  AfancoCapac,  having  employed  himfelf  for  many  years  in  the  mat- 
ters before  related,  for  the  good  and  benefit  of  his  Subjects,  and  percei- 
ving that  thereby  he  had  produced  in  their  minds  a  real  fenfe  of  gratitude  towards 
him,  and  a  readinefs  to  yield  to  him  and  his,  who  were  Children  of  the  Sun,  all" 
due  Honour  and  Reverence  ■,  he  judged  it  requifite  for  the  more  effectual  impref- 
fion  of  this  Awe  and  Refpect,  to  dignifie  himfelf,  and  thofe  defcended  from  him,, 
with  noble  Titles,  and  Habits  different  from  others.  Wherefore  firft  he  ordered, 
that  after  his  Example  all  his  Pofterity  mould  go  with  their  Heads  fliorn,  wearing 
onely  one  lock  of  Hair;  but  this  {hearing  was  performed  with  great  difficulty,' 
for  they  had  not  yet  arrived  to  the  invention  of  Scifiors ,  but  with  a  fharp  flint 
cut  the  Hair,  as  well  as  they  were  able;  whence  it  was,  that  a  certain  young  Inca 
faid  to  one  of  my  Schoolfellows,  with  whom  he  was  taught  to  write  and  reade, 


Book  I.  Royal  Commentaries.  io 

that  Had  the  Spaniards  introduced  no  other  invention  amongft  us  than  the  ttfe  of  Scijfors  , 
Looktng-Glaffes  and  Combs ,  they  had  deferved  all  that  Gold  and  Silver  which  our  Countrey 

The  other  Mark  of  Diftin&ion,  was  to  have  their  Ears  boared  through,  which 
tke  Women  commonly  did ,  with  a  lharp  bramble,  and  by  fome  art  made  the 
hole  fo  wide,  (as  we  lhall  hereafter  defcribe)  that  it  is  wonderfull  to  conceive 
how  it  is  voluble  for  fo  fmall  a  piece  of  fleih,  as  the  Velvet  of  the  Ear,  to  be  ex- 
tended fo  far,  as  to  receive  an  Ear-ring  as  big  as  the  frame  of  a  pulley,  for  it  was 
made  in  the  form  of  thofe  with  which  we  draw  up  Pitchers  from  a  Well ;  and  of  that 
compafs,  that  in  cafe  it  were  beaten  ftreight ,  it  would  be  a  quarter  of  a  Yard 
long,  and  a  finger  in  thicknefs  ■-,  and  becaufe  the  Indians  wear  them  thus  big,  the 
Spaniards  call  them  Orejones,  or  flap-eared  Luggs- 

For  theDrefs  of  their  Heads,  the  /was  wear  a  Wreath  of  divers  Colours,  which  » 
they  call  Llautu,  and  is  the  breadth  of  a  finger,  but  not  quite  fo  thick,  which  they 
"bind  about  their  Heads  four  or  five  times,  inform  of  aTulbant.  Thefe  three 
particulars  of  cutting  the  Hair,  boaring  the  Ears,  and  binding  the  Head  with  this 
Llautu,  were  the  diftinctions  which  Aianco  Capac  appropriated  to  his  family  ;  for 
though  the  Subject  might  wear  this  Wreath,  or  Llautu,  about  their  Heads,  yet  it 
was  tobeofblackonely,  and  not  of  divers  colours,  which  appertained  onely  to  the 
Royal  Bloud.  This  having  been  the  Falhion  for  fome  time ,  the  Inca  indulging 
farther  favours  to  his  People,  permitted  them  alio  to  cut  their  Hair,  but  in  a  dif- 
ferent manner  to  thofe  of  his  Family,  and  of  one  from  the  other  $  that  fo  the 
divers  Lineages  and  Nations  might  be  diftinguiihed  by  their  Heads.  And  that 
the  Falhion  of  the  Inca  might  not  be  very  different  to  that  of  his  Subjects ,  he  or- 
dered that  their  Hair  ihould  be  rounded ,  and  clipped  clofe  on  the  top  of  their. 
Heads,  as  far  as  their  Temples,  and  that  their  Locks  ihould  hang  on  each  fide  to 
the  bottom  of  their  Ears-,  others  he  ordered  to  clip  their  Hair  as  far  as  might  reach 
to  the  middle  of  their  Ears,  and  others  (liorter,  but  none  was  to  wear  it  in  falhion 
of  the  Ma.  And  thus  thefe  Indians  kept  themfelves  conftant  to  their  falhion, 
not  to  appear  fantaftical  or  varying,  left  they  ihould  either  feem  to  difapprove  the 
Precepts  of  their  Inca ,  or  contemn  the  Cuftoms  of  their  own  Lineage,  which 
they  ever  had  in  great  Efteem  and  Honour. 

In  p;ocefs  of  time  the  inca,  willing  to  enlarge  the  privileges  of  his  People,  gave 
them  permiiTion  to  boar  their  Ears,  though  not  fo  wide  as  the  Inca,  and  that  the 
Pendents  to  them  mould  vaf  y  according  to  the  diverfity  of  their  Lineages  and 
Countries.  To  the  Nation  called  Mayu ,  and  Canctt ,  he  gave  leave  to  wear  a 
Twift  of  Straw,  about  the  thicknefs  of  the  little  finger.  To  the  Nation  Poques  he 
ordained  a  Lock  of  white  Wool  to  hang  as  big  as  the  top  of  the  Thumb.  To 
the  Nations  Muy.u,  Huaruc  and  Chillqm,  he  appointed  Ear-rings  of  the  common 
Junk  or  Reed,  which  the  indiajis  call  Tutura.  To  the  Nation  Rimatiampu  he  ap- 
propriated an  Ear-ring  of  a  certain  foft  wood,  which  in  the  Ifles  oiBarlovento  they 
call  Maguey,  and  in  the  general  Tongue  of  Peru,  Chitchat/,  which,  when  the  Bark 
is  pilled  off,  is  gentle ,  and  eafily  bended.  To  the  People  called  Vrcos,  Tucay, 
Tampu,  and  others  inhabiting  on  the  Banks  of  the  River  Tucay,  he  gave  the  privi- 
lege, as  a  peculiar  mark  and  note  of  his  Favour,  to  wear  their  Ear-rings  of  a  lar- 
ger iize  than  other  Nations ,  but  left  they  Ihould  exceed  herein  beyond  their  due 
proportion,  he  gave  them  a  meafure  and  compafs  which  they  were  not  to  pafs^ 
the  matter  of  them  was  to  be  the  reed  called  Tutura ;  thefe  were  called  Ear-twifts 
rather  than  Pendants,  becaufe  they  did  not  hang  from  the  Ear,  but  were  twined 
about  it,  as  a  rope  is  about  the  mouth  of  the  Pitcher. 

Befides  thefe  dift inftions,  the  Inca  appropriated  other  marks  to  every  Nation, 
that  fo  they  might  not  be  confounded  one  with  the  others  thofe  Names  and  Titles 
which  fnoft  nearly  related  to  thofe  which  the  King  himfelf  had  aiiumed,  being 
reputed  moft  honourable  and  of  greateft  renown:  not  that  the  Inca  was  partial  to 
any,  or  favoured  any  beyond  Reafon  or  Juftice ;  but  as  fome  were  of  a  nature 
more  docible  and  tractable  than  others,  and  laboured  to  inftrucl:  and  teach  the 
rude  People  in  the  ways  of  Humanity-,  to  thofe  he  granted  a  higher  teftimony  of 
his  Favours,  and  fignal  marks  of  honour  •,  all  which  being  confirmed  by  Revela1- 
tion  from  the  Sun  his  Father,  the  poor  Indians  without  envy  or  emulation  each 
to  other,  fubmkted  unto,  having  already  by  good  experience  tafted  the  benefit  of 
their  obedience  to  their  Inca, 


20  Royal  Commentaries.  Book  I. 

In  procefs  of  time  the  Inca  finding  himfelf  aged ,  and  burthened  with  years, 
fummoned  a  general  Aflembly  of  the  chiefeft  of  his  Subjects,  at  the  City  of  Cozco, 
and  in  a  folemn  Oration  gave  them  to  underftand,  that  he  intended  ihortly  to  re- 
turn to  Heaven,  and  take  his  Repofe  with  his  Father  the  Sun,  (which  words  the 
Kings  defcended  from  him  did  always  after  ufe  before  their  death)  and  being  now 
to  leave  them,  the  ultimate  teftimony  of  all  his  favours  which  he  had  to  bequeath 
to  them,  was  die  Appellation  of  his  own  Royal  Name,  that  fo  they  and  their 
Pofterity  might  be  honoured  and  renowned  through  all  the  world :  and  as  a  far- 
ther evidence  of  this  affection,  he  did  not  onely  bequeath  this  Honour  to  them- 
felves onely,  but  to  defcend  to  their  Pofterity,  and  that  without  difference  or  di- 
ftindion  they  might  all  aflume  the  honourable  Title  of  Inca*-,  for  having  been 
his  firft  Subjeds,  and  fuch  as  had  fubmitted  to  his  Will  and  Pleafure,  he  loved 
▼  them  as  Children,  and  therefore  rejoyced  to  beftow  upon  the  n  his  Royal  Name 
and  Dignities,  in  hopes  and  expectation  that  they  would  ever  after  be  obedient 
to  their  prefent  King  and  his  SuccefTours ,  aftifting  them  to  reduce  under  their 
Dominion  fuch  other  Indians  as  had  not  as  yet  fubmitted  to  their  Empire;  all 
which  he  defired  them  to  lay  up  in  their  Hearts  and  memory ,  as  loyal  Subjeds  3 
yet  notwithstanding  he  would  not  have  it  be  underftood  that  he  intended  to  be- 
ftow the  Name  o{  Pallas  on  their  Women,  which  was  a  Title  ftill  to  be  appropri- 
ated to  their  Royal  Bloud  and  Family;  for  that  Women  not  being  capable  to 
bear  Arms,  and  ferve  in  the  War  againft  their  Enemies,  were  not  worthy  of  a 
Title  fo  truly  magnificent. 

Thofe  Indians  which  obtained  this  favour,  were  properly  thofe  who  inhabit 
Peru,  and  were  called  Incas,  and  the  Spaniards,  and  other  Nations,  out  of  courtefie, 
call  their  Women  V alias,  and  Coy  as  :  For  there  are  very  few  of  the  true  Royal  Bloud 
of  thofe  Kings  remaining-,  and  fuch  as  do,  are  by  reafon  of  their  poverty  and  ne- 
ceftity  unknown  and  obfcure,  unlefs  it  be  here  and  there  one-,  for  the  tyranny  and 
cruelty  of dtafmalpahud  deftroyed  them  wholly,  and  thofe  few  which  did  eicape, 
at  leaft  the  principal  and  moft  famous  amongft  them,  periftied  by  other  diftrefles 
and  calamities,  as  we  (hall  hereafter  make  appear  in  its  due  place.  All  the  di- 
ftindion  which  the  Inca,  MancoCapac,  referved  to  himfelf  and  hisSuccefiburs,wasa 
coloured  border  on  his  Wreath,  in  nature  of  a  Fringe,  which  bound  his  Head  from 
.  one  Temple  to  the  other;  the  which  was  common  to  none,  but  the  Inca  and  the 
Prince  his  Heir,  who  wore  it  narrower  than  his  Father ,  and  of  a  fallowr  colour. 
What  Ceremonies  were  ufed  at  the  Inftalment  of  the  Prince,  and  when  he  was 
fvvorn,  we  (hall  declare  in  its  due  place,  when  we  come  to  fpeak  of  the  Horfe- 
men  which  the  IncM  armed  out  againft  their  Enemies. 

Thefe  Privileges  and  Favours  proceeding  immediately  from  the  gratioufnefs  of 
their  Prince,  the  Indians  received  with  great  Thankfulnefs  and  Applaufe ,  becaufe 
the  Ma  made  them  to  believe  that  it  was  by  the  appointment  and  order  of  the 
Sun,  who  obferving  their  C  ompliance,  docility,  and  other  merits,  had  conferred 
thefe  marks  of  his  good  acceptance  on  them.  And  when  they  farther  confidered 
the  greatnefs  of  his  laft  Favour,  which  was  the  Title  of  Inca,  and  which  was  not 
onely  allotted  to  themfelves ,  but  was  to  defcend  alfo  to  their  Pofterity ,  they 
were  wholly  ravilVied  with  the  Bounty  and^  Liberality  of  his  Royal  Mind ,  not 
knowing  how  to  receive  it  with  other  fenfe  than  Tranfport  of  Admiration-,  fo 
that  it  became  the  common  fubjed  of  their  Difcourfe,  how  that  their  Inca  had 
not  onely  transformed  them  from  Beafts  into  Men ,  and  inftruded  them  in  all 
things  neceflary  to  humane  Life,  and  taught  them  thofe  natural  Laws  which  con- 
duce to  Morality,  and  the  knowledge  of  their  God  the  Sun,  which  was  fufficient 
for  ever  to  have  obliged  them  to  remain  his  Vaftals  and  Slaves,  and  might  juftly 
have  impofed  on  them  Taxes  and  Tributes,  but  that  inftead  thereof  he  had  con- 
ferred on  them  the  Majefty  of  his  own  Name,  which  being  fo  Sacred  and  Divine, 
that  none  durft  take  it  formerly  in  his  mouth ,  without  great  Veneration,  was 
now  made  fo  common,  that  every  one  might  pronounce  it  with  an  audible  voice; 
by  which  privilege  being  become  his  adopted  Sons,  they  did  for  ever  after  dedi- 
cate themfelves  for  Slaves  and  Vaflals  to  him  who  was  the  undoubted  Progeny  and 
Child  of  the  Sun.  The  Indians  being  aftonifhed  with  the  confideration  of  thefe 
great  favours  and  aftedion,  their  Inca  had  beftowed  upon  them,  they  returned 
mm  all  the  bleflings  and  praifes  imaginable,  ftudying  what  Names  and  Titles  they 
might  confer  on  him,  agreeable  to  the  greatnefs  of  his  Mind ,  and  his  Heroics 
Vermes-,  and  on  this  confideration  they  invented  thefe  two  Names,  one  of  which 


Book  I.  Royal  Commeiitaries.  %  i 

was  Capac,  which  fignifies  rich,  not  that  they  meant  him  td  be  rich  in  Goods,  or 
Wealth  of  Fortune ,  but  of  Mind,  fuch  as  Gentlenefs,  Piety,  Clemency,  Libe- 
rality, Juftice  and  Magnanimity*  with  a  defire  and  inclination  to  communicate 
his  Benefits  to  all  his  Subjects-,  and  for  .that  Reafon  they  deiervedly  gave  him  the 
Title  of,  which  fignifies  rich  and  powerful!  in  Arms:  The  other  Name 
they  gave  him  was  Huac  chacuyac,  which  is  as  much  as  to  fay,  a  great  Friend  and 
Benefadour  to  the  poor-,  for  as  the  firlf  denomination  intimated  the  greatnels  of 
hisMindj  fo  the  other  ipoke  the  benefits  which  he  had  conferred-,  lb  that  for 
ever  after  he  was  called  the  Prince  Manco  Capac,  having  been  named  no  otherwife 
before,  than  Manco  the  Inca;  for  Manco  is  but  the  proper  Name  of  a  Perfon,  and 
in  the  common  Language  of  Peru  hath  no  fignification  •,  though  in  a  particular  Di- 
aled which  fome  of  them  have,  (which,  as  fome  write  me  from  Peru,  is  entirely 
loft,)  it  fignifies  fomething,  as  all  the  other  Names  and  Titles  did,  which  they 
gave  to  their  Kings,  as  the  lequel  of  this  Story  have  an  occahou 
to  interpret :  The  word  Inca  fignifies  as  much  as  Lord ,  or  King,  or  Emperour, 
though  in  its  ftrid  fenfe,  it  is  one  of.  the  Royal  bloud  5  and  therefore  the  Curacas 
though  they  were  great  Lords,  yet  they  were  not  called  Ii&u  .■  Polk  fignifies  a 
Lady  of  the  Royal  Bloud  -,  and  lb  for  diftindion  of  the  King  from  other  heat,  he 
was  called  Capa  inca,  which  is  as  much  as  rich ,  fole  and  fupreme  Lord.  Here- 
after; for  the  fake  of  the  curious,  we  Hull  declare  and  interpret  all  the  Royal 
Names  of  the  Men  and  Women.  Moreover  the  Indians  gave  to  this  firft  King, 
arid  his  Pofterity  the  Name  of  Tntip  Churin,  which  is  as  much  as  Child  of  the  Sun  % 
but  this  we  may  efteem  rather  a  denomination ,  proceeding  from  their  falfe  be- 
lief, than  a  true  and  proper  addition  to  his  Titles. 

CHAP.    XIV. 

Of  the  laft  Wilt  and  Tejia?nent  and  Death  of  the  firfl  Inca  ? 
Manco  Capae. 


[Anco  Capac  reigned  many  Years,  but  how  many  it  is  not  certain,  fome  lay, 
thirty,  others  forty,  employing  his  whole  time  in  thebufinefs  and  adions 
which  we  have  before  mentioned  5  and  now  finding  the  time  of  his.  death  nearly 
approaching,  he  called  his  Sons  together,  as  well  thofe  which  he  had  by  his  Queen 
Mama  Oeilo  Huaco,  as  thofe  which  he  had  by  his  Concubines,  which  made  up  a 
great  number  ^  for  as  he  told  them,  it  was  fit  that  the  Children  or  Offspring  of 
the  Sun  fhould  be  many.    He  alfo  affembled  the  Chief  of  his  Subjeds,  and  iri 
manner  of  a  Teftament  he  made  this,  long  Difcourfe  to  them.    He  recommen- 
ded to  the  Prince  his  Heir,  a  true  Love  and  AfFedion  towards  his  Subjeds, 
and  to  the  Subjeds,  Loyalty  and  Service  to  their  King,   and  Obedience  to 
the  Laws,  avouching  again,  that  this  was  one  of" thofe  Ordinances  which 
the  Sun  his  Father  had  in  a  moft  particular  manner  enjoined  unto  him.    With 
this  Lefton  he  difmifled  his  Subjeds-,    afterwards  in  private  Difcourfe  which 
he  made  to  his  Children,  he  encharged  them,  that  they  fhould  ever  remem- 
ber that  they  defended  from  the  Sun,   ana  that  therefore  they,  ought  for 
ever  to  adore  him  for  their  God  and  Father,  and  that  according  to  his  example 
they  fhould  obferve  his  Laws  and  precepts,  that  fo  their  Siibjeds  in  imitation  of 
them  might  the  more  eafily  be  induced  to  awe  and  reverence  this  Deity  I    that 
they  being  gentle  and  pious,  might  allure  the  Indians  by  Love,  and  by  the  force, 
of  Benefits,  for  that  thofe  can  never  be  good  Subjeds,  who  obey  onely  out  of 
fear-,  in  fhort,  he  told  them  that  they  fhould  manifeft  themfelves  by  their  Ver- 
tues  to  be  Children  of  the  Sun,  approving  their  words  by  their  adions  ^  fox  thofe 
ftull  never  be  believed,  who  fay  one  thing  and  perform  another,    In  fine,  he  faid, 

E  that 

%%  Roydl  Commentaries.  Book  I. 

that  being  called  by  the  Sun,  he  was  now  going  to  reft  with  him,  that  they  (hould 
live  in  Peace  and  Unity  together,  and  that  he  beholding  their  adtions  from  Hea- 
ven, would  take  care  to  favour  and  fuccour  them  in  their  extremities  and  dift.efo, 
Having  uttered  thefe,  and  other  fay ings  of  like  nature,  Manco  Capac  dyed,  leaving 
the  Prince  SimhiRoca,  hiseldeftSon,  which  he  had  by  Coya  Mama  Oello  Huaco,  his 
Wife  and  Sifter,  to  be  his  Heir  and  Succeflour.  Thofe  Sons  and  Daughters 
which  remained,  befides  the  Prince,  married  one  with  the  other  5  for  they  took 
great  care  to  preferve  that  bloud  which  they  fabuloufly  believed  to  proceed  from 
the  Sun,  clear  and  unmixed,  becaufe  they  efteemed  it  Divine,  and  was  not  to  be 
defiled  with  any  other  humane  mixture,  though  it  were  with  thofe  chief  and 
principal  Lords,  whom  they  termed  Curacat. 

The  Inca,  Sinchi  Roca,  married  with  Mama  Oello,  or  Ma?na  Cora  (as  fome  will 
have  it)  his  eldeft  Sifter ,  after  the  Example  of  his  Father,  and  his  Grandfather 
the  Sun,  who,  according  to  their  Heathenifli  Do&rine,  married  with  his  Sifter 
the  Moon.  This  Marriage  was  concluded  not  onely  for  confervation  of  the  Bioud 
in  its  pure  Chanel,  but  likewife  that  the  Inheritance ,  which  came  as  well  by 
the  Mother  as  the  Father,  might  equally  defcend  to  both  Sexes.  This  Marriage 
in  fuch  proximity  of  Bloud,  they  report,  was  a  Command  of  the  Sun,  but  that 
no  Brother  could  marry  with  the  Sifter,  except  onely  the  Prince  and  Heir  5  for  in 
all  others  this  nearneis  was  forbidden,  the  which  was  a  rule  always  obferved,  as 
we  ihall  find  in  the  fequel  of  this  Hiftory. 

The  death  of  the  inca,  Manco  Capac,  was  greatly  lamented  by  his  Subjeds  %  his 
funeral  rites  were  obferved,  and  celebrated  for  feverai  Months-,  his  Body  was 
embalmed,  that  they  might  conferve  it  by  them,  and  not  loofe  the  fight  and  pre- 
fence  of  it-,  for  they  adored  him  for  a  God,  and  Child  of  the  Sun,  fo  that  they 
facrificed  Sheep  and  Lambs ,  tame  Conies ,  Birds  and  Corn  to  him ,  conferring 
him  to  be  Lord  and  Authour  of  all  thofe  good  things  which  they  enjoyed.  What 
the  Original  of  this  Manco  Capac  might  be ,  as  far  as  I  can  guefs  by  the  nature 
and  temper  of  this  People,  he  muft  have  been  fome  Indian ,  of  a  more  elevated 
Underftanding  and  Prudence  than  ordinary,  and  one  who  had  inftru&ed  them  in 
the  way  of  living,  and  carrying  a  fubtile  manner  of  deportment  towards  them  had 
perfuaded  them  that  he  proceeded  from  the  Sun,  and  was  come  from  Heaven ; 
and  that  his  Father  had  fent  him  to  inftruct  and  beftow  benefits  upon  them.  And 
to  gain  a  greater  belief,  and  credit  amongft  them,  he  habited  himielf  in  a  different 
faftwon  to  them,  lugging  his  Ears  to  fuch  a  length,  as  is  incredible  to  any  but 
thofe,  who  have  feen  them,  as  I  have  done.  Nor  is  it  ftrange,  that  this  ignorant 
and  brutilli  People  mould  be  induced  to  believe  his  Genealogy  to  have  been  de- 
rived from  the  Sun,  fince  we  have  the  examples  in  Hiftory  of  a  irDre  refined 
People,  who  taught  the  Doctrine  of  Demons,  believing  Men  of  Wit,  and  Art, 
and  Magnanimity,  to  have  been  the  Sons  offvpiter,  and  other  Gods$  and  having 
received  good  and  benefits  from  them,  and  obferving  their  Actions  to  correfpond 
with  their  Words,  have  readily  after  their  death  beftowed  a  place  on  them  in 
Heaven ,  and  without  much  difficulty  have  been  perfuaded  ever  after  to  adore 
them  for  Deities  giving  them  a  (hare  of  Worfhip  with  their  Gods. 



Royal  Commentaries. 

BOOK    II. 

CHAP.    L 

Of  the  Idolatry  of  the  Second  Age,  and  the  Original  of  it. 

THAT  which  we  call  the  fecortd  Age,  and  the  Idolatry,  which 
was  ufed  in  it  at  that  time ,  received  its  firft.  beginning  from  the 
Jnca,  Manco  Capac,  who  was  the  firft  that  raifed  the  Monarchy 
of  the  Incas,  who  were  the  Kings  of  Peru,  and  who  in  a  direct 
Line  reigned  for  the  fpace  of  four  hundred  Years,  though  Fa- 
ther Bias  Valero,  will  have  it,  that  their  Government  continued 
between  five  and  fix  hundred.  We  have  already  declared  the  aftions  of  Manco 
Capac,  how,  and  in  what  manner  he  reduced  the  Indians  to  live  in  a  political  way 
of  Society,  teaching  them  to  fow  and  plant,  to  build  houfes,  and  provide  all  things 
conducing  to  Humane  Life:  and  how  Mama  Oello,  his  Wife,  inftrufted  the  Indian 
Women  in  the  art  of  fpinning  and  weaving ,  and  all  other  ways  of  good  Huf- 
wifery :  We  have  declared  alfo  that  it  was  this  Manco  Capac  who  taught  them  to 
adore  the  Sun,  by  reprefenting  to  them  the  many  benefits  that  he  had  conferred 
on  them,  faying  that  this  Pacha  Chamac  (which  fignifies  as  much  as  the  fuftainer  of 
all  things)  had  in  vain  exalted  them  above  the  Stars,  whom  he  had  made  their 
Siervants,  if  they  did  not  advance  his  Worfhip  above  all  other  Creatures,  and  had 
ill  conferred  his  benefits  on  them,  in  cafe  they  mould  ftoop  to  the  mean  Idolatry 
of  low  and  bafe  things,  fuch  as  Toads  and  Frogs  and  Lizards,  forfaking  the  fer- 
vice  of  that  true  Deity,  whofe  Glory  and  Brightnefs  (truck  awe  and  reverence  into 
all  Creatures. 

The  Indians,  convinced  by  thefe  arguments,  and  more  by  the  fenfible  benefits 
received,  acknowledged  the  Sun  for  their  God,  without  afmming  a  Father,  or  a 
Brother  into  fociety  with  him.  Their  Kings  they  ever  ftyled  to  be  children  of 
the  Sun ,  and  defcended  from  Heaven ,  and  adored  them  with  as  much  Vene- 
ration as  the  ancient  Gentiles,  fuch  as  the  Greeks  and  Romans,  did  their  fxpiter. 
Mars,  Venus,  &c.  Thus  the  Idolatrous  Worfhip  of  the  Sun,  and  of  the  Incas, 
as  they  believed,  defcended  from  him,  prevailed  ■-,  and  even  to  this  day  they  ne- 
ver name  their  Kings  ( the  Incas )  but  with  wonderfull  reverence  and  adoration  •-, 
fothat  if  they  be  asked,  why  they  worfhip  thofe  for  Gods  whom  they  know  to 
be  but  Men,  they  will  prefently  reply  5  that  it  is  true,  they  are  now  undeceived, 
and  can  confider  them  no  otherwife  in  reality  than  as  Men-,  yet  having  received 
fo  much  good  and  benefit  from  them,  they  cannot  efteem  them  lefs  than  of  Di- 
vine Race-,  and  did  others  appear  in  thefe  days  equal  or  comparable  to  them, 
they  would  readily  perform  the  fame  Honours  and  Adorations  towards  them. 

E  %  This 

z8  Royal  Commentaries.  Book  II. 

This  was  the  fole  and  principal  Idolatry  which  the  Incas  taught  their  Subje&s  5 
and  though  they  believed  the  Moon  to  be  Wife  and  Sifter  to  the  Sun,  yet  they 
did  not  worfhip  her  for  a  Goddefs,  nor  offer  Sacrifices,  or  build  Temples  so  her 
as  they  did  to  the  Sun  ■■,  howfoever  they  effeemed  her  with  great  Reverence  for 
the  Univerfal  Mother,  but  proceeded  no  farther,  nor  gave  her  other  Attributes 
of  Divine  Honour. 

Howfoever  their  Superftitions  were  many,  giving  heed  to  Fables,  and  Dreams, 
and  infpe&ion  into  the  Entrails  of  Beafts.  Thunder,  and  Lightenings,  and 
Thunder-bolts  they  judged  to  be  Servants  of  the  Sun,  as  we  mall  under/rand 
hereafter,  when  we  have  occafion  to  name  that  Chamber  which  was  built  in  that 
Temple  at  Cozco,  which  was  dedicated  to  the  Sun  ;  but  they  never  held  them  for 
Gods,  as  fome  of  the  Spanijh  Writers  would  have  it ;  but  rather  fear  and  dread  the 
Houfe  or  Place  where  a  Thunder-bolt  chances  to  fall;  for  they  have  ftopt  up  the 
door  of  that  Chamber  with  Stones  and  dirt,  that  (b  none  might  ever  enter  in 
there  again :  and  in  that  place  or  field  where  a  Thunder-bolt  happens  to  fall,  they 
fay  that  their  Father  the  Sun  hath  marked  out  that  place  as  unfortunate,  and  ac- 
curfed  to  common  ufe,  and  for  that  Reafon  they  cover  it  with  heaps  of  Stones, 
that  none  may  tread  or  Liample  on  it  ;  the  which  I  have  feen  and  obferved  in  the 
Palace  of  Huaynacapac  at  Cozco,  in  that  quarter  which  was  aligned  to  Antonio  Aha- 
mirano,  when  that  City  was  divided  amongft  the  Conquerors;  for  in  the  time  of 
Hftaymcapac,  a  Thunder-bolt  had  pierced  through  a  part  of  that  Pa'ace,  the  which 
was  affigned  to  my  felf  when  the  Spaniards  had  rebuilt  it  3  three  years  after  which 
another  Thunder-bolt  fell  in  the  fame  place,  and  burnt  it  wholly,  the  which  acci- 
dent confirmed  the  Indians  in  their  opinion,  that  places  in  fuch  manner  ftrucken  with 
Thunder,  were  accurfed;  and  therefore  the  Spaniards  were  in  an  Errour  when 
they  rebuilt  thofe  places,  for  they  ought  to  have  remained  void  and  neglecied. 
And  whereas  the  Hiftorians  fay,  that  they  efteemed  Thunder  and  Lightning  for 
Gods,  it  is  a  miftake*,  for  they  did  indeed  account  thofe  places  for  facred,  fay- 
ing that  their  Gods  had  by  Thunder,  and  Thunder-bolts,  and  Lightning  marked 
out  thofe  places  for  their  Worfhip,  and  therefore  not  being  to  be  prophaned  by 
common  ufe,  they  built  their  moft  famous  Temples  thereupon.  To  thefe  three 
they  gave  the  common  Name  oiTllapa,  and  for  the  fimilitude  hereunto  they  called 
all  Fire-arms  by  the  fame  word.  And  as  to  thofe  Names  which  they  give  to 
*  Thunder,  Thunder,  and  to  the  Sun  in  *  Trinity,  they  are  framed  by  the  Spaniards  themfelves 

Thunderbolt. as  tney  nave  *n  otner  tnul8s>  f°r  no  ^ucn  worcls  are  compounded  in  the  general 
'language  of  Peru,  nor  have  they  any  fuch  fignificarion  as  the  Spaniards  fanfie,  or 
would  impofe  upon  them. 


CHAP.    II. 

By  what  means  the  Incas  came  to  the  knowledge  of  the 
True  God. 

BEfides  the  Sun,  whom  they  worfhipped  for  the  vifible  God,  to  whom  they 
offered  Sacrifice,  and  kept  Feftivals,  (as  we  fhall  hereafter  declare,)  the 
Incas,  who  were  Kings,  and  the  Amautas,  who  were  Philofbphers,  proceeded  by  the 
mere  light  of  Nature,  to  the  knowledge  of  the  True  Almighty  God  our  Lord, 
Maker  of  Heaven  and  Earth,  as  we  fhall  hereafter  prove  by  their  own  words  and 
teftimonies,  which  fome  of  them  gave  of  the  Divine  Majeity,  which  they  called 
by  the  Name  of  Pachacamac,  and  is  a  word  compounded  of  Pacha,  which  is  the 
Univerfe,  and  Camac,  which  is  the  Soul;  and  is  as  much  as  he  that  animates  the 
World.    Pedro  d<  aria,  in  his  ~ 6%.  Chapter,  fays,  that  they  ailed  the  Devil 


Book  II.  Royal  Commentaries.  zy 

by  this  Name-,  but  I,  who  am  an  Indian  born,  and  therefore  better  acquainted 
with  the  Language  than  he,  know  that  they  never  took  this  name  into.their 
Mouths,  but  feldom,  and  when  they  did,  it  was  with  great  Veneration,  bowing 
their  Heads  and  Bodies,  carting  up  their  Eyes  to  Heaven,  and  then  down  to  the 
Earth,  lifting  their  hands  open  as  high  as  their  Shoulders,  and  kiffing  the  Air, 
which  were  the  common  manifestations  of  Reverence  and  Adorations ,  which 
were  in  ufe  amongft  the  Incas  and  his  People;  theSe,  and  fuch  like  demonStrati- 
ons  of  Honour  they  ufed  when  they  were  forced  to  pronounce  the  word  Pacbaca- 
mac\  but  the  Name  of  the  Sun  they  took  in  their  mouths  more  frequently,  as 
they  did  alfo  of  their  Incas,  and  with  lefs  ceremony,  and  of  their  Cm  mm,  who 
were  their  Lords,  with  a  more  indifferent  reSpect :  And  being  asked,  who  this 
Pachacamac  was,  they  anfwered,  that  it  was  He  who  gave  Life  to  the  Univerfe, 
fuftained  and  nourished  all  things;  but  becaufe  they  did  not  fee  him,  they  could 
not  know  him  ;  and  for  that  reafon  they  erected  not  Temples  to  him,  nor  offered 
Sacrifice,  howfoever  they  worshipped  in  their  Hearts,  and  esteemed  him  for  the 
unknown  God. 

Afguftinite  Curate,  in  his  fecond  Book  and  fifth  Chapter,  reports,  that  Father 
Yicemc  de  Vdverde  telling  the  King  Atahaalpa ,  that  it  was  Chrift  our  Lord  who 
created  the  World  5  he  anfwered,  that  he  knew  nothing  of  that,  but  he  was  fure 
-that  there  was  no  other  Noutifher  but  the  Sun,  whom  they  efteemed  to  be  a 
God,  and  the  Earth  their  Mother;  and  that  Pachacamac  had  created  all  things,  &c. 
whence  it  is  evident,  that  the  Indians  held  our  invifible  God  to  be  the  Creatour 
of  all  things. 

This  TruA  which  the  Indians  had  by  the  light  of  Nature  difcovered,  the  Devil 
•fiimfelf,  though  the  Father  of  Lyes,  had  much  againft  his  Will  confefled  and  con-, 
firmed  ;  for  when  he  faw  that  our  Holy  Gofpel  was  preached ,  and  that  many 
Jndians  were  baptized  •,  he  told  feme  of  his  Familiars  in  that  Vale,  which  is  now 
■called  theValley  of  Pachacamac,  (fo  named  from  that  famous  Temple  which  is 
there  dedicated  to  the  Unknown  God,)  that  the  God  which  the  Spaniards 
preached  and  he  were  the  fame,  as  Pedro  de  Cieca,  and  Geronimo  Roman  in  their 
"Writings  of  the  Weft-Indies  report :  Howfoever  they  are  miftaken  where  they 
•fey  that  the  Indians  gave  the  name  of  Pachacamac  to  the  Dev'A,  for  whom  they 
have  another  Word ,  which  is  Cupay,  which  when  they  utter,  they  fpit,  with 
other  figns  of  DeteStation-  Notwithstanding  this  Enemy  fo  far  insinuated  him- 
felf  amongft  thefe  Infidels,  that  he  caufed  himfelf  to  be  worshipped  by  them  by 
entering  into  all  thofe  things,  which  they  called  facred,  or  Holy;  for  he  lpake  to 
them  in  their  Oracles,  their  Temples,  and  the  Corners  of  their  HouSes,  calling 
himfelf  by  the  Name  of  Pachacamac;  and  by  this  (ubtilty  the  Indians  worship- 
ped every  thing  through  which  the  Devil  fpoke,  believing  it  to  be  a  Deity ;  but 
had  they  believed  that  it  was  the  Cupay,  or  Devil,  whom  they  heard,  they 
would  certainly  have  burnt  the  things  through  which  he  fpoke ,  as  they  now 
by  God;s  Mercy  do,  who  hath  gratiouily  revealed  and  made  himfelf  known 
to  them. 



go  Royal  Commentaries.  Book  II. 

CHAP.    III. 

Of  the  Crofs  which  the  Incas  preferred  in  a  Confecrated 

IN"  the  City  of  Cozco  the  Mas  had  a  certain  Crofs  of  white  Marble,  which  they 
called  a  CryfiaUine  fafpar  5  but  from  what  time  it  had  been  kept  there,  is  hoc 
certain.  In  the  year  1 5  60  I  left  it  in  the  Veftry  of  the  Cathedral  Church  of  that; 
City  -,  I  remember  it  was  hanged  upon  a  Nail  with  a  Lift  of  black  Velvet ; 
which  when  it  was  in  the  power  of  the  Indians,  it  was  hanged  by  a  Chain  of  Gold 
or  Silver,  but  afterwards  changed  by  thole  who  removed  in  This  Crois  was 
*  fquare,  being  as  broad  as  it  was  long,  and  about  three  fingers  wide.  It  former- 
ly remained  in  one  of  thofe  Royal  Apartments,  which  they  call  Huaca,  which  fig- 
nifies  a  Confecrated  place  •-,  and  though  the  Indians  did  not  adore  it,  yet  they  held 
it  in  great  veneration,  either  for  the  Beauty  of  it,  or  fome  other  reafon,  which  they 
knew  not  to  aflign :  and  fo  was  obferved  amongft  them,  untill  the  Marquefs  Don 
Frantifco  Pkarro  entred  into  the  Valley  of  Tumpiz,  when  by  reafon  of  fome  acci- 
dents which  befell  Pedro  de  Candia ,  they  conceived  a  greater  efteem  and  venera- 
tion for  it,  as  we  (hall  declare  in  its  due  place. 

The  Spaniards,  after  they  had  taken  the  Imperial  City,  they  erected  a  Church 
in  it  to  the  Almighty  God,  and  hanged  this  Crofs  in  the  Veftry  ( as  we  have 
faid )  of  that  Church,  without  other  ornament  or  ceremony,  whenas  they  ought 
to  have  placed  a  Reliqtte  of  that  nature  upon  the  High  Altar,  adorning  it  with 
Gold  and  pretious  Stones  which  abounded  in  thatCountrey :  by  which  refpecl:  to 
a  thing  which  the  Indians  efteemed  Sacred,  and  by  affimilating  the  Ordinances  of 
our  Holy  Religion,  as  ^iear  as  was  poffible,  with  thofe  which  the  Law  of  Na- 
ture had  taught  to  this  People,  preaching  and  recommending  the  Works  of 
Mercy  in  fUcn  ftyk,  as  the  Do&rine  of  thefe  Gentiles  did  teach  and  allow  -,  the 
leflons  of  Chriftianity  would  thereby  have  become  more  eafie  and  familiar,  and 
not  feemed  fo  far  eftrariged  from  the  Principles  of  their  own  Gentilifm. 

And  becaufe  we  have  here  mentioned  the  Crofs,  on  which  it  is  ufual  for  us 
to  fwear  in  our  Courts  of  Judicatory  ,  we  mail  take  this  occafion  to  fay,  that 
neither  the  Mas  themfelves,  nor  yet  any  of  the  Nations  under  their  Dominions 
did  ever  know  the  meaning  of  an  Oath,  for  Swearing  was  not  a  cuftome,  nor  in 
nfe  amongft  them.  For  though  the  Names  ofPachacamac  and  the  Sun  were  ta- 
ken fometimes  into  their  mouths,  yet  it  was  always  with  reverence  and  adora- 
tion :  For  when  they  examined  Witnefles  in  the  moft  important  cafes  whatfbever, 
the  Judge ,  inftead  of  an  Oath ,  did  onely  ask  the  Witnefs ,  If  he  promifed  to  fpea{ 
the  Truth  to  the  Inca  ?  And  then  his  Anfwer  was,  That  he  did  promlfe :  Then  pro- 
ceeded the  Judge ,  See  that  thou  declare  the  Truth  without  any  difguife  of  filfhood,  not 
concealing  any  thing  that  pajfed,  or  that  which  thou  knorveft.     This  was  all  the  formality 

they  ufed  in  giving  teftimony  •,  the  which  they  fo  religioully  obferved,  that  with 
fcruple  and  tendernefs  they  uttered  Truth  in  its  nakednefs  and  fimplicity :  And 
in  cafe  any  perfon  did  give  a  falfe  teftimony  in  matter  of  importance,  his  crime 
was  punimable  with  Death  •,  not  onely  in  confideration  of  the  damage  he  had 
done  to  the  injured  perfon,  but  of  his  fallhood  to  the  Ma,  who  had  made  it  one 
of  the  Royal  Commands,  That  he  mould  not  lye  •,  and  it  was  a  common  and 
known  principle ,  that  what  a  perfon  declared  to  the  Judge,  he  wknefled  to  the 
Ma  himfelf,  who  being  reverenced  by  them  as  a  God,  they  believed  it  impolfi- 
ble  to  conceal  any  thing  from  his  fcrutiny  and  knowledge. 

After  the  Spaniards  had  conquered  this  Empire,  there  happened  a  remarkable 
cafe  of  this  kind  upon  an  enquiry  about  Murther  in  che  Province  of  JZuecbuas. 
The  Chief  Juftice  of  Cotco  fent  an  Officer  to  take  the  teftimony  of  a  certain  Cu- 
raca,  (which  is  as  much  as  a  Lord  over  many  Subjects-,)  and  in  performance 
hereof  the  Officer  reached  to  him  the  top  of  his  Staff,  on  which  was  4  Crofs, 


Book  II.  Royal  Commentaries.  o 

laying,  Thou  [wear  eft  to  God  and  to  this  Crofs,  to  fpeakjhe  Truth  :  To  which  the  In- 
diva  replied>  That  he  was  not  as  yet  Baptized,  and  therefore  ought  not  to  fveear  after  the 
manner  of  the  Chriftians  :  Then,  faid  the  Officer,  thou  may  ft  [wear  by  thy  own  Gods,  by 
the  Sun,  and  Moon,  and  the  Incas  :  No,  (aid  the  Curaca,  we  never  [wear  by  thefe,  for 
it  is  not  lawful!,  we  onely  take  their  Names  in  our  mouths  with  Adoration,  and  in  a  Religious 
Worftjip  :  It  is  fufficient,  that  fine  e  you  come  to  doe  fuftice  in  the  Name  of  your  King,  that 
Ipromife  to  fpeai^  the  Truth  with  as  much  Jincerity,  as  if  he  were  perfonally  prefent,  whom 
you  reprefent,  and  no  other  manner  of  Oath  do  our  InC3S  require  from  us  :  And  for  your 
farther  fatisfatlion ,  I  wifh  that  the  Earth  may  fwallow  me  up  alive,  as  I  ft  and,  in  cafe  I 

[peak  not  the  Truth.  The  Officer  hereupon  urged  no  farther,  but  accepted  his  te- 
ftimony  in  this  form,  examining  him  by  certain  Interrogatories  which  were  moft 
pertinent  in  reference  to  the  Murther  \  which  when  he  had  done,  he  would  have 
proceeded  no  farther :  but  the  Indian  could  not  fatisfie  his  own  confeience  with 
the  Anfwers  he  had  made  to  the  demands,  without  enlarging  himfelf  by  a  parti- 
cular Narrative  of  the  whole  Story  •,  For  tofpeak^the  Truth  (faid  he)  infome  things, 

and  to  be  filent  in  others,  was  the  fame  as  if  he  had  lied  in  all.     After  which  the  Officer 

returned  to  Cow,  where  this  Dialogue  between  him  and  the  Curaca  gave  fubjed 
of  much  difcourfe; 

CHAP.    IV. 

Of  the  things  facrificed  to  the  Sun  5  and  that  the  Priefts, 
Rites,  Ceremonies  and  Laws  were  aU  taught  and  deli- 
vered by  the  firft.  Inca. 

TH  E  things  offered  to  the  Sun  were  of  divers  forts :  the  chief  and  principal 
Sacrifice  was  that  of  Lambs  •,  but  befides,  they  offered  all  forts  of  cattel,  as 
Sheep  and  barren  Ewes,  tame  Conies,  all  forts  of  Birds  which  were  eatable,  the  fat 
of  Beafts,  Pulfe,  all  forts  of  Grane,  the  Herb  Cuca,  even  cloths  of  the  belt  and 
fineft  forts  •,  all  which  they  burnt  in  the  place  of  Incenfe,  rendring  thanks  and  ac- 
knowledgments to  the  Sun,  for  having  fuftained  and  nourilhed  all  thole  things  for 
the  ufe  and  fupport  of  Mankind.  They  ufed  alfo  Drink-offerings,  which  were 
made  of  Water  and  Mayz,  which  is  their  fort  of  Wheat  •,  and  at  the  end  of  their 
ufual  meals,  when  drink  was  brought  •,  (  for  they  did  never  ufe  to  drink  between 
their  eatings )  at  their  firft  draught  they  dipped  the  tip  of  their  finger  in  the  mid- 
dle of  the  cup,  and  looking  up  to  Heaven  with  great  reverence,  with  a  fillip  they 
fpirted  off  the  drop  of  water  which  wetted  their  finger .  which  was  by  way  of 
acknowledgment  for  it  to  the  Sun,  rendring  him  thanks  for  the  water  they  drank  3 
and  giving  two  or  three  empty  kifles  to  the  Air,  which  ( as  we  have  faid )  was 
a  fign  of  Adoration  amongft  the  Indians  -,  they  then  drank  up  their  liquour  with- 
out farther  ceremony. 

This  laft  Ceremony  I  have  obferved  the  Indians,  in  my  time,  who  were  not 
baptized  to  ufe ,  for  there  were  many  old  men  not  then  baptized  •■,  and  for  necef- 
fity,  and  want  of  a  better,  I  have  often  my  felf  performed  that  fundion.  In  this 
manner  we  may  fee  that  the  Incas  in  their  forms  of  Sacrifice  differed  very  little 
from  thofe  of  the  firft  Age,  onely  they  abftained  from  the  Offerings  of  humane 
fleih  and  bloud  5  which  Inhumanity  they  not  onely  detefted,  but  made  Laws  a- 
gainft  it :  And  whereas  fome  HiftorLms  charge  them  with  this  unnatural  and 
prodigious  Religion ,  for  their  errour  was  caufed  by  not  making  a  due  diftin&ion 
between  the  firft  Age,  and  the  times  of  the  Incas. 

I  my  felf  can  atteft,  that  I  have  heard  my  Father,  and  others  of  his  time,  in 
their  difcourfes  about  the  Cuftoms  and  Government  of  Mexico  and  Pe ra  to  com- 

; i        t    -r  •    i  "     i  *      ■■  ■      f    -i 

3i  Royal  Commentaries^  BodK  IL 

mend  and  praife  the  Incat  of  Peru  for  difallowing  the  Sacrifices  of  humane  bloud  - 
and  on  the  contrary^  to  blame  and  abhor  thofe  o(  Mexico  for  fuffering  and  making 
lawfull  fuch  Diabolical  Worships,  and  Sacrifices,  both  within  and  without  their 
Gity ,  as  the  Hiftory  of  the  Conqueft  of  that  Countrey  doth  truly  aver  5  which 
being  wrote  by  the  Pen  of  the  General  who  made  the  Conquefts,  was  moft  cer- 
tainly authentick  and  true,  and  did  deferve  to  have  been  owned  by  him,  that  fo 
they  might  have  carried  as  great  authority  with  them,  as  the  Commentaries  did 
Of  ftilitu  c<efar,  for  having  his  Name  affixed  to  them. 

At  the  entrance  into  their  Temples,  or  at  the  time  of  their  being  there  the 
Chief  amongft  them  clapped  his  hands  to  his  eye-brows,  pulling  fome  of  the' hairs 
from  thence,  which  he  blew  towards  the  Idol  in  token  of  reverence :  And  this 
fort  of  Adoration  they  neVer  ufed  towards  their  hcas,  but  onely  to  Idols,  or  Trees 
or  other  tilings  into  which  the  Devil  entred  and  fpoke  to  them  $  the  fame  was' 
pradifed  by  their  Priefts  and  Sorcerers,  before  they  entred  into  corners  and  fecrec 
places  to  difcourle  with  the  Devil,  imagining  that  by  fuch  fubmiffion  and  refig- 
nation  of  their  Perfons,  they  obliged  their  Familiar  to  hear  and  anfwer  them 
And  of  this  Idolatry  I  can  give  teftimony,  becaufe  I  have  feen  it  with  my  own 

All  the  Priefts  of  the  Sun,  in  the  City  of  Cozco,  were  of  the  Bloud-Royal 
though  for  the  inferiour  Officers  of  it,  fuch  others  were  afligned,  as  had  gained  the 
privilege  of  being  called  Incas.  Their  High  Prieft  was  either  to  be  Brother  or 
Uncle  to  their  King,  or  fome  other  of  neareft  Bloud  5  their  Priefts  ufed  no  Veft- 
ments  different  from  others.  In  other  Provinces,  thofe  which  were  Natives,  or 
related  to  the  Principal  men,  were  made  Priefts,  though  the  Chief  Prieft  amongft 
them  was  an  Pica,  that  matters  might  bear  fome  conformity  with  the  Imperial 
City  5  which  rule  was  alfo  obferved  in  all  Offices  relating  to  War  and  Peace,  that 
fo  the  Natives  might  have  their  fhare  in  the  Government,  and  not  feem  to  be 
flighted  or  neglected.  They  had  alfo  fome  Houfes  for  Virgins,  which  profefled  a 
perpetual  Virginity,  where  they  ever  remained  Reclufes :  of  which ,  and  of  the 
King's  Concubines,  we  (hall  have  occafion  hereafter  to  treat  more  at  large. 

All  thefe  Laws  in  Government,  and  Rites  in  Religion,  they  pretend  for  the 
greater  authority  of  them  to  have  received  from  their  firft  Inca,  Manco  Capac  3  and 
that  where  Matters  were  imperfect,  it  was  left  to  his  Succeffburs  to  eftablifh  and 
complete :  For  as  they  affirm  that  thefe  Laws,  both  in  Religion  and  Govern- 
ment, were  derived  from  the  Sun,  and  infpired  by  him  into  his  Children  the  In- 
cos ;  fo  it  is  hard  to  affirm,  to  whom  in  particular  fuch  and  fuch  Laws  were  to  be 

CHAP.    V. 

The  Divifion  of  the  Empire  into  four  Parts,  and  of  the  Regi- 
fters  kep  by  the  Decurionsy  and  what  their  Office  was. 

TH  E  hcM  divided  their  Empire  into  four  Parts,  which  they  called  Tavxn- 
tinfuyu,  and  fignifies  the  four  Quarters  of  the  Heavens,  w*.  Eaft,  Weft, 
North  and  South.  The  City  of  Cozxo  they  efteemed  the  Point  and  Centre  of  all, 
2nd  in  the  tnMtm  Language  is  as  much  as  the  Navel  of  the  Earth ,  for  the  Coun- 
trey of  Peru  being  long  and  narrow,  in  fafhion  of  a  Man's  body,  and  that  City 
In  the  middle ,  it  may  aptly  be  termed  the  Navel  of  that  Empire.  To  the  Eaft- 
ward  they  called  the  Countrey  Antifuyn,  from  the  Province  Ami,  which  extends 
all  along  that  great  Mountain,  which  runs  through  the  fnowy  defert  Eaftward. 
To  the  Weftward  they  called  the  Countrey  Cuntifuyu,  from  that  fmall  Province 
tvhich  is  called  Cmti  5  to  the  Northward  lies  the  Province  Chincha,  and  to  the 


Book  II.  Royal  Commentaries.  33 

Southward  the  Countrey  Colla,  which  extends  it  felf  to  the  Zur.  In  thefe  four 
Provinces  are  comprehended  many  great  Countries,  and  amongft  the  reft  .the 
Kingdom,  of  Chic,  which  contains  about  600  Leagues  in  length  towards  the  Zury 
and  is  within  the  Province  of  Colla  5  and  the  Kingdom  of  J>lmta,  which  is  with- 
in the  Divifion  of  Colla,  runs  400  Leagues  to  the  Northward :  So  that  to  name 
thofe  Quarters,  is  as  much  as  to  fay,  Eaft  and  Weft,  &c  according  to  which,  the 
principal  ways  leading  to  the  City  were  fo  called. 

The  Incas  laid  one  method  and  rule  in  their  Government,  as  the  beft  means 
to  prevent  all  mifchiefs  and  diforders  5  which  was  this,  That  of  all  the  people  in 
every  place,  whether  more  or  fefs,  a  Regifter  fhould  be  kept ,  and  a  Divifion 
made  of  ten  and  ten ;  over  whicli  one  of  the  ten,  whom  they  called  the  Decu- 
fion,  was  made  Superiour  over  the  other  nine  ■■>  then  every  five  Divifions  of  this 
nature  had  a  Decurion  over  them,  to  whom  was  committed  the  charge  and  care 
of  fifty ;  then  over  the  two  Divifions  of  .fifty  a  Superiour  Decurion  was  confti- 
tuted  to  fupervife  a  hundred ;  fo  five  Divifions  of  a  hundred  had  their  Captain 
which  commanded  five  hundred  •-,  and  laftly,  ten  Divifions  had  their  General 
over  a  thoufand  -7  for  no  Decurion  had  a  greater  number  to  govern  or  account  for  •-, 
the  charge  of  one  thoufand  being  efteemed  a  fufficient  care  for  any  that  by 
his  Under-Orflcers  would  undertake  to  account  for  his  people,  and  rule  them 

The  Decurions  of  ten  had  a  double  duty  incumbent  on  them,  one  was  with 
diligence  and  care  to  fuccour,  and  fuftain  thofe  which  were  under  their  Divi- 
jfton.  j  giving  an  account  to  his  Superiour  Officer,  in  cafe  any  of  them  ihould  be 
in  want  or  nec^ffity  of  any  thing  •,  as  of  Corn  to  fow  or  eat,  or  Wool  to  cloath 
them,  or  Materials  to  re-build  their  houfes,  deftroyed  by  fire,  or  any  other  acci- 
dent, or  fhould  fall  into  any  extremity  whatsoever.  His  other  duty  was  to  be 
Cenfor  Morum,  or  Monitor  of  their  actions,  taking  notice,  and  giving  information 
of  the  faults  and  irregularities  of  thofe  under  him ,  which  he  was  to  report  to 
his  Superiour  Officer  •-,  who,  according  to  the  nature  of  the  Mifdemeanour,  had 
the  power  of  punifhment  •,  howfoever,  the  lower  Officers  had  power  to  chaftife 
the  lefler  defaults  ^  that  fo  for  every  petty  Mifdemeanour,  they  needed  not  to  have 
recourfe  to  the  Superiour,  or  General  of  them  all  •-,  whereby  delays  in  Law- fu  its 
were  avoided,  and  long  procefles,  which  tire  and  confume  the  people,  were  fpee- 
dily  ended  •,  and  litigious  Caufes  and  vexatious  Adrians  determined  without  Ap- 
peals from  one  Judge  to  another  -,  and  in  cafe  of  publick  differences  between  two 
Provinces,  they  were  always  decided  by  the  definitive  fentence  of  one  Juftice, 
which  the  Inca  conftituted  by  a  fpecial  Commilfion. 

What  Officer  foever,  either  of  higher  or  lower  degree,  that  was  negligent  or 
remifs  in  his  duty  incurred  a  penalty  agreeable  to  the  nature  of  his  default.  If 
he  adminiftred  not  the  affiftence  required,  or  neglected  to  Indict  an  Offender, 
though  it  were  but  the  omiffion  of  one  day  without  a  lawfull  excufe  •,  he  was  not 
onely  liable  to  anfwer  for  his  own  default,  but  to  receive  the  puniihment  due  to 
the  crime  of  the  Offendour.  And  in  regard  every  one  of  thefe  Decurions  had 
a  Superiour  over  him,  who  eyed  and  watched  his  actions,  they  were  all  diligent 
in  their  duties,  and  impartial  in  their  juftice ;  no  vagabonds  or  idle  perfons  durft 
appear,  or  trefpaffes  were  committed  •,  for  the  Accufation  was  readily  brought  in , 
and  the  puniihment  was  rigorous,  which  in  many  fmall  'cafes  was  even  capital  •-, 
not  fo  much  for  the  fin  it  felf,  as  for  the  aggravation  thereof,  being  committed 
againft  the  Word  and  Command  of  the  Inca,  whom  they  refpe&ed  as  a  God  ; 
and  though  the  Plaintiff  or  the  injured  perfon  were  willing  to  let  fall  his  Suit,  and 
remit  the  penalty  to  the  Offendour  •■,  yet  the  courfe  of  the  Law  will  ftiU  proceed, 
impofing  a  puniihment  agreeable  to  the  quality  of  the  crime,  either  death,  or 
ftripes,  or  banifhment,  or  the  like. 

In  Families  ftricl:  feverity  was  obferved  to  keep  their  Children  within  the  rules 
of  modefty  and  decent  behaviour :  for  there  were  Laws  even  againft  the  ill  man- 
ners of  Children ;  for  whofe  mifcarriages  the  Decurion,  as  well  as  the  Father, 
was  refponfible :  So  that  the  Children  of  the  Indians,  who  are  naturally  of  a  gen- 
tle and  complying  temper,  are  educated  in  great  awe,  and  made  modeft  by  the 
correction  and  example  of  their  Parents. 

In  times  of  War  the  Generals  and  Captains  afiumed  the  fame  power  over  their 
Souldiery,  and  took  the  fame  care  of  them,  as  the  Decurions  did  in  the  time  of 
Peace,  whofe  Offices  (befides  the* matters  before 1  mentioned)  obliged  them  to 

F  take 

54  Royal  Commentaries*  Book  II. 

-         -  .■■!■-■  ...       ■  -        .-. 

take  an  account  of  the  Births  and  Burials  of  all  thofe  that  were  born,  or  died 
that  year,  under  their  jurifdi&ion,  and  of  thofe  who  went  to  the  War.  Thofe 
people  whom  they  conquered,  though  fubdued  by  force  of  Arms,  yet  they  did 
never  plunder  or  take  away  their  goods. 

This  word  Decurion,  which  is  compofed  from  the  Latin  Decern,  which  is  ten 
and  cura  care  --,  that  is,  a  care  over  ten  ■-,  anfwers  dire&ly  to  the  Indian  word  Chun- 
ca  camayu,  chunca  fignifying  ten,  and  camajH  care  •,  and  by  information  of  thefe  the 
he  as  came  to  a  knowledge  of  the  number  of  their  Subjects  in  every  Province, 
that  fo  according  thereunto  they  might  proportion  the  Taxes  and  Impofitions  fof 
publick  Works ,  fuch  as  the  building  of  Bridges,  making  and  repairing  High- 
ways, ere&ing  Forts  and  Royal  Palaces,  with  what  number  of  Souldiers  they 
ought  to  ferve  the  Inca  in  his  Wars.  By  thefe  computations  alfo  the  Inca  was 
.  better  enabled  to  fend  Provifions  into  thofe  Provinces,  which  by  reafon  of  tie 
fterility  of  the  year  occafioned  by  Flouds,  or  unfeafonable  weather,  were  become 
wanting  of  Corn,  or  Cottons,  or  Wool  \  all  which  were  adminiftred,  and  fent 
with  fuch  readinefs  and  expedition,  that  as  Bias  Valera  often  fays,  the  Incas  took 
fuch  care  of  their  Subjects,  providing  for  them  in  all  their  neceffities,  that  they 
might  rather  be  ftyled  Fathers  of  their  Countrey,  and  Guardians  of  their  Pupils 
than  Kings  over  Subjects  %  and  to  exprefs  this  care  in  one  word,  the  Indians  gave 

them  the  title  of  Lovers  of  the  Poor. 

And  left  the  Superiour  Governours  mould  be  remifs,  or  negligent,  in  the  exe- 
cution of  their  Offices ;  there  was  a  Monitor  or  Remembrancer  appointed,  called 
Tucuy-ricoc,  which  is  as  much  as  a  Supervifor  or  Informer  -,  and  his  duty  it  was  to 
put  the  Officers  in  mind  of  the  matters  relating  to  their  Government  -7  fo  that  in 
cafe  any  of  thefe  fliould  be  found  remifs  in  his  charge,  or  guilty  of  any  crime, 
his  punilhment  was  always  proportioned  to  his  quality,  rather  than  his  fault  \  it 
being  an  opinion  amongft  them,  that  the  leaft  evil  was  not  to  be  tolerated  in  a 
Minifter  of  Juftice,  who  was  chofen  by  the  Sun  and  the  Inca  to  eradicate  Evils, 
and  therefore  was  obliged  to  be  more  upright  and  obfervant  of  the  Laws,  than 
the  other  Subje&s. 

CHAP.    VI. 

Of  certain  Laws  Ordained  by  the  Incas,  and  of  the  Opinion, 
That  the  Incas,  and  thofe  of  the  Royal  Bloud,  can  doe  no 
wrong,  or  of  end  contrary  to  Law. 

PEcuniary  Mulcts,  or  Confifcation  of  Goods,  were  never  impofed  by  the  In* 
cas  in  way  of  punifhment  for  any  offence,  they  efteeming  nothing  fatisfac- 
tory  to  Law  but  that  which  required  the  extirpation  of  the  Evils,  rather  than  the 
Life  of  the  Offendour ;  for  that  all  other  remedies  give  but  onely  encouragement 
and  liberty  to  tranfgrefs.  If  a  Curaca,  or  Lord,  rebelled,  which  was  always  pu- 
nilbed  with  moft  feverity  by  the  Inca ;  and  that  thereby  he  forfeited  his  life ;  the 
Eftate  nctwithftanding  defcended  to  his  Son,  or  to  his  Heir,  but  with  due  admo- 
nition, that  by  fuch  example  he  fliould  beware  of  the  Treafon  and  Rebellion  of 
his  Father  ■,  fo  likewife  if  any  Cacique,  or  Officer  was  deprived  of  his  place,  or  his 
Seigniory  for  faults  committed,  the  next  Heir  fucceeded  in  it,  whether  he  were  a 
Son  or  a  Brother :  the  fame  rule  alfo  was  obferved  amongft  the  Souldiery,  whofe 
Commanders  were  Natives  of  the  Countrey,  and  their  Generals,  or  chief  Com- 
manders, were  Princes  of  the  Bloud ,  under  whom  the  Captains  and  Superiour 
Officers  efteemed  it  for  a  particular  honour  and  favour  to  ferve.  No  Judge  had 
power  to  moderate  the  Sentence  of  Law  by  any  Rule  of  Equity,  but  rather  to 


Book  II.  Royal  Commentaries,  25 

exact  the  feverity  of  it,  for  being  ordained  by  the  Wifedom  of  the  Ikcm,  and  the 
concurrence  of  Wife  men ,  it  ought  neither  t©  be  controlled,  or  rendred  more 
equitable  by  the  fenfe  and  practice  of  particular  Judges,  who  are  capable  of  be- 
ing corrupted,  or  overcome  by  favour  or  affection  to  a  party. 

And  though  it  may  feem  very  barbarous  and  unreafonable  that  every  offence 
fhould  be  punilhed  with  Death ,  and  that  there  Should  be  no  difference  between 
the  crimes  of  a  higher,  and  the  faults  of  a  lefler  nature ;  yet  considering  the  be- 
nefit which  the  Publick  received  thereby,  and  that  the  Evils,  rather  than  the  Per- 
sons, were  taken  away  ;  luch  a  constitution  ought  not  to  be  efteemed  unjuft  or 
irrational :  For  in  regard  that  men  naturally  love  life,  and  fear  and  abhor  death, 
they  ftudioufly  fled  from  the  appearance  of  any  thing  which  might  bring  them 
within  the  danger  of  it  -,  fo  that  in  all  this  great  Empire,  which  reaches  1 300 
Leagues  in  length,  consisting  of  divers  Nations  and  Languages,  we  fcarce  have 
heard  in  the  fpace  of  a  whole  year,  fo  much  as  of  the  punilhment  of  a  Single 
peribn :  and  to  this  obedience  and  fubmiffion  to  Law ,  the  opinion  of  the 
Sanctity  of  it  did  much  avail ;  and  the  belief,  that  it  was  delivered  by  the 
Sun ,  who  was  their  God ,  and  by  revelation  inipired  into  the  minds  of  the 
Incas  his  children  ^  fo  encreafed  the  veneration  and  honour  they  had  for  it,  that 
none  could  be  efteemed  a  breaker  of  the  Law,  but  who  alSo  therewith  was 
guilty  of  facrilege  or  violation  of  the  holy  and  divine  Sanction.  Hence  it  was, 
that  many  finding  a  remorfe  of  confcience  within  themfelves,  in  fenfe  of  fome 
iecret  faults  they  had  committed,  have  often,  without  accufation,  presented  them- 
felves before  the  Tribunals  of  Juftice,  confeffing  publickly  their  offences  •■,  by  rea- 
fon  of  which ,  difeafes,  deaths  and  diftrefles  had  befallen  their  People  and  Na- 
tion ;  and  therefore  defired  that  their  lives  might  be  offered  to  their  God,  as  an 
expiation,  and  an  attonement  for  their  fin.  This  fort  of  confeflion  was  the  ground 
of  the  miftake  of  certain  Spanijb  Hiftorians,  who  report  that  Auricular  confeffion 
was  practifed  amongft  the  Indians 5  whereas  I  am  certain,  that  amongft  thofe  of 
Peru,  (for  I  treat  of  no  other)  it  was  never  accuflomary  to  make  other  ConfeiTions, 
than  fuch  as  were  publick.  No  Appeals  (as  we  have  faid )  were  allowable  in  any 
cafe  whatfoever,  for  every  people  having  its  proper  Judge,  no  Procefs  was  to  con- 
tinue longer  than  five  days  before  it  was  finally  determined :  onely  in  obfcure  and 
difficult  cafes  the  matter  was  brought  before  the  Superiour  Governour,  who  refi- 
ded  in  the  capital  City,  rather  than  before  the  common  Judge  of  the  Province. 
The  Inferiour  Judges  rendred  every  month  an  account  to  their  Superiours  of  all 
the  Law-lints  which  were  brought  before  them,  and  of  the  Sentences  they  gave 
in  the  determination  thereof }  to  the  end,  that  they  might  fee  and  judge  whether 
true  Sentence  were  given ,  and  the  Laws  rightly  adminift red.  This  information 
from  one  to  another  came  at  length  to  the  Inca  %  and  in  regard  they  were  not  as 
yet  arrived  to  the  knowledge  of  Letters,  they  gave  thefe  Informations  to  the  In- 
cas and  his  fupreme  Council  by  way  of  Knots  of  divers  colours  tied  in  a  filken 
twift,  the  colours  being  as  fo  many  cyphers,  denoting  the  crimes  they  had  puni- 
fhed,  and  the  bignefs  of  them ,  and  manner  of  making  them  up  Signified  that 
Law  which  was  executed  (as  we  (hall  hereafter  more  particularly  declare)  and 
in  this  manner  by  way  of  Knots,  they  kept  all  their  accounts  fo  exactly,  and  fum- 
med  them  up  with  fuch  readinefs,  that  to  the  great  admiration  of  the  Spaniards, 
their  bed  Arithmeticians  could  not  exceed  them. 

It  is  an  opinion,  and  held  for  a  certain  truth  amongft  them,  that  diere  never 
was  Inca  of  the  Royal  Bloud  that  was  punifhed,  or  that  any  of  them  did  ever 
commit  a  crime,  which  incurred  the  penalty  of  the  Law  :  For  that  the  principles 
they  received  from  their  Parents,  the  example  of  their  Anceftours,  and  the  com- 
mon belief  of  the  World,  that  they  were  the  Progeny  of  the  Sun,  born  to  in- 
struct others,  to  doe  good,  and  to  refrain  the  people  from  Vice,  were  confidera- 
tions  that  made  fuch  impreffions  in  them,  that  they  were  rather  the  ornament 
than  the  fcandal  of  Government ,  difdaining  to  ftoop  to  fuch  bafe  and  mean  acti- 
ons, as  were  tranigrefiions  of  their  Law :  The  truth  is,  they  wanted  the  tempta- 
tions which  others  had  to  offend^  for  neither  the  defire  of  women,  or  richnefs, 
or  revenge  could  be  motives  to  them :  For  in  cafe  any  one  of  them  entertained 
a  paffion  for  the  Beauty  of  a  Woman,  it  was  but  to  fend  for  her ;  and  She  could 
not  be  denied,  nay  rather  her  Parents  would  receive  the  propofal  with  humble 
acknowledgments,  that  the  Inca  would  vouchfafe  to  caft  his  eye  on  his  handmaid 
that  was  his  Slave.  The  like  may  be  faid  as  to  the  defire  of  Wealth,  they  had  no 

F  *  neceffities 

2 6  Royal  Commentaries.  Book  II. 

neceflities  but  what  were  readily  fatisfied  -,  for  being  Children  of  the  Sun,  all  the 
Wealth  and  Riches  of  their  Ccuntrey  was  efteemed  their  inheritance,  and  their 
occafions  were  fatisfied  by  the  Mandates  fent  to  the  Juftices,  and  the  Governours 
of  Provinces  for  a  fupply.  Nor  were  they  liable  to  the  unworthy  paffion  of  Re- 
venge, for  none  could  provoke  them  to  anger  by  injuries,  who  fought  all  ways  and 
means  to  pleafe  and  oblige  them,  for  being  adored' as  Gods,  it  was  efteemed  blafphe- 
my  and  facrilege  to  difgrace  them  by  Words,  or  injure  them  in  their  Eftates  ■-,  and 
therefore  it  may  be  faid,  that  never  was  Indian  punilhed  for  difrefpecT:,  or  a  mali- 
tious  a<ftion  againft  the  Perfon  of  an  /«  Hence  it  is  that  the  Spanifh  Hiftorians 
have  reported,  that  an  Ima  was  not  capable  of  being  punilhed  for  any  Offence  what- 
ever •,  which  is  a  miftake,  and  is  as  much  as  to  fay,  that  the  Imas  were  Libertines, 
that  they  might  be  arbitrary,  and  by  Law  ad  againft  it-,  or  that  there  were  one 
Law  for  them,  and  another  for  their  People:  whenas  an  Ima  was  rather  expofed 
tp  the  greater  feverities,  than  any  others  for  he  forfeited  his  Privileges,  was  de- 
graded of  the  Honours  due  to  the  Royal  Bloud,  and  efteemed  for  Ama,  which  is 
as  much  as  a  Traytor  and  a  Tyrant.  Thus  when  the  Spaniards  commended  and 
applauded  the  juft  and  generous  aftions  of  the  Imas,  the  Indians  would  make  an- 
fwer,  that  it  was  not  ftrange,  in  regard  they  were  Imas ;  and  if  they  difapproved 
at  any  time  their  proceedings,  as  in  the  cafe  of  Atahnalpa,  who  by  Treafon  and 
Rebellion  dilpoflefTed  Hxafiar,  his  elder  Brother,  and  true  Heir  to  the  Monarchy, 
(as  we  (hall  relate  in  its  due  place,)  their  Reply  was,  that  no  Ima  could  be  guilty 
of  fuch  Enormities,  and  if  lie  were,  he  was  no  true  born  Ima,  but  fome  Baftard 
or  Impoftour  of  that  Family. 

In  every  Province,  according  to  the  four  Divifions,  the  Ima  conftituted  his  dif- 
ferent Councils  of  War,  of  Juftice,  and  of  his  Treafury;  every  one  of  which 
maintained  their  fubordinate  Officers,  one  under  the  other,  even  to  the  Decurions 
of  Ten,  all  which  in  their  refpe&ive  places  rendred  an  account  to  their  immediate 
Officers,  till  the  Report  came  to  the  fupreme  Council.  The  chief  Governour  of 
every  Divifion  had  the  Title  of  a  Vice-King,  and  were  always  Imas  of  the  true 
Bloud,  and  Men  approved  for  Prudence  and  good  Conduct,  both  in  the  time  of 
War  and  Peace.  And  fo  much  fhall  fuffice  to  have  fpoken  concerning  their 
Laws  and  Cuftoms :  We  fhall  now  proceed  to  the  Hiftory  of  their  Lives  and 
Actions,  relating  thofe  matters  which  are  moft  famous  and  obfervable. 

CHAP.    VII. 

Of  the  Life  and  Reign  o/Sinchi  Roca,  [econd  King  of  the 

Slwhi  Roca  fucceeded  his  Father,  Mamo  Capac ;  this  name  Roca  is  pronounced 
with  fome  afpiration  at  the  top  of  the  Mouthy  and  as  Bias  Vakra  fays,  figni- 
fies  a  prudent  and  experienced  Prince;  Simhi  fignihes  valiant-,  for  though  he  had 
no  Wars  with  any,  yet  becaufe  he  was  a&ive  in  wreftling,  running,  vaulting, 
throwing  the  ftone  and  lance,  and  excelled  all  others  of  that  age  in  thofe  Exer- 
cifes,  he  was  furnamed  the  Valiant  and  Magnanimous. 

This  Prince  having  performed  thofe  Obfequies  which  were  due  to  the  folemni- 
ty  of  his  Father's  Interment,  took  upon  himfelf  the  Crown  of  his  Kingdom,  which 
was  no  other  than  the  coloured  Wreath,  bound  about  his  Temples  j  determining 
in  the  firft  place  to  inlarge  the  Borders  of  his  Dominions,  he  aflembled  the  prin- 
cipal CuracM  and  Counfellours  which  his  Father  had  affigned  him,  and  in  a  grave 
and  ferious  Oration,  amongft  other  things,  he  told  them,  that  in  performance  of  the 
Will  of  his  Father,  (which  he  declared  to  him  at  the  time  he  was  about  to  re- 
turn to  Heaven)  he  refolved  to  go  in  Perfon,  and  fumrnon  the  neighbouring  Na- 

Book  II.  Royal  Commentaries.  27 

tions,  to  come  in,  and  be  converted  to  the  knowledge  and  adoration  of  the  Sun-, 
and  in  regard  they  had  the  lame  Title  of  Incas ,  as  well  as  their  King,  he  concei- 
ved that  the  fame  Obligation  lay  upon  them,  to  ferve  the  Sun,  who  w  as  the  com- 
mon Parent  of  them  all ,  and  therefore  required  them  to  join  with  him  in  the 
fame  work  and  defign  5  that  lb  they  might  reduce  thole  People  from  their  brutilh 
and  beftial  courfe  of  living  to  a  Life  more  regular  and  rational;  for  that  they  fee- 
ing the  improvements  which  the  inft ructions  of  his  Father,  the  Inca,  had  made 
in  his  own  Subjects,  might  be  more  eafily  allured  to  forfake  their  old  barbarous 
Cuftoms,  and  embrace  thofe  which  are  more  beneficial  and  refined. 

Hereunto  the  Gtracas  gave  this  ready  and  chearfull  Anfwer,  that  they  were  not 
onely  willing  to  obey  bis  Commands  in  this  particular,  but  even  to  enter  into 
the  fire  for  his  fake-,  and  lb  ending  their  Dilcourfe,  they  prefixed  a  day  to  begin 
their  Journey:  and  accordingly  the  Inca  departed  with  a  great  Retinue  of  his  Sub- 
jects, taking  his  Journey  by  the  way  o£  Collafuyu ,  which  lies  to  the  Southward 
from  the  City  Ce^a 5  and  as  they  travelled,  they  perfuaded  the  Indians  with  fair 
words  to  follow  their  Example,  and  to  become  Subjects  to  the  Inca,  and  Devota- 
ries  to  the  Sun,  uniting  with  them  in  Religion  towards  their  God,  and  Allegiance 
to  their  Prince.  Thole  Indians  which  are  of  the  Nations  called  Puchina  and  Can- 
chi,  and  are  the  next  borderers,  being  a  People  very  fimple  and  credulous,  (as  in- 
deed all  the  Indians  are,)  feeing  the  effects  which  the  her.  had  operated  on  his  own 
Subjects,  which  was  the  beft  argument  to  convince  them,  they  immediately  fub- 
mifted  to  his  Government;  and  thus  by  degrees,  during  the  whole  courfe  of  this 
Inca's  Reign,  without  violence  or  force  of  arms,  in  a  gentle  and  peaceable  manner 
he  reduced  all  the  People,  as  far  as  Chuncara,  which  is  about  twenty  Leagues  in 
length,  with  the  Inhabitants  of  the  parts  adjacent  xo  his  Subjection,  over  all  which 
he  prevailed  fo  far,  as  to  plow  and  cultivate  their  Lands,  to  lead  a  moral  Life  ac- 
cording to  the  Rules  of  the  light  of  nature,  and  that  forfaking  their  Idols,  and  evil 
cuftoms  which  they  practifed,  they  fhould  worfhip  the  Sun,  and  obferve  thofe 
Laws  and  Precepts  which  by  Revelation  his  Facher,  Manco  Capac,  had  delivered 
to  them ;  all  which  the  Indians  readily  accepted  and  embraced,  being  highly  fatis- 
fied  with  that  benefit  and  improvement  which  the  Dominion  and  Rule  ot  sincbi 
Roca  had  brought  unto  them,  who  after  the  example  of  his  Father ,  ftudied  all 
ways  and  means  to  endear  that  People  to  himfelf. 

Some  Authours  report  that  this  King  proceeded  much  beyond  the  Countrey  of 
Chuncara,  and  extended  his  Dominions  over  the  Nations  of  Cancalk,  Ruruchachi, 
Affiliu ,  Afancatu ,  Huancani ,  and  others  \  all  which  he  gained  with  fuch  gentle 
treatment,  that  he  needed  not  Wars,  or  other  Arms,  than  perfuafions  to  invite 
them  3  ufing  thefe  new  plantations,  as  good  Gardiners  doe  their  Orchards ,  pru- 
ning and  digging  about  their  Trees,  in  hopes  of  plenty  and  abundance  of 

Sinchi  Roca  having  thus  lived  in  peace  and  quietnefs  for  the  fpace  of  many  years, 
and,  as  fome  will  have  it,  for  about  thirty,  finding  himfelf  at  length  decaying  and 
aged,  he  declared  that  now  after  the  labours  and  cares  he  had  taken  to  reduce  men 
to  the  knowledge  of  his  Father  the  Sun,  he  was  now  going  to  take  his  reft  and 
repofe  with  him.  His  lawfull  Son,  by  his  legitimate  Wife  and  Sifter,  Mam*  Cora, 
(or  as  others  will  have  it,  Mama  Oc/io,)  ailed  LUque  Tupanqui,  he  left  to  fucceed 
him,  as  Heir  to  all  his  Dominions :  Befides  this  Prince  he  had  other  Sons  by  his 
Wife,  and  more  Children  by  his  Kinfwomen ,  who  were  his  Concubines,  all 
which  we  may  call  legitimate.  Moreover  he  had  many  Baftard  Children  by  Wo- 
men of  other  Families,  all  which  was  allowable  according  to  the  rule,  and  faying, 
that  it  was  fit  and  requifite  that  the  Generation  and  Family  of  the  Sun  mould  be 
many  and  numerous. 


a8  Royal  Commentaries.  Book  IF. 


Of  the  Third  Kifig  Lloque  Yupanqui,  and  the  fignificatiori 
of  his  Name. 

LLoque  Yupanqui  was  the  third  King  of  Peru,  called  Lloque,  becaufe  he  was  left- 
handed,  and  Yupanqui  ferves  to  denote  his  Vermes  and  generous  Actions. 
The  word  Yupanqui  (ignihes  as  much  as  an  account,  or  reckoning ,  as  we  fay  a 
Man  of  Account,  which  is  a  Cypher,  or  Hieroglyphick ,  in  that  language,  for  a 
film  of  Vermes,  as  Clemency,  Piety,  Gentlenefs,  &c.  all  which  were  qualities 
inherent  in  that  Perfon,  and  is  as  comprehenfive  as  the  word  Capac,  which  con- 
tains the  Riches  of  Fortune ,  and  the  Wealth  of  Vermes,  inherent  in  the  mind, 
which  Apellations,  or  rather  Titles,  they  gave  to  none  of  their  chiefeft  Lords, 
but  to  the  King  onely,  it  being  efteemed  a  kind  of  Sacrilege  to  attribute  (uch 
facred  Titles  to  any  other :  for  as  the  Romans  gave  the  name  o^Auguflw  to  their 
Emperours,  in  a  particular  diftinction  to  all  others  •■>  fo  it  would  have  been  a  di- 
minution to  their  Majefty  to  have  made  this  peculiar  Name  common  to  their 

Lloque  Yupanqui  having  taken  a  furvey  of  his  Dominions,  refolved  to  extend  his 
Jurifdiction  farther  than  the  Pofleflions  of  his  Fathers ,  and  being  now  the  Lord 
of  an  Empire  which  had  been  eftablifhed  and  radicated  for  the  fpace  of  feventy 
years,  he  thought  it  a  more  expedite  way  by  force  of  Arms  to  reduce  that  People, 
than  by  the  flow  infinuations  which  arguments  and  perfuafions  made  upon  them. 
To  this  end  having  raifed  an  Army  of  about  fix  or  feven  thoufand  men,  under  the 
conduct  of  his  two  Uncles,  and  of  his  other  Kindred,  whom  he  made  Captains, 
and  Commanders  over  them,  he  took  his  march  towards  the  Countrey  of  Oreo- 
fuyu,  leaving  that  of  Llmafnyu,  which  his  Father  had  already  conquered,  (thefeveral 
ways  to  which  divide  in  the  Province  of  Chuncara)  he  palled  through  the  divifion 
ofCo/lafuyu,  which  contains  the  great  Lake  olTitkaca. 

The  inca  having  parted  the  frontiers  of  his  own  Dominions,  entered  the  Coun- 
trey called  Cana;  and  immediately  difpatched  MefTengers  to  the  natural  Inhabi- 
tants thereof,  requiring  them  to  leave  their  beftial  Sacrifices  and  fuperff  itious  man- 
ners, and  with  all  readinefs  to  fubmit  unto  the  Obedience  and  Service  of  him 
who  was  defcended  from  the  Offspring  of  the  Sun :  The  People  of  Cana  defired 
time  to  inform  themfelves  of  all  the  particulars  which  the  Inca  commanded  them, 
as  what  were  his  Laws,  and  what  were  the  Gods  which  he  enjoined  them  to  wor- 
fliip  •,  in  all  which  when  they  had  been  well  inftructed,  they  readily  confefled 
that  their  Religion  and  Laws  were  better,  and  more  rational  than  their  own,  and 
therefore  with  a  general  confent  they  yielded  and  fubmitted  to  them,  and  fb  went 
forth  to  receive  their  King  with  Joy,  and  acknowledge  themfelves  his  obedient 
Subjects.  The  Inca  leaving  Perfons  with  them  to  inftruct  them  in  his  Idolatry, 
and  to  teack  them  the  way  of  manuring  and  cultivating  their  Land  •,  he  proceeded 
forward  to  that  Nation  which  is  called  Ayviri:  but  thefe  being  a  ftuidy  anditub- 
born  fort  of  People,  were  not  to  be  wrought  upon  by  perfuafions,  and  pr^-nifes, 
or  by  the  example  of  others  ^  but  obftinately  perfiired  in  a  refolution  to  dye  in 
the  defence  of  their  Liberties ,  which  was  a  new  difficulty  and  oppofition  that 
the  Incat  had  never  as  yet  encountred.  Thus  both  fides  preparing  for  War,  they 
came  to  an  ingagement,  which  lafted  long,  there  being  many  killed  both  on  one 
fide  and  the  other;  and  being  at  length  as  it  were  a  drawn  Battel,  and  the  Victo- 
ry doubtfull,  both  Armies  retreated  into  fart  places,  which  they  had  fortified  after 
their  own  manner,  fallying  out  every  day  to  Skirmifhes  and  fingle  Combats.  The 
People  of  the  Inca  avoided  fighting  what  they  were  able,  defiring  rather  to  over- 
come them  with  reafons  and  perfuafions,  than  by  force  of  Arms ;  but  the  Ayviri 
interpreting  tlris  backwardnefs  of  the  Inca  to  be  an  effect  of  Cowardife,  became 
more  obftinate ,  and  encouraged  to  prefs  harder  upon  him ,  fo  as  almoft  to  enter 


Book  If.  Royal  Commentaries.  39 

his  Royal  Tents-,  but  their  force  was  repelled  with  force,  and  were  always  repul- 
fed  with  loft  and  difadvantage.    The  Inca  confidering  well  the  (name  and  dilho- 
nour  it  would  be  to  him  to  be  foiled  by  this  People  5  for  that  others  by  their 
Example  might  take  courage  to  rebell  and  refift  him  5   he<!ifpatched  immediate 
Orders  for  new  recruits  to  be  fent  him ;  but  thele  he  defigned  rather  for  terrour 
and  oftentation,  than  neceflity,  and  in  the  mean  time  he  ftraitned  the  Enemy  fo, 
that  there  being  a  great  fcarcity  ofallProvifions  amongft  them,  they  were  com- 
pelled at  length  to  make  their  way  by  force  of  Arms  ■-,  the  Battel  was  very .  hot 
and  bloudy,  many  being  killed  and  wounded  on  both  fides,  till  at  length  the  Aya- 
viri  being  worded,  never  dilrft  (hew  their  Faces  any  more  in  Battel.    The  foot, 
not  being  willing  to  take  this  advantage  to  deftroy  them  utterly  endeavoured  ra- 
ther by  Famine  to  reduce  them  to  his  Obedience.    During  which  Siege  the  re- 
cruits which  the  Inca  had  fent  for,  arrived  in  his  Camp,  the  Report  of  which  fo 
difmayed  the  Enemy ,  that  they  immediately  furrendred  and  fubmitted  to  the 
Mercy  of  the  fwwg  who  firft  having  feverely  reproved  them  with  bitter  termes, 
for  having  refifted  the  Offspring  of  the  Sun,  he  pardoned  their  Contumacy  and 
Rebellion  •,  and  leaving  Officers  and  Inftru&ours  to  teach  them  in  the  ways  of  Re- 
ligion and  humane  Living,  and  to  require  from  them  that  riches  which  they  had 
forfeited  to  the  Sun  and  the  Inca,  he  proceeded  againft  that  People  which  they 
call  Pucara.  In  this  Countrey  he  built  a  Fortrefs,  for  better  defence  of  his  Frontiers 
and  confcrvation  of  his  Conquefts-,  and  the  rather,  becaufe  the  fituation  of  the 
place  being  by  nature  ftrong,  was  by  Art  and  Induftry  rendred  impregnable,  and 
ferved  to  reduce  the  People  of  Pucara,  which  were  by  no  other  means  to  be  fub- 
dued,  but  by  a  War 5  which  having  done,  and  furniihed  his  Fortrefs  with  a 
ftrong  Garrifon,  he  returned  with  great  Joy  and  Triumph  unto  Cozco, 

CHAP.    IX. 

The  Conquejl  of  Hatun  Colla ,  and  the  Fables  which  thofe 
of  Colla  report  concerning  their  Original. 

MAny  Years  had  not  pafled  before  Lloque  Tupanqul  returned  again  to  the  fron- 
tiers of  his  Conquefts,  that  he  might  make  a  farther  progrels  in  reducing 
the  Indians ,  and  enlarging  his  Dominions.  The  Report  which  the  Incxt  had 
fpread  from  their  beginning*  of  being  fent  from  the  Sun  to  inftrudt  and  reduce 
Mankind  from  a  beftial  way  of  living  to  Rules  of  Morality  and  Political  Society, 
had  made  preparation  in  all  places  for  reception  of  their  Doctrine,  and  became 
moft  plaufible  and  prevalent  in  the  minds  of  thofe  People,  who  knew  not  how  to 
difcover  that  ambition  of  the  Incat,  which  they  had  concealed  under  the  fpecious 
principle  of  the  Sun's  Commands :  with  this  pretence  the  Inca.  fent  to  raife  eight 
or  nine  thou  find  men  well  armed  5  and  having  fet  Officers  over  them,  and  chofen 
Counfellours  for  himfelf,  he  pafled  the  Countrey  of  Co/lafiyu,  and  at  length  arri- 
ved at  his  Fortrefs  called  Pucara,  where  afterwards  that  great  overthrow  was  given 

tO  Francifco  Hernandez  Giroit\    which  is  fince  Called  the  Battel  of  Pucara:    from 

thence  he  fent  Am  afladours  to  Paucar  colla ,  and  Hatun  colla,  (which  are  Coun- 
tries of  a  large  extent,  containing  divers  Nations)  requiring  them  to  yield  ready 
Submiffion  and  Obedience  to  him  •,  and  that  being  admonifhed  by  the  example 
of  the  Ayavirl)  they  fhould  fear  to  oppofe  the  Progeny  of  the  Sun,  left  the  like 
punifliments  of  Famine  and  Slaughter  fhould  be  the  rewards  of  their  Rebellion. 
The  People  of  Colla  gave  ear  to  this  admonition,  and  aflembling  their  Chiefs  or 
moft  principal  Men  amongft  them  in  Hatun  Colla,  which  is  Colla  the  great  j  they 
generally  concluded,  that  all  thofe  Plagues  and  Mifchiefs  which  had  befallen 


40  Royal  Commentaries.  Book  II. 

the  Ayaviri,  and  thofe  of  Pwara,  was  fent  from  Heaven,  as  a  judgment  for  ha- 
ving refilled  the  Children  of  the  Sun  •,  and  therefore  with  unanimous  confent 
they  declared  themfelves  Vaflals  of  the  l»cay  that  they  would  adore  the  Sun, 
and  obferve  and  keep  all  thofe  Laws  and  Ordinances  which  he  ihould  impofe 
upon  them  •■,  and  with  this  intention  they  went  out  to  meet  the  hca,  and  received 
him  with  Acclamations,  and  with  new  Songs,  and  Muiick,  which  they  had  fra- 
med and  compofed  for  this  occafion- 

The  Ma  received  their  Curacy  with  many  kind  and  obliging  Expreflions*  and 
to  evidence  the  efteem  he  had  of  them,  he  beftowed  on  every  one  of  them  gar- 
ments which  belonged  to  his  own  Perfon,  with  other  Prefents,  very  acceptable ; 
and  in  procefs  of  time  afterwards  thefe  two  People,  and  their  Pofterity,  were 
ever  highly  favoured  by  the  A«f,  efpecially  thofe  of  Hatun  ColU,  both  for  the 
readinefs  with  which  they  embraced  the  Worfliip  of  the  Sun,  and  for  their  doa- 
ble and  gentle  Nature,  which  encouraged  the  Incat  to  build  magnificent  Temples 
in  their  Countrey,  and  found  Monafteries  for  Virgins ,  which  were  matters  of 
high  admiration  amongft  the  Indians  t 

The  Colin  confift  of  many  and  divers  Nations,  and  report  that  their  firft  Pa- 
rents  iflued  from  the  great  Lake  Titkaca,  which  they  eft eemed  to  be  their  Mother  5 
and  before  the  times  of  the  Ami,  amongft  other  Gods,  they  offered  Sacrifices  to 
this  Lake  upon  the  Banks  of  it.  Some  of  them  report  that  their  Parent  proceeded 
from  a  great  Fountain,  others  that  their  Anceftours  iiTued  from  Caves,  and  the  hol- 
low of  Rocks,  and  accordingly  at  certain  feafons  they  offered  their  Sacrifices  to  them  5 
others  that  they  originally  iflued  from  a  certain  River,  and  therefore  held  that  the 
Fifh  of  it  were  facred,  and  that  it  was  a  fin  to  eat  them.  In  this  manner  fbme  adored 
one  Deity,  and  fome  another,  howfoever  becaufe  that  that  People  abounded  much 
in  flocks  of  Sheep,  they  had  one  God  common  to  them  all,  which  was  a  white 
Ram,  faying,  that  there  was  a  great  fheep  in  the  higher  World,  for  fo  they  call 
Heaven,  which  had  a  particular  care  of  them,  giving  them  a  greater  increafe  and 
number  of  Sheep,  than  to  any  other  of  the  neighbouring  People  of  Pm*;  and  for 
that  reafon  they  offered  up  Lambs,  and  the  fat  of  Mutton  to  this  Sheep-faced  Deity. 
But  this  God,  and  all  others,  the  Inck  took  from  them,  allowing  them  no  other 
but  the  Sun,  whom  he  encharged  and  commanded  them  without  any  other  Rival 
to  adore  and  worfliip^  befides  which  he  altered  that  infamous  Cuftome  of  Diflb- 
lutenefs  and  Incontinence  amongft  finale  Women,  to  whom  it  was  lawfull,  and 
a  laudible  quality  to  be  common  Whores  before  their  Marriage,  though  after- 
wards they  were  obliged  to  be  true  and  faithfull  to  one  Husband.  But  as  to  thofe 
Fables  which  relate  the  Original  of  thefe  People,  the  Incas  took  no  pains  or  care 
to  confute  them^  for  as  they  were  obliged  to  believe  the  defcendence  of  the  Incas 
from  the  Sun  •,  lb  the  Incas  in  like  manner  would  not  feem  to  difapprove  the 
Fables  and  Reports  they  made  of  their  own  Original. 

Having  laid  thefe  foundations  of  Government  and  Religion  the  Incx  returned 
again  to  Cozeo,  giving  a  flop  for  the  prefent  to  his  Conquefts  and  Proceeding  7  for 
it  feemed  to  be  the  moft  reafonable  Policy  to  give  time  and  fpace  for  thefe  new 
Subje&s  to  tafte  the  fweetnefs  and  lenity  of  the  Ma,  and  by  their  own  experi- 
ence to  make  report  of  it,  and  publifti  it  to  the  neighbouring  Nations ,  that  fe 
they  might  be  more  eafily  induced  to  embrace  the  like  advantage:  rather  than 
overpowering  all  by  cruel  and  hafty  conque.'ls,  their  Government  lhould  appear 
tyrannical,  and  partaking  of  an  ambitious  and  covetous  Spirit. 


Book  II.              Royal  Commentaries.  41 

,_,         ,,  ■■  —         "  ■  ■ ■    ■-■■■■■     II!      ■       I       I         I  IM  „_^^ ,,  ,■■— ,     - 


CHAR    X. 

The  great  Province  of  Chucuytu  fur  rentiers  on  terms  and 
conditions  of  Peace,  and  after  the  example  thereof  many 
other  Provinces  [ubmit. 

TH  E  Ixca  was  received  at  Cozco  with  all  the  demonftrations  of  joy  and  tri- 
umph imaginable  ■■,  where  having  rqfided  fa-  the  fpace  of  fome  years,  which 
he  employed  towards  the  advancement  of  the  common  good  and  benefit  of  his 
people  ■,  he  re-aflumed  his  intentions  of  vifiting  again  the  Confines  of  his  Domi- 
nions, that  fo  he  might  afford  his  people  the  contentment  of  feeing  his  Perfort, 
and  rectifying  the  corruption  and  negligence  of  his  Minifters  by  his  own  perfonal 
appearance.  With  this  occafion  he  raifed  an  Army  of  ten  thoufand  Men,  and 
with  them  marched  to  Hatun  Colla,  and  the  Confines  of  Chacuytu,  which  is  fo  fa- 
mous a  Province,  and  fo  abounding  with  people,  that  when  the  Spaniards  divided 
that  Countrey,  they  prefented  that  parcel  of  ground  to  the  Emperour.  So  foon 
as  the  lnca  was  entred  into  Chacuytu,  he  fent  Meflengers  to  the  Inhabitants,  that 
leaving  their  ancient  cuftoms,  they  (hould  receive  the  Laws  and  Commandments 
of  the  Sun,  and  (hould  worfhip  and  adore  him  for  their  God :  And  they,  in  due 
compliance  hereunto,  anfwered,  That  they  were  ready  and  willing  with  all  affec- 
tion and  cordiality  to  receive  his  Injunctions  •,  for  that  he  being  defcended  from 
the  Sun,  they  were  well  allured  of  his  gentlenefs  and  vermes,  and  therefore  with 
ail  joy  they  received  him  for  their  Sovereign,  under  whofe  ihadow  and  protecti- 
on they  promifed  to  themfelves  all  happinefs  and  fecurity.   . 

The  I»ca,  according  to  accuftomed  goodnefs,  received  them  gratioufly,  pre- 
fenting  them  with  fuch  gifts  as  were  in  efteem  amongft  thofe  Indians .-  And 
finding  the  fuccefs  of  thefe  mefiages  to  anfwer  his  expectations,  he  was  encoura- 
ged to  fend  the  like  Summons  to  all  the  Neighbouring  Nations,  as  far  as  that 
place,  where  the  Lake  T'ticaca  empties  it  felf  ■-,  all  which,  after  the  example  of 
Hatun  Co/la  and  Chucuytu  fubmirted  themfelves  ■-,  the  moft  principal  of  them  were 
HUlavi,  Chulli,  Pumata  and  Cipita  ^  all  which  furrendred  on  the  fame  terms,  and 
with  the  fame  formalities  that  the  others  did  ■■,  fo  that  there  is  no  need  to  make 
repetition  of  the  queftions  formerly  demanded,  nor  the  anfwers  thereunto. 

Having  in  this  peaceable  manner  fubjecled  thefe  people,  he  disbanded  his  Ar- 
my, giving  them  leave  to  return  unto  their  refpedtive  homes  •-,  onely  lie  retained 
fb  many  Souldiers  as  ferved  for  a  guard  to  his  Perfon,  and  as  many  as  became  the 
dignity  and  honour  of  his  State  •-,  together  with  fuch  as  were  fit  to  teach  and  in- 
ft met.  them  in  the  Religion  and  Laws  they  were  to  obferve  •,  and  that  he  might 
yield  more  vigour  and  encouragement  to  this  work,  he  was  pleafed  to  attend  and 
affift  herein  with  his  own  prefence -,  which  being  accounted  a  particular  demon- 
ftration  of  his  favour  to  thofe  principal  Provinces,  proved  afterwards  of  great  ufe 
and  benefit,  as  we  (hall  hereafter  make  appear  in  the.  fequel  of  this  Hiftory.   And 
what  did  farther  oblige  the  Curacas  and  others  to  the  lnca,  was  his  perfonal  refi- 
dence  amongft  them  for  the  whole  Winter-feafon,  during  which  time  his  employ- 
ment was  to  fettle  and  eftablifh  himfelf  in  the  affection  and  good  will  of  hi? 
people  •,  having  now  by  his  own  experience  learned,  that  the  beft  expedient  to 
invite  and  allure  ftrangers  to  his  fubje&ion  was  Love  and  Beneficence  to  his  own 
people :  For  by  thefe  means  the  Indians  did  every-where  extoll  the  Excellencies  of 
their  Prince,  and  proclaim  him  to  be  a  true  child  and  off-fpring  of  the  Sun.  And 
now  whilft  the  lnca  refided  in  Coliao,  and  that  the  Spring  was  returned,  he  again 
raifed  an  Army  of  ten  thoufand  Men,  over  which  he  conftituted  four  Colonels, 
and  appointed  his  Brother  to  be  their  General,  ( whofe  name  is  not  certainly 
knowR>  to  all  five  of  which,  he  gave  fpecial  order  not  to  ufe  violence,  or  break 

G  peace 

4%  Royal  Commentaries.  Book  II. 

peace  with  the  people,  unlefs  in  cafe  of  abfolute  neceifity  ■■,  defiring  rather,  accor^ 
aing  to  former  examples,  to  reduce  them  by  gentle  and  moderate  terms,  than  by 
war  and  feverity,  mewing  themfelves  rather  companionate  Parents,  than  Martial 
Captains.  Accordingly  this  General  and  Officers  proceeded  in  their  defign  Weft- 
ward,  as  far  as  that  Province  which  is  called  Hurin  Pacajfa ,  and  with  profperous 
fuccefs  reduced  all  thofe  they  met  for  the  fpace  of  20  Leagues,  as  far  as  to  the 
foot  of  the  Mountain  Cordillera,  and  the  fiiowy  defarc.  In  reducing  thefe  Indians, 
there  was  little  or  no  difficulty,  becaufe  they  were  a  people  which  lived  at  large, 
without  Political  Society  or  Government,  the  weaker  giving  way  to  the  pride 
and  power  of  him  that  was  ftrongeft  5  and  being  by  nature  fimple  and  credulous, 
fo  foon  as  the  fame  was  fpread  of  the  Miracles  which  were  performed  by  this 
Child  of  the  Sun,  they  all  flocked  in  to  be  received  for  Vaflais  to  this  great  and 
wonderfull  Monarch :  Howfoever,  three  years  were  fpent  in  the  reducing  Of  thefe 
people,  for  they  were  of  fo  dull  and  ftupid  a  genius,  that,  like  beafts,  they  were 
not  capable  to  comprehend  or  learn  thofe  eafie  rudiments  and  principles  which 
were  inftilled  into  them.  Having  completed  this  conqueft,  Officers  were  placed 
for  their  better  government,  with  Inftrudors  to  teach  them,  and  fuch  Comman- 
ders and  Souldiers  as  might  ferve  to  protect  and  defend  them  5  and  fo  the  Gene- 
ral and  four  Captains  returned  to  render  an  account  to  the  he  a  of  their  Ads  and 
Negotiations,  who  all  that  time  was  employed  in  vifiting  feveral  Countries  of 
his  Dominions,  where  he  encouraged  their  induftry,  improved  them  in  their 
Arts,  and  in  cultivating  Lands  --,  railing  publick  Edifices,  and  making  Aqueducts, 
Bridges  and  High-ways  for  the  better  communication  of  one  Nation  with  ano- 
ther. After  which  he  returned  with  his  Captains,  whom  he  gratioufly  received 
unto  his  Imperial  Court,  with  intention  to  fix  a  term  and  limit  to  his  proceedings, 
for  having  enlarged  his  Dominions  40  Leagues  to  the  Northward,  and  more 
than  20  towards  the  Eaft,  he  judged  this  addition  a  fufficient  encreafe  for  his 

His  reception  into  Cozco  was  with  wonderfull  joy,  for  his  liberality  and  gentle 
nature  was  generally  obliging  •,  the  remainder  of  his  life  he  patted  in  quietnefs  and 
repofe,  performing  actions  of  Juftice  and  Beneficence  towards  his  Subjeds  5  du- 
ring which  time,  he  fent  Mayta  Capac  his  eldeft  Son  and  Heir  twice  to  vrfit  his 
Dominions,  accompanied  with  Wife  and  Aged  men,  that  fo  he  might  know  and 
be  known  to  his  people,  and  might  have  fome  trial  and  pradke  in  affairs  before 
he  came  to  handle  the  Government.  And  now  the  foca  finding  himfelf  weak, 
and  near  his  end,  he  called  his  eldeft  Son,  with  his  other  Brethren,  and  in  man- 
ner of  his  laft  Will  and  Teftament,  he  earneftly  recommended  to  them  the  ob- 
feiration  of  thofe  Laws  and  Ordinances  which  their  Anceftours  had  prefcribed ; 
that  they  fhould  take  care  of  their  Subjeds,  and  in  every  thing  behave  themfelves 
like  thofe  that  are  worthy  of  fo  pure  and  bright  a  Family,  as  that  of  the  Sun : 
And  laftly,  he  encharged  the  Incai,  who  were  Captains ,  and  the  Curacat,  who 
were  Lords  of  the  people,  that  they  mould  be  mindfull  of  the  Poor,  and  obedi- 
ent to  their  Prince ;  and  efbecially  that  they  fhould  live  in  peace  and  unity,  for 
that  now  he  was  to  leave  them,  being  called  by  his  Father  the  Sun  to  afcend  un- 
to him,  that  he  might  reft  and  defift  from  his  former  labours  and  travels.  Having 
ended  thefe  fayings,  Lloque  Tupanqui  leaving  many  Sons  and  Daughters  of  his  Con- 
cubines, though  but  one  who  was  his  true  Heir  and  Succefibur,  and  two  Daugh- 
ters by  Mama  Cova  his  lawfull  Wife,  died.  The  Death  of  this  Inca  was  greatly  la- 
mented through  his  whole  Dominions,  for  his  gentle  temper  had  gained  him  the 
aftedion  of  all,  and  Iris  Vertues  procured  him  the  efteem  of  a  God,  and  rank 
with  the  other  Children  of  the  Sun,  whom  they  Adored  for  Deities.  And  now 
for  diverfion  of  the  Reader,  we  (hall  defift  a  while  from  profecuting  the  Wars 
and  Conquefts,  which  were  almoft  all  atchieved  after  the  like  manner  with  the 
former,  and  (hall  relate  fomething  of  the  Cuftoms  they  pradifed,  and  the  Scien- 
ces they  attained. 


Book  II.  Royal  Commentaries.  a? 

CHAP.    XI. 

Of  the  Learning  and  Scie?ices  to  which  the  Incas  attained , 
and  fir  ft  of  their  Apology-. 

TH  E  improvement  which  the  Incas  had  made  either  in  Aftrology  or  Philc- 
fophy,  was  as  yet  for  want  of  Letters  very  imperfect ,  howfoever  there 
were  fome  certain  men  amongft  them  of  good  wit  and  underftanding,  which 
they  called  Ammtas  •,  who  were  fubtile  in  their  Argumentations,  and  laid  down 
certain  Phenomena  of  natural  things  •,  but  in  regard  they  were  unacquainted  with 
Letters,  they  could  leave  none  of  thofe  conceptions  they  had  formed  unto  pofte- 
rity,  unlefs  fome  few  principles  difcovered  by  the  Light  of  Nature,  which  they 
denoted  by  Glyphicks,  or  fome  uncouth  and  rude  figures  ■-,  yet  in  Moral  Philofo- 
phy  they  attained  to  a  greater  degree,  for  their  Laws,  Cuftoms  and  Practices 
were  their  daily  leflons,  and  the  doctrine  of  good  manners  being  the  work  of  the 
Magistrate,  an  eafie  and  conftant  improvement  was  made  therein. 

Of  Natural  Philofophy  indeed  they  had  ftudied^  little  3  they  knew  not  how  to 
fearch  into  the  fecrets  of  nature,  or  lay  down  the  firft  principles  of  it ;  they  knew 
not  what  the  qualities  of  the  Elements  were,  or  could  fay  that  the  Earth  was  cold 
and  dry,  and  trie  fire  hot  and  dry  •,  they  onely  obferved  the  effects  of  things,  that 
fire  would  warm  and  burn  them :  Howfoever,  they  learned  fomething  of  Medi- 
cines, and  of  the  Vermes  of  certain  Herbs  and  Plants  which  experience  and  ne- 
ceffity  had  taught  them. 

In  Aftrology  they  had  proceeded  yet  farther,  for  the  apparent  objects  of  the 
Sun,  and  Moon,  and  Stars  yielded  them  more  fenfible  matter  for  fpeculation : 
they  had  obferved  the  various  motions  of  the  Planet  Venus,  the  increafe,  full  arici 
decreafe  of  the  Moon  5  and  when  it  was  upon  the  change  and  conjunction  with 
the  Sun,  they  called  it  the  Death  of  the  Moon.  The  Sun  efpecially  afforded 
them  the  moft  profound  matter  of  fpeculation ;  they  obferved  that  by  his  motion 
the  feafons  of  the  year  were  diftinguifhed,  the  hours  of  the  day  counted,  and  the 
days  and  nights  meafured  -,  in  all  which  they  attained  not  to  a  farther  fearch  or 
confideration  than  what  was  vifible,  and  materially  prefented  it  felf  before  their 
eyes :  they  admired  the  effects,  but  laboured  not  to  penetrate  into  the  caufe,  or 
know  the  reafon  of  the  various  changes  of  the  Moon,  or  motions  of  the  Planets. 
They  called  the  Sun  Tnti,  the  Moon  Qmlla,  the  bright  Star  of  Venus,  Chafe*,  which 
fignifies  radiant ;  other  Stars  alfo  of  greater  Magnitude  they  obferved,  but  did  not 
diftinguifh  them  by  their  particular  names,  but  onely  under  that  general  denomi- 
nation of  Coyllur,  which  fignifies  a  Star.  And  yet  for  all  this  fottifh  ftupidity, 
the  Incas  had  obferved  that  the  Sun  accomplilhed  his  courfe  in  the  fpace  of  a  years 
which  they  called  Huata,  though  the  Commonalty  divided  it  onely  by  its  feafons, 
and  reckoned  their  year  to  end,  or  be  finifhed  with  their  Harveft.  The  terms 
of  Summer  and  Winter  Solftices,  they  denoted  by  the  large  characters  of  eight 
Towers,  which  they  had  erected  to  the  Eaft,  and  as  many  to  the  Weft  of  the 
City  Cozco  s  being  ranked  four  and  four  in  feveral  Pofitions,  thofe  two  in  the  mid- 
dle being  higher  than  the  other  two  at  each  end ,  and  were  built  much  in  the 
form  of  the  Watch- towers  in  Spun  .-  When  the  Sun  came  to  rife  exactly  oppo- 
fite  to  four  of  thefe  Towers,  which  were  to  the  Eaft  of  the  City,  and  to  fet  juft  a- 
gainft  thofe  in  the  Weft,  it  was  then  the  Summer  Solftice ;  and  in  like  manner, 
when  it  came  to  rife,  and  fet  juft  with  the  other  four  Towers  on  each  fide  of  the 
City ,  it  was  then  the  Winter  Solftice.  Pedro  de  Cieca  and  Jcofta,  make  mention 
of  thefe  Towers,  which  ferved  for  their  Almanacks,  and  were  the  beft  cyphers 
they  had  to  diftinguifh  their  times  and  feafons,  for  they  had  not  attained  as  yet 
to  other  meafures  by  Days  and  Months,  though  they  kept  an  account  by  Moons, 
as  we  (hall  hereafter  declare  •-,  by  which  and  by  their  Solftices  they  divided  one 
year  from  another :  thefe  Solftitial  Towers  I  left  remaining  in  the  year  1  j5o,  and 

G  *  may 

44  Royal  Commentaries.  Book  II. 

may  ftill  be  feen,  Unlefs  the  Wars  and  Alterations  have  demolilhed  thofe  dura- 
ble reliques. 

They  had  likewife  obferved  the  Equinodials  5  for  in  the  Month  of  March, 
when  they  reaped  their  Mayz,  or  Indian  Wheat,  they  celebrated  their  Harveft  with 
joy  and  feafting,  which  at  Cozco  they  kept  in  the  Walk  of  Cokan,  otherwife  called 
the  Garden  of  the  Sun.  At  the  Equinoctial  of  September,  they  obferved  one  of 
their  four  principal  Feafts ,  which  were  dedicated  to  the  Sun ,  which  they  called 
•Chua.  Raymir  5  and  then  to  denote  the  precife  day  of  the  Equinodial,  they  had 
ereded  Pillars  of  the  fineft  Marble,  in  the  open  Area,  or  place  before  the  Tem- 
ple of  the  Sun  5  which  when  the  Sun  came  near  the  Line,  the  Priefts  daily  wat- 
ched and  attended  to  obferve  what  ihadow  the  Pillars  caft  •,  and  to  make  it  the 
more  exad,  they  fixed  on  them  a  Gnomon,  like  the  Pin  of  a  Dial  •,  fo  that  lb  foon 
as  the  Sun  at  its  riling  came  to  dart  a  dired  Ihadow  by  it ,  and  that  at  its  height 
or  mid-day  the  Pillar  made  no  (hade,  but  was  enlightned  on  all  fides  \  they  then 
concluded  that  the  Sun  was  entred  the  Equinoctial  Line ,  at  which  time  they 
adorned  thefe  Pillars  with  Garlands  and  odoriferous  Herbs,  and  with  the  Saddle 
they  had  dedicated  to  the  Sun  \  faying,  That  on  that  day  he  appeared  in  this 
molt  glittering  Throne  and  Majefty,  and  therefore  made  their  Offerings  of  Gold 
and  pretious  Stones  to  him,  with  all  the  folemnities  of  oftentation  and  joy,  which 
are  ufual  at  fuch  feftivals.  Thus  the  lmM,  who  were  their  Kings  ■-,  and  the  Amau- 
■ta-s,  who  were  their  Philolbphers  •,  having  obferved,  that  when  the  Sun  came  to 
the  Equinodial,  thefe  Pillars  made  little  Ihadow  at  noon-day,  and  that  thofe  in 
the  City  of  S^jtu,  and  thofe  of  the  fame  degree  to  the  Sea-coaft  made  none  at 
all,  becaufe  the  Sun  is  then  perpendicularly  over  them  ■■,  they  concluded  that  the 
Pofition  of  thole  Countries  was  more  agreeable  and  pleafing  to  the  Sun,  than 
thofe  on  which  in  an  oblique  manner  onely  he  darted  the  brightnefs  of  his  rays  $ 
for  which  reafon  rhe  Pillars  of  £>mtn  were  had  in  fo  great  veneration  and  efteem 
amongft  them,  that  they  worshipped  and  adored  them  •,  and  therefore  Sebaflian 
de  Belakacar,  in  abhorrence  of  the  Idolatry  which  the  Indians  performed  towards 
them,  demolished  them  and  broke  them  in  pieces,  as  did  the  other  Spanifk  Cap- 
tains, in  thofe  places  of  the  fame  folary  degree,  where  this  fuperftition  pre- 

The  Months  (as  we  have  faid)  they  counted  by  Moons,  and  therefore  called 
the  Months  guilLu  $  the  Weeks  they  called  the  Quarters  of  the  Moon,  having 
no  names  for  the  Days.  They  took  great  notice  of  the  Edipfes  both  of  the 
Sun  and  of  the  Moon,  but  knew  them  onely  by  their  Effeds,  and  not  by  their 
Caufes ;  wherefore  they  were  greatly  affrighted  when  they  obferved  the  Sun  to 
hide  his  face  from  them,  believing  that  for  their  fins  he  obfcured  his  countenance, 
and  was  angry,  framing  the  like  Prognostications  of  Tamine,  Peftilence  and  Wars, 
as  our  Aftrologers  predid  from  the  influences  of  Eclipfes. 

When  they  oblerved  the  Moon  begin  to  grow  dark  in  her  Eclipfe ,  they 
faid,  (he  was  fick  •-,  and  when  (he  was  totally  obfcured,  that  (he  was  dead  •,  and 
then  they  feared,  left  (he  lhould  fall  from  Heaven,  and  overwhelm,  and  kill  them, 
and  that  the  World  Ihould  be  entirely  diflblved.  With  thefe  apprehenfions, 
fo  foon  as  the  Moon  entred  into  Eclipfe,  they  founded  their  Trumpets  and  Cor- 
nets, beat  their  Kettles,  Symbals,  and  all  the  Inftruments  which  could  make  noife 
and  found  •,  they  tied  their  Dogs  in  Strings,  and  beat  them  till  they  cried  and 
howled  ■-,  faying,  That  with  their  Voices  they  called  upon  the  Moon  •,  who  ha- 
ving received  certain  Services  from  them,  was  very  inclinable  to  hearken  to  their 
call  •,  and  that  all  thefe  varieties  of  Sounds  together  ferved  to  rowfe  and  awaken 
her,  being  fallen  into  a  drowzinefs  and  {lumber,  which  her  ficknefs  had  caufed  - 
and  then  they  made  their  Children  cry  and  call  Mama  £uilla,  or  Mother- Moon, 
Do  not  dye,  left  we  all  periih. 

Concerning  the  Spots  in  the  Moon,  they  conceived  another  Fable  more  ridicu- 
lous than  the  former ,  and  may  be  compared  with  that,  which  the  more  refined 
Ancients  framed  of  Diana,  and  that  the  Moon  was  a  Huntrefs,  though  this  feems 
more  beftial  and  abfurd  5  for  they  feigned  that  a  certain  Fox  feeing  tlie  Moon  fo 
beautifull,  fell  enamoured  of  her  •,  and  that  his  Love  gave  him  wings,  with  which 
he  afcended  Heaven  •,  and  being  ready  to  embrace  the  Moon,  (he  clofecl  and 
clung  fo  clofe  to  the  Fox,  that  ever  fince  that  time  the  Spots  have  appeared  in 
the  brightnefs  of  her  Body.  Of  all  which  particulars,  concerning  the  Moon,  I 
my  feif  have  been  an  eye-witnefs  v  The  Day  they  called  Vvnchau,  the  Night  Tnta, 


Book  II.  Royal  Commentaries.  ac 

the  Break  of  day,  or  the  Dawning,  Paean,  befides  other  proper  words  to  denote 
Noon,  Midnight,  and  other  Hours. 

Lightning,  Thunder  and  Thunder-bolts  ( as  we  have  faid )  they  gave  onely 
one  denomination  of  Y/Lipa  3  and  that  though  they  did  not  acknowledge  them  for 
•Gods,  yet  they  honoured  them  as  Servants  of  the  Sun  5  as  they  alfo  did  the  Rain- 
bow, and  bec.ufe  they  obierved  that  the  beautifull  variety  of  its  Colours  was  an 
etfecl  of  the  Sun-beams  reflecting  on  a  Cloud,  they  placed  it  in  their  Banners, 
and  made  it  the  Arms  of  their  hwas.  That  which  we  call  the  Milky- way, 
they  fanfied  to  be  an  Ewe  giving  fuck  to  a  Lamb  •,  and  have  often  fhewed  me, 
pointing  to  it,  Seefl:  thou  not  there  the  Head  of  the  Sheep  ?  and  there  the  Head 
and  Legs  of  the  Lamb  ?  But  my  imagination  was  never  fo  ftrong  as  to  fanlie  a 
creature  there  of  that  figure. 

The  force  of  their  Aftrology  did  never  reach  fo  far  as  to  make  Predictions  from 
the  Sun,  or  Moon,  or  Comets,  or  Conjunctions  of  Stars,  unleisit  were  of Tome- 
thing  of  great  and  notorious  importance,  fuch  as  the  Death  of  their  Kings,  or  the 
DeflrucTion  of  Kingdoms ;  but  rather  deduced  their  PrognofHcations  from  their 
Dreams,  or  the  entrails  of  the  Beafts,  which  they  offered  in  Sacrifice  i  But  the 
fuperlfition  they  had  of  their  Dreams  was  fo  idle  and  vain,  that  we  (hall  omit  to 
mention  them  5  the  like  they  imagined  of  the  Star  Venus ,  which  becaufe  it  ap- 
pears at  the  beginning  of  the  night,  and  again  rifes  with  the  morning,  they  fan- 
fed,  that  being  fo  bright  and  beautifull  beyond  die  other  Stars,  the  Sun  was 
pleafed  to  give  it  a  double  courfe ,  making  it  in  the  Evening  to  follow  him,  and 
in  the  Morning  to  precede,  and  be  the  meflenger  to  advife  his  approach. 

When  they  faw  the  Sun  fet  within  the  Sea,  ( as  they  may  every  night  obferve 
to  the  Weftward  from  the  Coaft  of  Tern)  they  fanfied  that  the  Waters  were 
parted  by  the  force  of  his  fire  and  heat  •■,  and  that  being  a  good  fwimmer,  he 
plunged  himfelf  into  the  Waves,  and  dived  quite  through  the  Sea  to  appear  next 
morning  in  the  Eaft.  And  (b  much  lhall  fumce  to  have  fpoken  of  theit  Aftro- 
logy 5  let  us  now  proceed,  and  fee  what  knowledge  they  had  attained  in  Phylick 
and  Medicines,  which  they  adminiftred  to  their  fick  in  their  feveral  difeafes. 

CHAP.    XII. 

Of  their  Phyfick.  ami  Medicines ,  and  how  they  allied 

THey  had  gained  fo  much  knowledge  in  Phyfick,  as  to  know,  that  Bleeding 
and  Purging  were  two  neceffary  evacuations :  the  Bloud  they  drew  from 
the  Legs,  Armes  or  Forehead  •,  and  becaufe  they  were  not  acquainted  with  the: 
Anatomy  of  the  Veins,  they  opened  that  which  was  neareft  to  the  pain  \  Their 
Lancet  was  made  of  a  (harp-pointed  Flint,fet  at  the  end  of  a  {mall  Cane  5  which  be- 
ing laid  on  the  Vein,  with  a  gentle  fillip  cuts  it  with  lefs  pain  than  our  ordinary  Lan- 
cets do :  And  as  they  are  ignorant  how  the  Veins  branch  themfelves  through  the 
whole  body,  fo  likewife  are  they  unacquainted  with  the  particular  humours,  fuch 
as  Flegm,  Choler  and  Melancholy,  and  confequently  have  not  the  judgment  to 
apply  the  mod  fpecifick  Medicines  to  purge  them :  They  moft  commonly  pur- 
ged, when  they  found  a  Plethory  of  humours,  rather  than  when  the  difeafe  had. 
prevailed  upon  them  :  the  Ingredient  which  they  ufed  in  their  Purges,  was  a  fort 
of  white  root,  in  fafhion  of  a  fmall  Turnip  $  of  which,  they  fay,  there  is  Male 
and  Female ;  of  bodi  which  they  mix  an  equal  proportion  to  the  quantity  of  a- 
bout  two  ounces,  which  they  beat  to  a  Powder,  and  take  it  in  water  or  their  or- 
dinary drink,  without  other  Herbs  or  Drugs  3  and  then  the  Patient  fets  himfelf 
in  the  Sun,  that  his  heat  and  bleffing  may  contribute  to  its  operation.    In  an 


46  Royal  Commentaries.  Book  II. 

hours  time  it  begins  to  work  with  fuch  fqueamilhnefs  in  the  Stomach,  and  fuch 
giddinefs  in  the  Head,  that  they  feel  the  fame  indifpoiition,  as  thofe  who  labour 
of  Sea-ficknefs,  and  purges  them  both  upwards  and  downwards  with  fuch  vio- 
lence, that  it  brings  away  worms,  and  all  kind  of  indigefted  matter,  notwithitan- 
ding  which,  having  finished  its  operation,  it  leaves  the  body  ftrong  and  withouc 
decay  of  Spirits,  and  with  a  fharp  and  hungry  appetite:  All  which  I  can  bold- 
ly atteft,  having  my  felf  proved  it,  and  taken  it  twice  for  a  pain  in  my  Sto- 

Thefe  Cures  by  purging  and  bleeding  were  commonly  performed  by  old  Wo- 
men, or  by  fome  certain  Botanifts,  who  in  the  times  of  the  Incas  were  famous  for 
the  knowledge  they  profelTed  in  the  virtue  of  Herbs-,  and  thefe  by  Tradition" 
transferred  the  fecrets  of  their  learning  to  their  Sons ,  who  did  not  profefs  to  be 
Phyficians  common  to  all,  but  to  apply  their  Art  onely  for  medicining  their  Kings, 
and  Curacas,  and  fuch  as  were  lineally  defcended  from  them  •,  but  the  ordinary 
People  cured  one  the  other,  by  fuch  Medicines  as  were  of  common  Report. 
When  fucking  Infants  were  fick  of  any  difeafe,  efpecially  if  it  were  a  Fever,  or 
Calenture,  they  warned  them  every  morning  in  Urine,  and  then  wrapped  them 
up,  giving  them  fome  of  their  own  Water  to  drink.  At  the  Birth  of  their  Chil- 
dren, when  the  Midwife  cut  the  firing  of  the  Navel ,  they  left  it  at  leaft  a  finger 
in  lengthy  which  when  it  fell  off  from  the  Child  of  it  felf,  they  conferved  it  care- 
fully, and  on  any  occafion  of  indifpofition,  of  which  a  whitenefs  in  the  Mouth  of 
the  Child  was  their  ufual  fymptome ,  they  gave  it  to  fuck  of  this  firing,  which 
commonly  proved  an  aflured  remedy. 

What  Reafons  they  had  for  thefe  Secrets  of  Nature  I  know  not,  nor  did  I  ever 
ask:  I  am  fure  they  made  no  conjectures  by  the  throbs  of  the  Pulfe,  much  lefe 
by  Urine,  having  no  other  Symptoms  of  a  Calenture,  than  what  appeared  by  the 
exceflive  heat  and  burnings  of  the  Body.  Their  Purges  and  bleedings  were  more 
commonly  ufed  when  the  Patient  was  but  a  little  indifpofed ,  and  was  able  to 
walk,  but  not  after  he  had  yielded  to  the  Difeafe,  for  then  they  committed  him 
onely  to  the  ftrength  of  Nature,  and  a  regular  Diet,  they  never  arrived  to  the 
knowledge  of  Clyfters,  or  to  Unguents  or  Plafters  •,  the  old  and  making  fit  of 
a  Quartan  they  called  Chucchu,  the  hot  fit  Rupar,  which  is  burning,  the  which 
Indifpofitions  they  greatly  feared  by  reafon  of  the  unealinefs  they  felt  both  by  cold 
and  heat. 


Of  their  Medicinal  Herbs-,  and  Pbyfical  Plants. 

THey  have  a  certain  Tree  which  they  cdWMnlli,  and  {hs  Spaniards  MolU,  which 
fweats  forth  a  kind  of  rafomy  juice,  which  hath  a  molt  fovereign  quality 
for  the  cure  of  green  Wounds  •-,  the  herb  or  fhrub,  called  Chilka,  being  neated  in 
an  earthen  pan,  hath  done  wonderfull  effeds  on  thofe  who  have  been  troubled 
with  a  pain  in  the  joints  and  bones,  taken  by  cold ;  they  have  a  certain  root,  like 
the  root  or  Fibres  of  Grafs,  but  fomething  grofier,  and  fuller  of  knots,  the  name 
of  it  I  do  not  well  remember,  which  they  make  ufe  of  to  ftrengthen  the  Teeth, 
and  fortify  the  Gums^  and  in  the  preparing  of  it  they  roaft  it  in  the  hot  embers, 
and  when  it  is  very  hot  they  apply  it  to  the  Gums  on  each  fide  of  the  mouth, 
keeping  it  untill  it  is  cold,  which  is  of  great  torment  to  the  Patient,  for  it  fcalds 
the  mouth  exceedingly.  This  Remedy  they  apply  in  the  Evening,  and  next 
morning  doe  the  like,  fo  that  their  Gums  and  Mouth  look  like  roafted  flefh,  and 
for  two  or  three  days  are  not  able  to  chew,  or  receive  other  nourishment  than  by 
a  fpoon ;  afterwards  the  white  fleQi  of  the  Gums,  which  hath  been  cauterized 
in  this  manner,  begins  to  fall  off,  and  a  new  and  well  coloured  fort  of  Gum , 



Book  II.  Royal  Commentaries  4.7 

ftrong  and  hard  returns,  which  fortified  the  Teeth  clofer  and  better  than  before; 
I  have  feveral  times  feen  this  proved,  and  being  willing,  though  without  neceffity, 
to  try  it  on  my  felf,  I  was  fo  fcalded  at  firft,  that  I  had  not  the  refolutlon  after- 
Wards  to  perfect  die  Experiment. 

The  herb,  or  plant,  which  the  Spaniards  call  Tobacco,  and  the  Indians  Sayri,  is  of 
admirable  ufe  in  many  Difeafes  amongft  them ,  particularly  being  taken  at  the 
Noftrils  in  fnuff,  ferves  to  purge  the  Head,  and  the  other  qualities  and  vermes  of 
it,  are  Well  known  andefteemed  in  Spain,  fo  that  they  give  it  tlie  name  of  Ttrva, 
fantta,  or  the  holy  Herb.    They  liad  alfo  the  knowledge  of  another  Herb,  of  an 
excellent  quality  for  the  Eyes,  called  Matecdu ,  it  hath  but  one  (talk ,  and  that  is 
covered  with  a  (ingle  Leaf,  and  no  more,  and  is  like  that  which  they  call  in  Spain 
Abbats  Ears,  and  grows  in  winter  upon  *  the  roofs  of  houfes  •,  the  Indians  eat  it  *  Perhaps  it 
raw,  having  a  pleafant  relilh  -,  when  it  is  bruifed  they  fpirt  fome  of  the  juice  into  the  may  be  a  fort 
Eyes,  and  at  night,  when  they  go  to  bed,  they  lay  of  the  herb,  being  bruifed,  on  ofHoufleeki 
the  Eye-lids,  binding  it  on ,  left  it  fhould  fall  off,  and  in  one  nights  fpace  it  dif- 
cufles  all  matter,  and  difperfes  thofe  miffs  which  obfcure  the  Eyes,  and  offend 
the  fight. 

I  my  felf  have  laid  it  on  the  Eye  of  a  Youth,^  which  was  fo  fwelled  and  infla- 
med, that  it  was  ftarted  out  of  his  Head  •,  the  firft  night  I  applied  it  the  Eye  re- 

turned again  to  its 
Youth  hath  fince  to 
2  Spaniard  confident 

)lace,  and  the  fecond  time  it  was  perfectly  cured;  and  the 
>d  me,  that  he  fees  better  with  that  Eye  than  the  other-,  and 
y  affured  me,  that  he  knew  one,  who  being  absolutely  blin- 
ded by  a  film  or  skin  which  covered  his  Eyes,  had  by  the  mere  application  of 
this  herb  for  two  nights  onely,  recovered  his  fight.  Thofe  who  had  received  this 
benefit  by  it,  did  afterwards  kifs  the  herb  with  great  arTe&ion,  rendring  thanks  to 
Almighty  God,  that  he  was  pleafed  to  beftow  fuch  a  fovereign  and  blefled  vir- 
tue on  this  herb,  for  the  good  and  ufe  of  Mankind.  The  Indians,  who  were  my 
Relations,  ufed  divers  other  herbs,  but  the  names  and  qualities  of  them  I  cannot 

The  Indian  Kings  did  never  attain  to  the  knowledge  of  compounded,  but  one- 
ly of  fimple  Medicines,  and  feeing  that  in  fo  neceflary  a  ftudy,  as  that  which  con- 
duces to  the  confervation  of  health,  they  made  fo  little  a  progrefs-,  how  can  it 
be  expe&ed  in  matters  lefs  important  and  ufefull,  fuch  as  Natural  Philofophy  and 
Aftrology,  they  mould  make  any  confiderable  improvement?  much  lefs  can  we 
fuppofe  them  skilfull  in  Divinity,  who  being  wholly  guided  by  fenfible  obje&s, 
were  never  able  to  raife  their  Intellects  to  invifible  and  immaterial  Beings,  more 
than  what  their  Incat  had  taught  them,  and  included  in  that  Word  of  Pachacamac, 
which  fignifies  the  Maker  of  this  Univerfe.  Since  which  time  the  Spaniards 
have  improved  their  Phyfical  Science  to  a  higher  degree ,  having  difcovered  the 
fecret  virtues  of  many  herbs  growing  in  that  hot  Climate,  of  which  the  Indians 
were  ignorant-,  and  particularly  that  the  Adayz,  which  is  Indian  Wheat,  and  of  a 
fubftantial  nutriment,  hath  moreover  a  peculiar  quality  againft  the  Collick,  and 
is  an  excellent  Remedy  for  the  Stone,  either  in  the  Kidneys  or  the  Bladder ,  and 
clears  all  obftructions  of  Urine  -,  the  knowledge  hereof  the  Spaniards  collected 
from  the  conftitution  and  temperament  of  the  body  of  the  Indians;  for  having  ob- 
ferved,  that  they  were  never  fubject.  to  thefe  diftempers,  they  concluded  that  the 
drink  which  they  commonly  ufed,  made  of  Mayz,  was  the  caufe  -,  whereof  the 
Spaniards  making  now  divers  Preparations ,  have  with  good  fuccefs  experienced 
moft  admirable  effedts  of  it  j  and  the  Indians  have  alfo  of  themfelves  made  many 
Plafters  and  Balfams  of  it ,  which  they  applied  for  Aches  and  other  Pains, 


8±  Royal  Commentaries.  Book  II. 

CHAP.    XIV. 

Of  the  Geometry ,   Geography ,    Arithmetic^  and  Mufick. 
kjiown  to  the  Indians. 

THey  had  attained  fo  much  Geometry  as  ferved  them  for  to  meafure  ouc 
their  Lands,  and  make  out  limits  and  bounds  to  their  feveral  partitions; 
but  this  was  not  done  in  an  artificial  manner,  but  by  their  lines,  and  fmall  ftones, 
which  they  ufed  in  all  their  Accounts. 

As  to  their  Geography,  they  knew  how  to  decypher  in  colours  the  Model  of 
every  Nation,  with  the  diftincl:  Provinces,  and  how  they  were  bounded-  I  have 
feen  an  exaft  Map  of  Cozco,  with  the  parts  adjacent,  and  the  four  principal  ways 
to  it,  perfectly  defcribed  in  a  fort  of  Mortar,  compounded  with  fmall  (tones  and 
ffraw,  which  delineated  all  the  places,  both  great  and  fmall,  with  the  broad  Streets, 
and  narrow  Lanes,  and  Houfes  which  were  ancient  and  decayed,  and  with  the 
three  ftreams  running  through  it,  all  which  were  defcribed  with  great  curiofity. 

Moreover  in  this  Draught  the  Hills  and  Valleys,  the  turnings  and  windings  of 
the  Rivers  were  made  to  appear  fo  plain,  that  the  beit  Cofmographer  in  the 
World  could  not  have  exceeded  it.  The  u(e  of  this  Model  was  to  inform  the 
Vifitors,  which  they  called  Damian,  of  the  extent  and  divifion  of  the  Countries, 
whenfoever  they  went  by  the  King's  Commiffion  to  furvey  the  Province,  and 
number  the  people  within  the  precindts  of  Cozco,  and  other  places-,  this  Model 
which  I  mention,  was  made  in  Mmna,  which  the  Spaniards  call  now  Mohina,  and 
is  diftant  about  five  Leagues  from  the  City  of  Cozco  towards  the  Z»r-,  the  which 
I  had  opportunity  to  obferve,  being  then  prefent  with  the  Vifitors,  who  went  to 
number  the  Indians  that  inhabited  the  Divifion  of  Garplajfo  de  Vega,  My  Lord 
and  Mafter. 

In  Arithmetick  they  knew  much,  and  were  skilled  in  a  peculiar  manner  and 
nature  in  that  Science;  for  by  certain  knots  of  divers  colours  they  fummed  up  all 
the  accounts  of  Tribute,  and  Contributions,  belonging  to  the  revenue  of  the 
Inca-,  and  thereby  knew  how  to  account,  and  difcount,  to  fubtracl:,  and  to  mul- 
tiply 5  but  to  proportion  the  refpective  Taxes  on  every  Nation  by  way  of  diviiion, 
they  performed  it  in  another  manner  by  granes  of  Alayz,  or  Pebbles,  which  ferved 
in  the  place  of  Counters.  And  becaufe  it  was  neceflary  that  Accounts  (hould  be 
kept  of  all  charges  relating  to  War  and  Peace,  that  the  People,  and  the  Flocks  and 
Herds  of  Cattle  fhould  be  numbred,  that  the  payment  of  Tributes,  and  the  like, 
(hould  be  regiftred  and  noted,  there  were  certain  Perfons  appointed  for  that  work, 
who  made  it  their  ftudy  and  bufinefs  to  be  ready  and  skilful!  in  Accounts^  and 
becaufe  perhaps  one  Perfon  was  appointed  to  keep  the  reckonings  of  three  or  four 
diftind  things,  as  Accountant  General,  which  feems  difficult  to  be  performed  by 
the  way  of  their  threads  and  knots,  we  (hall  difcourfe  it  hereafter  more  at  large, 
in  what  manner  they  diftinguifhed  their  Accounts  of  divers  bufinefles. 

Of  their  Mufick. 

In  Mufick  they  arrived  to  a  Certain  Harmony,  in  which  the  Indians  of  Colla  did 
more  particularly  excell,  having  been  the  Inventors  of  a  certain  Pipe  made  of 
Canes  glued  together,  every  one  of  which  having  a  different  Note  of  higher  and 
lower,  in  the  manner  of  Organs,  made  a  pleafing  Mufick  by  the  diflbnancy  of 
founds,  the  Treble,  Tenor  and  Bade,  exactly  correfponding  and  anfwering  c.:ch 
to  other-,  with  thefe Pipes  they  often  plaid  in  confort,  and  made  tolerable  Mufick, 
though  they  wanted  the  Quavers,  Semiquavers,  Aires,  and  many  Voices 'which 



Book  II.  Royal  Commentaries.  49 

perfed  the  Harmony  amongft  us.  They  had  alfo  other  Pipes,  which  were  Flutes 
with  four  or  five  ftops,  like  the  Pipes  of  Shepherds  •,  with  thefe  they  played  not 
in  confort,  but  fingly,  and  tuned  them  to  Sonnets,  which  they  compofed  in  meetre, 
the  Subject  of  which  was  love,  and  the  Paffions  which  arife  from  the  Favours  or 
Difpieafures  of  a  Miftrefs.  Thefe  Muficians  were  Indians  trained  up  in  that  art 
for  divertifement  of  the  heat,  and  the  Caracas,  who  were  his  Nobles,  which,  as 
ruftical  and  barbarous  as  it  was,  it  was  not  common,  but  acquired  with  great  In- 
duftry  and  Study. 

Every  Song  was  fet  to  its  proper  Tune-,  for  two  Songs  of  different  Subjects 
could  not  correfpond  with  the  fame  Aire ,  by  reafqn  that  the  Mufick  which  the 
Gallant  made  on  his  Flute,  was  defigned  to  exprefs  the  fatisfadion.  or  difcontenc 
of  his  Mind,  which  were  not  fo  intelligible  perhaps  by  the  words  as  by  the  melan- 
choly or  chearfulnefs  of  the  Tune  which  he  plaid.  A  certain  Spaniard  one  night 
late  encountered  an  Indian  Woman  in  the  Streets  of  Coaco,  and  would  have 
brought  her  back  to  his  Lodgings ;  but  (he  cryed  out ,   For  Gods  fake,  Sir,  let  me 

go,  for  that  Pipe  which  you  hear  in  yonder  Tower  calls  me  with  great  Paffion ,  and  I  cannot 
rufufe  the  fummons,  for  Love  conftrains  me  to  go,  that  I  may  be  his  Wife  and  he  my  Huf- 

The  Songs  which  they  compofed  of  their  Wars,  and  grand  Atchievements , 
were  never  fet  to  the  Aires  of  their  Flute,  being  too  grave  and  ferious  to  be  in- 
termixed with  the  pleafures  and  foftneffes  of  Love  -,  for  tfeofe  were  onely  fung  at 
their  principal  Feftivals  when  they  commemorated  their  Victories  and  Triumphs. 
When  I  came  from  Peru  which  was  in  the  Year  1 5  60.  there  were  then  five  In- 
dians refiding  at  Cozco,  who  were  great  Matters  on  the  Flute,  and  could  play  rea- 
dily by  book  any  Tune  that  was  laid  before  them ;  they  belonged  to  one  fuah 
Rodriguez,  who  lived  at  a  Village  called  Labos,  not  far  from  the  City  \  and  now  at 
this  time,  being  the  Year  1602.  'tis  reported,  That  the  Indians  are  fo  well  impro- 
ved in  Mufick,  that  it  was  a  common  thing  for  a  Man  to  found  divers  kinds  of 
Inftruments ;  but  Vocal  Mufick  was  not  fo  ufual  in  my  time ,  perhaps  becaufe 
they  did  not  much  pradife  their  Voices,  though  the  Mongrils,  or  fuch  as  came 
of  a  mixture  of  Spanifh  and  Indian  bloud,  had  the  faculty  to  fing  with  a  tunable 
and  a  fweet  Voice. 

CHAP.    XV. 

The  Poetry  of  the  Inca's  Amautas,  who  were  Philofophers  5 
and  of  the  Haravec,  who  were  Poets. 

THe  Amautas,  who  were  Men  of  the  beft  ingenuity  amongft  them,  invented 
Comedies  and  Tragedies,  which  on  their  folemn  Feftivals  they  reprefen- 
ted  before  their  King,  and  the  Lords  of  his  Court.  The  Adors  were  not  Men 
of  the  common  fort,  but  Curacas,  or  fome  of  the  young  Nobility,  and  Officers  of 
the  Souldiery,  becaufe  every  one  aded  his  own  proper  part  ■-,  the  plot  or  argument 
of  their  Tragedies  was  to  reprefent  their  military  Exploits ,  and  the  Triumphs, 
Victories  and  Heroick  Adions  of  their  renowned  Men ;  and  the  fubjed  or  de- 
fign  of  their  Comedies  was  to  demonftrate  the  manner  of  good  Husbandry  in  cul- 
tivating and  manuring  their  Fields,  and  to  fhew  the  management  of  domeftick 
Affairs,  with  other  familiar  matters.  So  foon  as  the  Comedy  was  ended,  the 
Adors  took  their  places  according  to  their  degrees  and  qualities.  Thefe  Plays 
were  not  made  up  with  interludes  of  obfeene  and  dilhoneft  fades,  but  fuch  as 
were  of  ferious  entertainment,  compofed  of  grave  and  acute  fentences,  fitted  to 
the  place  and  auditory ,  by  whom  the  Adors  were  commonly  rewarded  with 
Jewels  and  other  Prefents,  according  to  their  merit, 

H  Thek 


Royal  Commentaries.  Booi 

Their  poetical  Verfes  were  compofed  in  long  and  (hort  Meetre,  fitted  to  amo- 
rous Subjects,  and  the  Tunes  to  which  they  were  kt;  their  Kings,  and  the  Ex- 
ploits and  great  Actions  performed  in  their  refpe&ive  Reigns,  were  alfo  matter 
for  their  Poetry,  which  they  recorded  in  verfe,  and  ferved  in  the  place  of  Hiftory  5 
their  Sonnets  were  not  long,  but  fhort  and  compendious,  fo  as  they  might  more 
eafily  be  committed  to  Memory  --,  they  ufed  not  rhimes,  but  loofe  verfe,  like  our 
Heroick  Poems.  I  remember  four  Verfes  of  an  amorous  Song,  which  for  curiofity 
fake,  and  to  (hew  their  (hort  but  compendious  fenfe,  I  (hall  repeat  here  ■-,  being 
thereby  beft  accommodated  to  the  Aire  of  their  Flute :  the  Tune  alfo  I  would 
gladly  fet  down,  but  that  the  impertinence  thereof  may  eafily  excufe  me.  The 
Sonnet  in  four  verfes  is  this: 

Caylla  Llapi 

In  Englifh 


\1  will  deep 
J  (frail  come* 

Many  other  forts  of  Verfes  the  heat,  who  were  Poets,  compofed ,  who  had 
the  Name  of  Baravec,  which  properly  fignifies  an  Inventour.  Bias  Vakra  in  his 
Writings  mentions  certain  Verfes,  which  he  calls  Spondels,  confifting  of  four 
fyllables^  the  Indian  words  he  hath  tranflated  into  Latin,  the  Subject  of  them  is 
philofophical,  and  treats  of  thofe  fecond  caufes  which  God  hath  placed  in  the 
Air,  fuch  as  Thunder,  and  Lightning,  Rain  and  Snow,  all  which  are  defcribed, 
in  verfe,  and  are  agreeable  to  the  fancy  of  their  Fables,  one  of  which  is  this: 
That  the  Maker  of  all  things  hath  placed  in  Heaven  a  Virgin ,  the  Daughter  of  a 
King,  holding  a  Bucket  of  Water  in  her  hand ,  for  refrefhment  of  the  Earth, 
when  occafion  requires ;  and  that  fometimes  her  Brother  knocking  upon  this  Buc- 
ket, caufes  Thunder  and  Lightning  to  proceed  from  it  5  thefe  noiles,  they  fay, 
are  effects  of  the  violent  nature  of  Man,  but  Hail,  and  Rain,  and  Snow,  falling 
with  left  noife  and  impetuofity,  are  more  agreeable  to  the  gentle  nature  of  a  Wo- 
man. They  fay,  that  an  Inca,  who  was  a  Poet  and  an  Aftrologer  compofed  ma- 
ny Verfes  in  praife  of  the  Vertues  and  Excellencies  of  this  Virgin  Lady ,  which 
God  had  beftowed  upon  her  for  the  good  and  benefit  of  his  Creatures.  This  Fa- 
ble and  Verfes  Bias  Vakra  reports  to  have  found  exprefled  in  the  knots  and  ac- 
counts of  their  ancient  Annals,  reprefented  in  the  threads  of  divers  Colours,  and 
preferved  by  thofe  to  whom  the  care  of  the  hiftorical  Knots  and  Accounts  were 
committed  •■,  and  he  fo  much  wondred  at  the  ingenuity  of  the  Amautas,  that  he 
thought  thofe  Verfes  worthy  to  be  committed  to  Memory  and  Paper.  I  remem- 
ber in  my  Infancy  to  have  heard  this  Fable,  with  many  others,  recounted  by  my 
Parents,  but  being  then  but  a  Child,  I  was  not  very  inquifitive  to  underftand  the 
fignification.  Bias  Vakra  hath  tranflated  this  Song  out  of  the  Indian  Language  in- 
to Latin,  and  which  runs  in  this  manner : 

Cumac  Nufia 
Puynuy  quita 
Paquir  cay  an 
Hina  Mantara 
Tlla  Pantac 
Camri  Nufta 
7Jnuy  quita 
Para  Munqui 
May  nimpiri 
Chichi  Munqui 
Riti  Munqui 

Pulchra  Nympha, 
Frater  tuus 
Urnam  tuam 
Nunc  infringit 
Cujus  ictus 
Tonat,  fulget 
Sed  tu  Nympha 
Tuam  Jympham 
Fundens  pluis, 
Grandinem  feu 
Nivem  mittis. 

3Fair  J&pmpD, 

©trifeeg  noto 

€f)me  <Htne, 

©H|jofe  bloto 

3#  CtmnDcr 

8nD  Ltg&tnfng* 

Xut  tljou  JQpntpI) 

pouring  fojtfj 

€&?  foater 

popped  ram, 

8ni)  again 

©enDeft  gjail 

£)?  ©now* 


Book  II.  Royal  Commentaries.  51 

Pacha  rurac  Mundi  Fador  Cfre  $9afeer  Of  Xty  ©Hojlfc 

Viracocha  *  Viracocha  Viracocha  oneK? 

Caybinapac  Ad  hoc  munus  $atlj  COmmttteD  God,, 

Churafunqui  Te  fufficit  atlD  etttfjatgeD  t&t£ 

Canufuttqui.  Et  prsefecit.  ^DfftCC  unto  X\)tt* 

With  fuch  trifles  as  thefe  I  have  enriched  rhy  poor  Hiftory  s  for  whatfoever  I 
have  collected  from  Bias  Valera,  are  all  pearls  and  pretious  ciiriofities,  and  fuch 
ornaments  as  my  Countrey  doth  not  deferve  •,  which  now,  as  they  report,  in  thefe 
days  improves  in  Poetry  •,  for  that  the  Mongrils,  or  thofe  of  Sfanifh  and  Mian 
bloud  have  taken  a  good  (train  in  Verfe,  whofe  fubject  is  Divine  or  Moral,  God 
give  them  his  grace  that  they  may  ferve  him  in  all  things. 

In  this  imperfect  and  grofs  manner  had  the  Indians  of  Peru  the  knowledge  of 
Sciences,  which  is  not  to  be  attributed  to  their  want  of  natural  parts  and  abilities 
of  mind  •-,  for  had  they  been  instructed  in  letters,  their  capacities  are  fuch  as  might 
have  improved  every  little  beginning :  And  as  the  firft  Philofophers  and  Aftrolo- 
gers  delivered  the  principles  of  their  Sciences  to  their  pofterity,  who  erected  on 
thofe  foundations  the  more  lofty  buildings  of  reafon ;  lb  thefe  people  were  endued 
with  the  like  capacities,  fufficient  to  advance  fuch  learning  as  defcended  from 
their  Parents,  efpecially  we  find  that  they  were  well  difpofed  to  the  learning  of 
that  Morality  which  contained  the  Cuftoms  and  Laws  of  their  Countrey ;  and 
which  did  not  onely  extend  to  thofe  rules  relating  to  juftice  and  decent  comport- 
ment of  one  Subject  to  another ,  but  as  it  had  reference  to  that  obedience  which 
Subjects  and  Vaflals  owe  to  their  Sovereign,  and  thofe  Ministers  which  act  un- 
der their  command  •,  for  thefe  being  a  people  who  were  inclined  to  live  according 
to  thofe  Laws  which  the  light  of  nature  dictated,  and  rather  to  doe  no  evil,  than 
know  well,  were  more  eafily  made  capable  of  that  Science  which  was  directed  by 
material  and  exteriour  objects,  than  of  that  which  was  converfant  about  more  ab- 
ftrufe  and  immaterial  notions.  Pedro  de  Cieca  in  the  38^  Chapter  of  his  Book, 
fpeaking  of  the  lncas  and  their  Government,  fays,  That  they  acted  fo  well,  and 
that  their  Government  was  fo  good  and  political,  as  might  be  compared  to  the 
Wifedom  of  the  belt  frame  and  Model  of  Common-wealths  in  this  World. 
And  Father  Maeftro  Acofia,  in  the  firft  Chapter  of  his  6th  Book,  makes  a  difcourfe 
in  favour  of  the  lncas,  and  the  people  of  Mexico,  in  thefe  words  -, 

"  Having  in  the  preceding  difcourfe  laid  down  the  Particulars  of  that  Religion 
"  which  the  Indians  profeis  •,  I  defign  in  the  following  Treatife  to  declare  their 
"  Cuftoms  and  Political  Government,  for  two  ends :  Firft,  that  I  may  undeceive 
"  the  World  of  that  falfe  opinion  which  they  have  framed  concerning  this  peo- 
*  pie,  as  being  fo  brutifh,  and  of  fo  little  underftanding,  as  deferve  not  the  name 
"  of  rational  creatures :  From  which  erroneous  conception,  many  grievous  cala- 
"  mities  have  been  impofed  on  them  without  pity  or  companion ;  and  being  e- 
"  fteemed  no  other  than  beafts,  all  that  refpect  which  is  due  to  humane  nature* 
*'  or  the  perfon  of  Mankind  hath  been  loft  towards  them.  But  this  falfe  notion* 
"  which  none  but  the  vain-glorious  and  confident  of  themfelves  ( who  are  the 
"  common  fools  of  the  World )  have  entertained,  hath  been  fufficiently  confu- 
x  ted  by  more  folid  and  confidering  men,  who  have  made  it  their  bufinefs  to  tra- 
:c  vel  and  converfe  amongft  them,  and  to  difcover  the  fecrets  of  their  Cuftoms 
x  and  Government.  To  remove  which  prejudicial  cenfure  from  them,  the  moft 
c  expedite  means  will  be  to  declare  the  Juftice  and  Cuftoms  which  were  in  ufe 
x  amongft  them,  at  that  time,  when  they  lived  by  their  own  Laws  •-,  with  which, 
K  though  there  was  a  great  mixture  of  Barbarifm,  and  many  things  without  foun- 
:t  dation  •,  yet  their  Government  contained  many  excellent  things,  and  worthy  of 
f  admiration,  and  fuch  as  may  be  compared  with  the  beft  Model  of  our  Com- 
u  mon-wealths,  and  may  afford  us  fufficient  evidence  of  the  genius  of  that  people, 
:  and  of  that  natural  readinefs  of  mind  capable  to  be  improved  to  greater  and 
"  higher  matters.  Nor  ought  it  to  feem  ftrange,  if  fome  erroneous  fancies  have 
"  intermixed  with  their  Cuftoms  -,  for  even  Plato  and  Lycurgtu,  and  other  excel- 
"  lent  Legiflatours  have  been  guilty  of  fome  follies,  and  interwoven  fuperftitions, 

and  vain  rites,  with  their  more  fubftantial  Laws.    And  indeed  in  thofe  wife 
"  Common- wealths  of  Rome  and  Athens,  many  ridiculous  Cuftoms  have  been  in- 

H  2  "  troduced  5 

^z  Royal  Commentaries.  Book  IL 

:c  traduced ;  which  to  confidering  men  would  appear  as  idle  as  any  of  thofe  prac- 
;c  tices  which  have  been  in  ufe  kmongft  the  Mexican  or  the  Peruvian  Common- 
"  wealths.  But  we  who  entred  by  the  Sword,  and  afforded  not  time  to  thefe  mi- 
"  ferable  Indians  to  give  us  proofs  of  their  rationality,  but  hunted  them  as  wild 
"  Beafts  through  the  Mountains,  and  drew  them  as  brutiih  creatures  to  bear  the 
"  burthens  of  our  flaviih  fervitude,  could  not  entertain  any  great  opinion  of  their 
a  Wifedom :  Howfoever,  fome  obferving  men,  who  have  been  fo  curious,  as  to 
"  penetrate  into  the  fecrets  of  their  ancient  Government,  and  into  the  methods 
"  of  their  proceedings,  have  found  that  the  Order  and  Rules  they  followed,  were 
"  worthy  of  admiration.  Thus  far  are  the  words  of  fofiph  Acofla,  who  alfo  adds, 
that  they  had  certain  compendious  Syftems  of  Morality,  digefted  into  Verfe  by 
way  of  Poetry ;  in  which  alfo  many  of  their  Laws,  and  the  great  Actions  of  their 
Kings  were  rehearfed,  and  kept  in  a  kind  of  tradition  for  better  inftruction  of 
their  pofterity  J  which  favouring  rather  of  Truth,  than  Romance,  the  Spaniards 
efteem  them  to  be  true  and  particular  paffages  of  their  Hiftory :  But  many  other 
things  afford  them  matter  of  laughter,  being  ill-compofed  Fables,  fuperftitious 
and  vain,  and  fuch  alfo  as  are  contrary  to  common  honefty. 

CHAP.    XVI. 

Of  thofe  few  lnflruments  which  the  Indians  attained  to 
and  made  ufe  of  in  all  their  Works  and  Handicraft- 

HAving  already  declared  how  far  they  were  proceeded  in  their  Moral  and  Na- 
tural Philofophy,  and  in  their  Poetry  ■-,  it  follows  now  that  we  fhould  de- 
clare fomething  of  their  Mechanicks,  and  how  much  they  failed  in  the  Art  of 
making  thofe  lnflruments,  which  are  neceflary  for  (haping  and  framing  thofe  U- 
tenfils  which  are  required  for  convenient  living  and  well-being.  And  firft  to  be- 
gin with  their  Silverfmiths  --,  of  which,  though  there  were  great  numbers,  and 
conftantly  laboured  at  their  Trade ,  yet  they  were  not  fo  skilfull  as  to  make  an 
Anvil  of  Iron,  or  any  other-  Metal  •,  caufed,  perhaps,  for  want  of  knowledge  in 
what  manner  to  dig  their  Iron,  and  feparate  it  from  its  Ore ;  of  which  they  had 
feveral  Mines,  and  called  it  ^uilUy  •,  and  therefore  inftead  thereof  they  made  ufe 
of  a  certain  hard  Stone,  of  a  yellowifh  colour ;  which  being  planed ,  and  made 
fmooth,  was  rare,  and  of  great  value  amongft  them  :  They  knew  not  the  inven- 
tion of  putting  a  handle  of  Wood  to  their  Hammers ,  but  worked  with  certain 
lnflruments  they  had  made  of  Copper,  mixed  with  a  fort  of  fine  Brafs.  Neither 
did  they  know  how  to  make  Files  or  Graving-tools,  or  Bellows  for  Melting  down 
Metals  i  but  inftead  thereof  ufed  Pipes  made  of  Copper,  of  about  a  Yard  long, 
the  end  of  w  hich  was  narrow,  that  the  Breath  might  pafs  more  forcibly  by  means 
of  the  contraction  :  And  as  the  Fire  was  to  be  more  or  lefs,  fo  accordingly  they 
ufed  eight,  ten  or  twelve  of  thefe  Pipes  at  once ,  as  the  quantity  of  Metal  did 
require  :  And  ftill  they  continue  this  way,  though  our  Invention  of  Bellows  is 
much  more  eafie,  ancUbrcible  to  raifethe  Fire.  Nor  had  they  the  ufe  of  Tongs 
to  take  their  heated  Metal  out  of  the  Fire ,  but  rather  drew  it  thence  by  a  piece 
of  Wood,  or  fome  Bar  of  Copper  •,  with  which  they  caft  it  into  a  heap  of  wet 
Earth,  which  they  kept  purpofely  by  them-  to  cool  their  Metal,  untill  fuch  time 
as  they  could  take  it  into  their  hands:  Notwithftanding  this  want  of  divers  ln- 
flruments, they  made  many  things  with  great  curiofity,  efpecially  in  Boaring 
Metals,  as  we  (hall  hereafter  difcourfe  more  at  large.  And  notwithftanding 
their  fimplicity,  experience  had  taught  them,  that  the  Steam  and  Effluviums  from 


Book  II.  Royal  Commentaries.  50 

Metals,  is  dangerous  and  prejudicial  to  Man's  health  ■-,  and  for  that  reafon ,  they 
founded  all  their  Metals  in  the  open  Air,  and  not  under  Coverts.  But  above  all, 
their  Carpenters  feemed  to  be  word  provided  with  Tools  h  for  though  ours  ufe 
many  Inftruments  mace  of  Iron,  thofe  of  Peru  had  no  other  than  a  Hatchet,  and 
a  Pick-axe  made  of  Copper  •,  they  neither  had  Saw,  nor  Augre,  nor  Planer,  nor 
any  other  Tool  for  the  Carpenter's  work ,  fo  that  they  could  not  make  Arches  or 
Portals  for  doors  •,  onely  they  hewed  and  cut  their  Timber,  and  whitened  it,  and 
then  it  was  prepared  for  their  Building :  And  for  making  their  Hatchets  and  Pick- 
axes, and  fome  few  Rakes,  they  made  ufe  of  the  Silverfmiths ,  for  as  yet  they 
had  not  attained  to  the  Art  of  Working  in  Iron.  Nor  did  they  know  how  td 
make  Nails,  or  ufe  them ,  but  tied  all  their  Timber  with  Cords  of  Hemp.  Nor 
were  their  Hewers  of  Stone  more  artificial,  for  in  cutting  and  lhaping  their  Stones, 
they  had  no  other  Tool,  than  one  made  with  fome  iharp  F!:«}ts  and  Pebbles,  which 
they  called  Hihuana,  with  which  they  rather  wore  out  thq.£tone  by  continual  rub- 
bing, than  cutting.  For  lifting  or  carrying  up  their  Stones,  they  had  no  Engines, 
but  did  all  by  the  ftrength  and  force  of  their  Armes  •,  and  notwithstanding  all 
this  ddeft,  they  raifed  fuch  mighty  and  Irately  Edifices,  as  is  incredible,  which 
appears  by  the  Writings  of  the  Spanifk  Hiftorians,  and  by  the  Ruines  of  them , 
which  frill  remain.  They  knew  not  how  to  make  Sciflars ,  nor  Needles  of  Me- 
tal ,  but  in  place  thereof  they  ufed  a  certain  long  Thorn,  which  grows  in  thofe 
parts  -,  for  which  reafon  they  fowed  very  little,  but  rather  patched  or  cobled,  as 
we  fhall  hereafter  declare.  With  this  fort  of  Thorns  they  made  alfo  their  Combs 
for  the  head,  which  they  fixed  within  a  Cane,  which  ferved  for  the  back  of  the 
Comb,  and  the  Thorns  on  each  fide  for  the  Teeth.  The  Looking-glaflts  which 
the  Ladies  of  Quality  ufed,  were  made  of  Burnifhed  Copper ;  but  the  Men  ne- 
ver ufed  any,  for  that  being  efteemed  a  part  of  effeminacy,  was  alfo  a  difgrace, 
if  not  ignominy,  to  them.  In  this  manner  they  paffed,  as  well  as  they  could,  in 
providing  thofe  matters  which  were  onely  neceflary.for  humane  life  ■-,  and  though 
thefe  people  were  endued  with  no  great  capacity  of  invention,  yet,  when  the 
Spaniards  taught  them,  they  learned  with  great  facility,  and  imitated  fo  well  the 
patterns  given  them,  that  in  time  they  excelled  their  Mafters  in  their  Artificial 
workmanfhip  and  contrivances.  This  ingenuity  and  aptnefs  to  attain  Sciences, 
was  evidenced  by  a  genius  they  had  in  Perfonating  and  A&ing  Comedies,  which 
the  Jefuits  and  fome  Friars,  and  other  Religious  had  compofed  for  them.  I  remem- 
ber the  argument  of  one  to  have  been  the  Myftery  of  Man  s  redemption,  and  re- 
prefented  by  the  Indies  with  gracefull  and  proper  a&ion-,  nor  were  they  altoge- 
ther ftrangers  to  this  divertifement,  becaufe  in  the  times  of  the  Incat  they  ufually 
reprefented  their  own  Stories  in  Dialogues,  and  therefore  more  eafily  improved  in 
that  Art  to  which  they  were  formerly  inclined  by  a  natural  aptitude.  It  is  obfervable 
how  well  they  Acled  a  Comedy,  made  by  a  Jefuit,  in  praife  of  the  Blefled  Virgin 
Mary,  which  he  wrote  in  the  Tongue  Aymara,  which  is  different  from  the  Language 
ofPem :  the  Argument  was  on  thofe  words  in  the  3^  Chapter  of  Gene/is,  where  it  is 

laid,  I  will  put  Enmity  between  thee  an  d  theWoman,  and  that  fix  {hall  break^thy  Head,&CC. 

This  was  A&ed  by  Children  and  Young  men  in  the  Countrey,  called  SuM.  And 
at  Potow  thev  rehearfed  a  Dialogue ,  wnich  contained  all  the  Particulars  of  our 
Faith,  at  which  about  izooo  Indians  were  prefent.  At  Cozco  another  Dialogue 
was  recited  of  the  Child  Jefus,  at  which  were  all  the  Nobles  and  People  of  the, 
City  aflembled.  Another  was  recited  in  the  City,  which  is  called  the  City  of 
the  Kings,  where  the  Lord  Chancellour  and  all  the  Nobility  were  prefent,  toge- 
ther with  an  innumerable  company  of  Indians .-  the  Argument  of  which  was,  the 
Moft  Holy  Sacrament ,  compofed  in  Spanifh,  and  the  General  Tongue  of  Peru  -7 
which  was  repeated  by  the  Indian  Youth  in  Dialogues,  and  pronounced  with  fuch 
grace  and  emphatical  expreflion,  with  fuch  air  and  handfome  geftures,  intermixed 
with  Songs  fet  to  pleafant  Tunes,  that  the  Spaniards  were  much  contented,  and 
pleafed  to  behold  them-,  and  fome  lhed  tears  for  joy,  to  fee  the  ingenuity  and 
good  inclination  of  thofe  poor  Indians,  that  ever  after  they  conceived  a  better  opi- 
nion of  them,  confidering  them  not  to  be  blockiih,  rude  and  filthy,  but  doable, 
gentle  and  capable  of  improvement. 

When  thefe  Indian  Youths  defiie  to  commit  any  thing  to  memory,  which  is 
given  them  in  writing,  they  go  to  thofe  Spaniards  who  are  acquainted  with  letters, 
defiring  them  to  reade  the  fmt  lines  to  them  four  or  five  times  over,  untill  they 
have  learned  them  by  heart  s  and  to  fix  them  better  in  their  memories,  they  re» 


54  Royal  Commentaries.  Book  II. 

peat  every  word  often  to  themfelves ,  and  mark  it  with  Pebbles,  or  little  Granes 
of  divers  colours,  of  about  the  bignefs  of  Peafe,  called  by  them  Clmy,  which  ferve 
for  helps  to  their  Memories  -,  and  fuch  induflry  and  care  they  ufe,  till  at  length 
they  have  perfectly  overcome  the  difficulty,  and  learned  their  part  or  leflon. 
Thole  Spaniards  to  whom  the  Young  Indians  have  recourfe  for  their  Learning, 
how  great  foever  they  are ,  do  not  yet  difdain  to  teach  and  inform  them ,  giving 
them  all  the  encouragement  they  are  able.  So  that  thefe  Indians,  though  natu- 
rally dull  of  invention,  have  yet  an  aptitude  to  imitate  any  thing  which  is  pro- 
pofed  before  them. 

fohn  Cue/las,  a  Scholar,  who  was  a  Native  of  Medina,  and  Canon  of  the  Ca- 
thedral of  Coz,co,  who  taught  the  Grammar  to  the  Children  which  were  of  Spa~ 
nifh  and  Indian  Parents,  and  to  others  of  bell  quality  in  that  City,  can  give  us  the 
moll:  clear  teftimony  thereof:  For  he  was  moved  to  perform  this  charitable  Of- 
fice at  the  intreaty  aridinflance  of  the  Scholars,  whofe  Mailers  and  Tutours,  in 
exchange  for  better  preferments,  had  forfaken  their  Charge  •,  for  though  every 
Scholar  gave  ten  pieces  of  EigHt  a  Month  for  his  Learning,  yet  it  was  but  little, 
in  refpecl:  of  their  Imall  number,  which  perhaps  were  not  above  1 7  or  1 8  in  the 
whole  Town.  I  knew  one  amongft  them  who  was  an  Inca,  called  Philip,  and 
was  Pupil  to  a  rich  and  honourable  Prielt,  named  Father  Peter  Sanchez,  who  ob- 
ferving  the  ingenuity  of  this  Youth,  took  pains  to  inftruct  him  in  his  Studies  5 
in  which  he  profited  fo  well,  that  he  became  as  good  a  Grammarian  as  any  that 
was  of  the  Spanifh  and  Indian  Bloud.  The  change  of  many  Mailers  was  a  great 
obllruction  to  their  Learning  •,  for  every  one  of  them  having  a  different  way  of 
Teaching , '  they  began  not  from  the  rules  and  principles  formerly  taught  them , 
but  made  them  to  begin  from  their  own  methods,  and  forget  what  they  had  before 
learned ,  which  was  a  great  prejudice  to  their  proceedings ;  untill  this  good  Ca- 
non undertook  to  inftrudt.  them  in  the  Latin  Grammar,  which  he  continued  for 
the  fpace  of  two  years,  amidft  the  Tumults  and  Wars  railed  between  D.  Sebaflian 

de  Caftilla,  and  Francifco  Hernandes  Giron  j  which  Were  the  caufe  of  much  bloud, 

fire  and  deflru&ion  ^  and  were  of  that  continuance,  that  fcarce  was  one  fire  ex- 
tinguilhed,  before  another  flame  broke  forth.  At  this  time  this  Canon  Cuellat 
obferving  the  great  docility  of  his  Scholars,  and  their  inclinations  to  be  improved 
in  all  Sciences  5  and  the  want  of  able  and  induflrious  Mailers  to  cultivate  the 
minds  of  this  people--,  would  cry  out,  and  fay ,  Oh,  Children !  what  pity  it  is 
that  I  do  not  fee  a  dozen  of  you  Students  in  the  Univerlity  of  Salamanca,  \  And 
indeed  this  good  Canon  had  reafon  fo  to  fay,becau(e  his  attendance  at  theChoire 
took  him  off  from  the  employment  of  Teaching  his  Scholars  with  fuch  feduhty, 
as  to  make  them  perfect  in  the  Latin  Tongue :  Howfbever,  the  little  improve- 
ments they  made  were  good  evidences  of  their  rnatural  wit  and  underflanding, 
which  now  in  thefe  days  ( praifed  be  God )  is  much  advanced  by  that  abundance 
of  Learning,  and  light  of  Sciences,  which  the  Jefuits  have  introduced  amongfl 
them.  And  fo  much  fhall  fuffice  to  have  difcourfed  on  this  fubjecl:,  it  being  now 
time  to  return  to  the  Hillory  of  the  Succeffion  of  the  lnca«,  and  of  their  Con- 
quells  and  great  Actions. 



Royal  Commentaries. 


CHAP.    I. 

Mayta  Capac,  the  fourth  Inca ,  gains  Tiahuanacu ,  and 
what  fort  of  Buildings  were  found  there. 

TH  E  Inca,  Mayta  Capac,  having  performed  the  Ceremonies  due  to 
the  Obfequies  of  his  dead  Father,  refolved  to  viiit  the  remote 
parts  of  his  Dominions  \  and  though  he  had  already  in  the  time 
of  his  Father  travelled  •  hofe  Countries,  yet  being  then  in  his 
Minority,  and  under  the  Tuition  of  his  Parents  and  Counfel- 
lours,  he  had  not  the  opportunity  to  demonftrate  the  Excellency 
of  his  Vertues,  nor  yet  to  be  obferved  by  his  people,  as  he  was  now,  being  an 
abfblute  Prince.  Wherefore  after  the  example  of  his  Anceftours  he  honoured 
and  (atisfied  the  (everal  Provinces  of  his  Kingdom  with  the  luftre  of  his  Prefence, 
giving  fuch  teftimonies  of  liberality,  courage  and  generous  difpofition  to  his  Cu- 
racai,  and  all  other  his  Subje&s,  that  they  remained  with  great  admiration  of  his 
Royal  Vertues  and  Abilities  of  mind. 

Having  accomplifhed  this  Vifitation,  he  re-afiumed  the  defign  of  enlarging  his 
Dominions  after  the  example  of  his  Anceftours  covering  his  ambition  and  cove- 
toufnefs  under  the  fpecious  pretence  of  reclaiming  the  Nations  from  their  barba- 
rity and  vain  fuperftitions,  to  a  more  civilized  life,  and  to  the  true  and  religious 
worfliip  and  adoration  of  the  Sun :  Accordingly  he  raifed  an  Army,  and  in  the 
Spring  following  he  began  his  march  with  twelve  thoufand  Men  under  the  Com- 
mand of  four  Generals  and  their  Inferiour  Officers,  taking  his  way  as  far  as  that 
place,  where  the  Lake  Titicaca  empties  it  felf ;  which  being  the  Countrey  of  Col- 
lao,  plain  and  even,  and  the  people  fimple,  and  yet  docible,  it  was  the  more  invi- 
ting, and  more  eafily  fubdued. 

Being  come  to  this  ftream  which  runs  from  the  Lake,  he  made  floats,  on  which 
he  Ferried  his  Army  to  the  other  fide ,  and  then  fent  his  ufual  Summons  to  the 
next  Inhabitants,  requiring  them  to  fubmit  to  his  Government  and  Religion, 
Thefe  Indians  having  heard  the  report  of  thofe  Miracles  which  the  Inca*  had  per- 
formed, without  much  difficulty  fubmitted  to  his  Commands  •,  and  amongft  the 
reft,  the  people  of  Tiahuanacu  were  reduced  to  obedience  5  of  whofe  great  and 
incredible  Edifices,  it  is  requisite,  that  we  ihould  declare  fomethlng  in  this  place. 
Amcngft  the  mighty  Works  and  Buildings  of  that  Countrey,  there  is  a  certain 
Hill,  or  heap  of  Earth  thrown  up  by  hand  •,  which  is  fo  high,  that  it  is  a  fubjeft 
of  great  admiration  -,  and  left  with  time  it  fbould  fettle,  or  fink  lower,  it  is 
founded  on  great  Stones  cemented  together :  And  to  what  end  this  was  done, 


56  Royal  Commentaries.  Book  III. 

no  man  can  COnjedture ,  Vnlefs  it  were  like  the  Pyramids  in  Egypt,  to  remain  for  a  Tro- 
phy of  the  Greatnefs  of  that  Monarch  who  erelJed  it.     On  One  fide  of  this  mighty  heap 

are  the  Statues  of  two  Giants  cut  in  Stone,  with  long  Robes  to  the  ground,  and 
Wreaths  or  Binders  about  their  heads ;  which  being  much  impaired  by  time, 
mews  the  Antiquity  of  them.  There  is  alio  a  ftrange  Wall  to  be  feen,  failed 
with  Stones  of  an  extraordinary  bignefs ;  and  what  is  moft  wonderful!  to  consi- 
der, is,  how,  or  in  what  manner  they  were  brought  thither  by  force  of  Men,  who 
had  not  yet  attained  to  the  knowledge  of  Engines  fit  for  fuch  a  work,  and  from 
what  place  they  were  brought,  there  being  no  Rocks  or  Quarries  but  fuch  as  are 
at  a  far  diftance  from  thence-  There  appear  alfo  many  great  and  lofty  Edifices ; 
and  what  is  more  ftrange ,  there  are  in  divers  places  great  Portals  of  Stone,  and 
many  of  them  whole  and  perfect,  made  of  one  fingle  and  entire  Stone  5  which 
being  raifed  on  Pedeftals,  are  found  by  thofe  who  have  meafured  them  to  be  30 
foot  in  length,  and  1 5  in  breadth ,  which  Pedeftals,  as  well  as  the  Arches  of  the 
Portals,  were  all  of  one  fingle  Stone :  And  then  we  may  confider  how  great  thofe 
Stones  were  before  they  were  lhaped,  and  what  tools  of  Iron  were  requifite  for 
fuch  a  labour. 

The  Natives  report  that  thefe  Buildings,  and  others  of  the  like  nature  not  men- 
tioned here,  were  raifed  before  the  times  of  the  Incas,  and  that  the  Model  of  the 
Fortrefs  at  Cozco  was  taken  from  them,  as  we  mall  hereafter  more  particularly  de- 
fcribe :  Who  they  were  that  erected  them ,  they  do  not  know,  onely  they  have 
heard  fay  by  tradition  from  their  Anceftours,  that  thofe  prodigious  Works  were 
the  effects  of  one  nights  labour  j  which  feem,  in  reality,  to  have  been  the  be- 
ginnings onely,  and  foundations  for  fome  mighty  Structure.  Thus  much  Pedro  de 
Cieca  in  his  Remarks  concerning  Peru,  and  its  feveral  Provinces  relates ,  to  which 
I  mall  farther  add ,  what  a  certain  Prieft  called  Diego  de  Alcobaca,  who  was  my 
School-fellow ;  and  whom  I  may  call  my  Brother,  becaufe  we  were  both  born  in 
the  fame  houfe,  and  his  Father  educated  me  as  my  Tutour  and  Mafter :  This  per- 
fon,  I  fay,  amongft  the  many  relations  of  things  which  both  he  and  others  fent 
me,  concerning  my  own  Countrey  •-,  coming  to  fpeak  of  the  Buildings  of  Tiahua- 
nacu,  hath  thefe  words :  "  In  Tiahuanacu,  which  is  a  Province  of  ColUo,  amongft 
"  many  other  Antiquities  worthy  of  immortal  memory,  there  is  one  particularly 
"  famous,  adjoining  to  the  Lake,  which  is  called  by  the  Spaniards  Chucuytu,  though 
"  its  true  name  be  Chuquivitu  •,  this  is  a  Pile  of  Monftrous  Buildings,  to  which 
"  is  an  open  Court  of  1  j  Yards  fquare  every  way,  the  Building  is  two  Stories 
"  high ;  and  on  one  fide  of  this  great  Yard  or  Square  is  a  large  Hall  of  45-  foot 
"  in  length,  and  22  in  breadth  5  the  Covering  appears  to  be  Thatch,  like  thofe 
"  on  the  Temple  of  the  Sun,  in  the  City  of  Cozco .-  All  this  Court,  or  Yard, 
"  which  wre  mention,  with  its  Walls,  Floor,  Hall,  Roof,  Portals  and  Jams  of 
"  the  doors,  and  back-gate  to  this  Building,  is  all  of  one  entire  Stone,  hewed  out 
"  of  a  Rock  •,  the  Walls  of  the  Court,  and  of  the  Hall,  are  three  quarters  of  a 
"  Yard  thick,  and  fuch  alfo  is  the  Covering  or  Roof;  which  though  it  may  feem 
"  to  be  Thatched  with  Straw,  is  yet  of  Stone ;  for  the  Indians  have  worked  it  Co 
"  artificially,  and  with  thofe  natural  lines,  that  the  Stones  appear  like  Straw  laid 
"  in  the  moft  curious  manner  of  Thatch :  the  Waters  of  the  Lake  beat  againft  the 
"  fide  of  thefe  Walls ;  and  both  this,  and  all  the  other  Edifices  here  about,  were  all, 
"  as  the  Natives  report,  dedicated  to  the  Maker  of  the  Univerfe.  Moreover, 
"  befides  thefe  Works,  there  are  divers  other  figures  of  Men  and  Women  cut  in 
"  Stone,  Co  naturally,  that  they  feem  to  be  living  :  Some  of  them  are  drinking 
"  with  Cups  in  their  hands,  fome  are  fitting,  fome  ftanding,  fome  are  walking  in 
"  the  ftream  which  glides  by  the  Walls ;  other  Statues  there  are  of  Women  car- 
"  rying  Children  in  their  armes,  and  in  the  folds  of  their  garments  5  others  with 
"  them  on  their  backs,  and  in  a  thoufand  other  manners  and  poftures.  The  Indi- 
"  ans  of  thefe  days  report,  that  for  the  great  Sins  of  that  people,  in  having  ftoned 
"  a  Stranger,  who  pafted  through  their  Province,  God  in  his  judgment  had  con- 
"  verted  thofe  Men  and  Women  into  Stone.  Thefe  are  the  words  of  Diego  de  Al~ 
cobaca,  who  hath  been  Vicar-General  of  many  Provinces  in  that  Kingdom,  and 
Preacher  of  the  Indians  $  for  being  a  Native  of  Cozco,  and  of  Spanifk  and  Indian 
Bloud,  and  confequently  acquainted  with  the  Indian  Language,  was  moft  able  to  in- 
form and  inftruct  that  people ;  and  in  all  probability,  he  was  the  moft  likely  Man 
to  deliver  the  moft  true  and  authentick  Relation  of  thofe  Countries. 


Book  III.  Royal  Commentaries.  <sy 

CHAP.    IL 

HatunpacafTa  reduced,  and  the  Cac-yaviri  conquered. 

BUT  returning  now  to  MaytaCapac,  we  find  him  bufied  in  reducing  the  Pro- 
vince ofHatunpacaft,  which  is  a  Countrey  to  the  left  hand  of  that  ftream  by 
which  the  Lake  empties  it  felf ,  arid  in  performance  of  this  work,  he  ufed  no 
other  means  or  force,  than  Do&rine  and  Inftru&ion,  teaching  them  the  way  to 
cultivate  and  manure  their  Lands,  and  the  art  to  live  in  humane  and  political  fo- 
riety;  which  method,  as  fome  report,  the  Incas  onely  ufed  in  the  firft  beginnings 
of  tneir  Monarchy,  which,  fo  foon  as  it  was  grown  up  and  fortified,  they  turned 
to  open  violence  and  compulfion.  But  whether  this  iubje&ion  were  effected  by 
one  way  or  the  other,  it  matters  not  much  here,  nor  now  many  days  journey 
every  King  proceeded  %  for  fuch  repetitions  would  be  both  tedious  and  impertinent  5 
and  therefore  we  (hall  onely  recount  in  fhort  what  every  Inca  gained,  and  what 
additions  he  made  to  his  Empire.  This  Inca  therefore  proceeding  in  his  Con- 
quers, came  at  length  to  that  People  which  is  called  Cac-javiri,  who  were  the  In- 
habitants of  a  great  number  of  Villages,  fpread  all  over  that  Countrey  without 
order  or  rule;  over  every  one  of  which  fome  petty  Lord  prefided.  Thefe  having 
received  the  Allarm,  that  the  Inca  was  coming  to  conquer  and  fubdue  them, 
flocked  all  together  to  a  little  hill,  which  had  been  raifed  by  labour  in  that  plain, 
being  about  a  quarter  of  a  League  high,  and  picked  at  the  top  like  a  Sugar  loaf. 
This  Hill,  whofe  beauty  was  the  more  remarkable,  for  being  the  onely  lofty  and 
eminent  fituation  in  thofe  Plains,  was  efteemed  facred  by  the  Indians,  and  the 
place  appointed  whereon  to  adore  their  Gods,  and  offer  Sacrifice:  Hereunto  they 
fled  for  fuccour,  and  hoping  that  their  God  would  make  this  place  their  Sanctuary, 
to  defend  them  from  their  Enemies,  they  built  upon  it  a  dry  Wall  of  Stone,  and 
laid  a  turf  of  Earth  over  it  -,  the  Men  laboured  in  the  (tone- work,  and  for  better 
difpatch  the  Women  cut  and  brought  the  turfs ;  and  to  this  Fortrefs,  which  they 
had  furnifhed  with  great  ftore  of  Provifions,  Men,  Women  and  Children ,  in 
great  numbers  reforted. 

_  The  Inca,  according  to  his  cuftome,  fent  them  his  Summons  to  furrender,  par- 
ticularly alluring  them,  that  he  came  not  to  take  away  their  Lives,  or  dieir  Eftates, 
but  to  confer  upon  them  all  thofe  benefits,  which  the  Sun,  his  Fadier,  had  com- 
manded him  to  perform  towards  the  Indians;  and  therefore  that  they  mould  be 
cautious  how  they  wanted  of  paying  due  refpeft  towards  his  Children,  who  were, 
by  the  help  and  afliftence  of  the  Sun,  (who  was  the  God  which  they  adored,) 
ftrong  and  invincible  in  battel :  This,  or  fuch  like,  Meflage  the  Inca  fent  often 
to  thefe  Indians,  but  they  perfifted  obilinate  in  their  refufals ;  faying,  that  they  li- 
ved well  already,  and  had  no  need  of  his  Inftru&ions  to  teach  them  to  live  bet- 
ter ;  and  as  to  his  Father,  the  Sun,  they  did  not  much  value  him,  for  that  they 
had  Gods  of  their  own ,  one  of  which  was  that  fortified  Hill,  which  favoured 
4them,  and  would  preferve  them,  and  that  the  Incas  might  be  pleafed  to  depart  in 
Peace,  and  teach  others,  who  were  willing  to  receive  their  Inftru&ions,  for  that 
they  had  no  need  of  their  Doctrine.  The  Inca,  who  had  no  great  mind  to  over- 
come them  by  fight,  but  rather  to  win  them  with  fair  words ,  or  at  worft  to 
compell  them  by  Famine,  divided  his  Army  into  four  parts,  and  therewith  be- 
fieged  the  Hill. 

Thefe  People  of  Co/la  continued  many  days  in  this  Refolution  not  to  furrender, 
expecling  when  the  Enemy  would  aflault  their  Fortrefs  5  which  when  they  found, 
that  the  Inca  declined,  they  attributed  this  backwardness  to  weaknefs,  or  cowar- 
dife  •,  with  which  being  encouraged,  they  made  divers  Sallies  from  their  Fort  ■■,  in 
all  which,  though  the  Souldiers  of  the  Inca,  according  to  the  command  of  their 
Prince,  did  rather  defend  themfelves>  than  feek  to  offend  them,  yet  thefe  People, 
like  brute  Beafts,  without  order,  or  wit,  throwing  themfelves  on  the  weapons  of 
their  Enemy,  perifhed  in  great  numbers;  the  which  gave  occafion  to  that  report 

I  which 

«?g  Royal  Commentaries.  Book  III. 

which  was  common  amongft  the  People  of  Co/lao,  and  afterwards  was  fpread  over 
all  the  Dominions  of  the  Incas,  That  the  Indians  {allying  out  one  day  to  fight,  all 
the  Stones  they  threw,  and  the  Arrows  they  (hot,  returned  upon  themfelves, 
fo  that  many  of  Colla  were  killed  and  wounded  by  their  own  Weapons,  which  re- 
torted againft  their  own  Breads  -,  the  which  fabulous  report  we  (hall  relate  more 
at  large  hereafter.  With  this  great  deftru&ion  and  mortality  the  Collaons  being 
affrighted,  efpecially  their  Curacai,  and  fearing  that  greater  evils  would  be  the  ef- 
feft  of  their  obftinacy,  refolved  to  fubmitj  and  accordingly  difpofing  their  People 
in  feveral  Squadrons,  or  Bands,  they  marched  orderly  to  crave  Mercy.  In  the 
firft  place  went  the  Children,  next  followed  the  Mothers,  then  the  old  Men,  and 
then  the  Souldiery,  with  their  Captains  and  Commanders,  and  laft  of  all  the  Cap- 
tains with  their  Cttracat,  having  their  hands  bound,  and  halters  about  their  necks, 
as  a  fign  that  they  had  deferved  death,  for  having  redded  the  Children  and  Fami- 
ly of  the  Sun-,  and  to  make  their  humiliation  the  more  formal,  according  to  the 
cuftome  of  Peru,  they  walked  defcalced,  or  bare-foot,  for  greater  reverence  to 
that  Majefty  or  Deity  which  they  went  to  adore. 

CHAP.    III. 

The  Collaons  upon  Surrender  are  received  to  Pardon,  the 
Fable  is  explained.   '■ 

TH  E  feveral  fquadrons  prefenting  themfelves  before  the  Inca,  with  all  humi- 
lity proftrated  themfelves  to  the  ground  before  him,  and  with  loud  accla- 
mations faluted  him  by  the  title  of  the  Son  diPhxbm  •-,  which  ceremony  being  per- 
formed by  the  Commonalty,  the  Caracas  followed  next,  who  having  made  their 
humble  reverence  after  the  fadrion  of  their  Countrey,  they  begged  his  Majedy's 
Pardon  for  the  crimes  and  offences  they  had  committed  againft  him^  but  in  cafe 
it  were  his  pleafure  that  they  (hould  be  put  to  death,  at  lead  that  he  would  be 
pleafed  to  forgive  the  multitudes  of  thofe  poor  Souldiers,  who  being  feduced  by 
their  ill  example,  had  been  perfuaded  to  raife  Arms  againft  his  Majefty-,  and  that 
he  would  be  pleafed  alfo  to  extend  his  Mercy  farther  to  the  Women,  and  to  the 
old  Men  and  Children,  who  having  no  part  in  the  guilt  of  the  Rebellion,  were 
objedls  of  his  Compaffion,  but  as  for  them,  they  were  at  his  feet,  ready  to  receive 
the  Sentence  he  (hould  pafs  upon  them  in  fatisfadtion  for  all  the  others. 

The  Inca  when  he  received  them,  was  fitting  in  his  Chair,  encompafied  with 
his  Men  of  War,  and  having  heard  die  Speech  of  the  Curacas,  commanded  that 
they  (hould  be  loofed  from  their  bonds,  and  the  halters  taken  from  their  necks, 
telling  them,  that  he  did  not  onely  give  them  their  Lives,  but  their  Liberties  alfo, 
and  with  gentle  words  aflured  them,  That  he  came  neither  to  deprive  them  of 
their  Lives,  nor  of  their  Eftates,  but  to  doe  them  good,  by  teaching  them  to 
live  according  to  the  rules  of  Reafon,  and  the  Law  of  Nature-,  and  that  leaving 
their  Idols,  they  (hould  henceforward  adore  the  Sun  for  their  onely  God ,  by 
whofe  gratious  command  he  had  received  them  to  pardon,  and  in  teftimony  here- 
of he  did  again  confirm  to  them  their  Houfes,  Lands  and  Vaflals,  without  other 
intent  than  onely  to  beftow  favours  and  bleflings  on  them,  which  fhould  be  pro- 
ved by  a  long  tracT:  of  experience  to  them  and  their  pofterity  ■-,  and  fo  much,  he  (aid, 
the  Sun  had  required  him  to  communicate  unto  them,  and  therefore  now  they 
might  return  to  their  own  homes,  where  they  had  onely  to  take  care  of  them- 
felves, and  obey  him,  for  that  would  be  for  the  common  good  and  benefit  of 
them  all:  And  for  the  better  aflurance  of  their  Pardon,  and  evidence  of  the 
Inca's  gratious  Favour,  he  ordered  that  the  Curacas,  in  behalf  of  all  their  People, 
fhould  accept  the  terms  of  Peace  on  their  left  knee-,  and  be  permitted  the  ho- 

Book  III.  Royal  Commentaries.  59 

nour  to  touch  his  Perfon,  that  for  ever  after  they  might  be  acknowledged  for  his 
Subjects  5  the  which  privilege  was  efteemed  as  a  moft  condefcending  favour,  be- 
cause none  under  the  degree  of  the  Royal  Bloud,  or  any  other,  without  his  own 
licence,  could  be  admitted  thereunto  Under  a  lefs  penalty  than  that  which  is  due 
for  the  offence  of  Sacrilege.  In  this  manner  the  Inca  giving  teft imony  of  his  gra- 
tious  and  gentle  mind,  cleared  the  Curacas  from  all  fufpicions  of  fear,  who  hum- 
bling themfelves  to  the  Earth  before  him ,  promifed  to  be  his  faithfull  Vaflals  -, 
for  that  having  demonftrated  fuch  an  unexemplary  act  of  Mercy  towards  thofe 
that  had  deferved  death  ■-,  he  did  thereby  give  undeniable  proofs  of  his  defcent 
from  the  Sun. 

And  now  to  explain  the  Fable  in  the  preceding  Chapter,  it  is  faid ,  that  the 
Captains  of  the  Inca  obferving  the  boldnefs  which  the  Collaom  every  day  uied  by 
their  obftinate  refiftence,  gave  orders  to  their  Souldiers  to  treat  them  with  all 
rigour,  and  fubdue  them  with  Fire  and  Sword,  for  that  their  bold  attempts  againft 
the  Inca  were  no  longer  tolerable.  The  Collaons  making  their  ufual  Sallies  in  a 
fierce  and  enraged  manner,  caft  themfelves  without  defence  or  order  on  the  Wea- 

Eons  of  their  Enemies,  who  receiving  their  attempt  with  more  Martial  difcipline, 
illed  the  greateft  part  of  them ,  and  in  regard  the  Souldiers  of  the  Inca  had  untill 
now  rather  dallied  than  fought  in  earned  with  them,  being  defirous  to  fave  their 
Lives,  and  reduce  them  without  bloud ;  did  at  length  ufe  their  bell:  endeavours 
to  fubdue  them  by  violence,  which  took  fuch  effect  upon  them,  and  with  fuch 
mine  and  daughter,  that  the  ColUons  believed  the  Report  which  the  Ineas  made  of 
this  battel,  That  their  deftru&ion  was  not  performed  by  their  Arms,  but  by  the 
power  of  the  Sun,  who,  in  punimment  for  their  obltinacy  and  rebellion,  caufed 
their  own  Weapons  to  be  turned  upon  themfelves-,  to  the  belief  of  which  the 
credulous  and  fimple  Indians  being  eafily  perfuaded,  were  farther  thereby  admo- 
nifhed  by  the  Incas,  and  the  Amautas,  their  Philofophers,  how  dangerous  it  was  to 
fight  againft  the  Sun,  who  was  their  God,  and  difobey  the  Incas,  who  were  his 

CHAP.     IV. 

How  three  Provinces  were  reduced ,  and  others  conquered, 
what  Colonies  were  planted,  and  the  -punishment  of  thofe 
who  ufed  Poifon. 

THis  Fable,  with  the  great  fame  and  applaufe  which  the  Piety  and  Clemency 
of  the  King  had  gained,  was  divulged  through  all  the  neighbouring  Coun- 
tries of  Hatttnpacjjfa,  where  thefe  things  were  acted,  and  caufed  fo  much  love  and 
admiration  amongft  thofe  People ,  that  they  voluntarily  fubmitted  to  the  Inca, 
Mayta  Capac,  whom  they  acknowledged  to  be  a  true  Child  of  the  Sun,  and  there- 
fore came  to  adore  and  ferve  him  ^  amongft  which  three  Provinces  efpecially  were 
worthy  of  note,  namely,  Cauqmcnra,  Mallama  and  Huarina,  ( where  afterwards 
that  Battel  was  fought  between  Goncalo  Pkarro  and  Diego  Centeno,)  being  all  of 
them  ^  ountries  large  in  extent,  rich  in  Cattle,  and  powerfull  with  the  numbers 
of  warlike  People.  Thefe  being  received  into  grace  and  favour,  the  faca  repafled 
the  River  towards  Cozco  $  and  from  Hatm  Co/la  fent  an  Army,  under  Command 
of  his  four  Generals ,  towards  the  Weftern  parts ,  ordering  them ,  that  having 
railed  the  defobte  Countrey  of  Hatunpana,  (the  borders  of  which  Lloque  Tupanqui 
riad  once  ltocked  with  Cattle,)  they  mould  proceed  towards  the  People  on  the 
other  fide,  who  inhabit  the  Coaft  of  the  Sea  of  Zm ,  and  Ihould  try  all  fair 

I  %  means 

£o  Royal  Commentaries.  Book  III. 

means  to  reduce  them,  and  though  they  mould  find  fome  fo  obftinate  and  perti- 
nacious, as  not  to  be  prevailed  with  by  any  terms  of  friendly  accommodation , 
yet  notwithftanding  that  they  fhould  not  prefently  break  into  open  Hoftility 
with  them ,  being  allured ,  that  what  oppofition  foever  the  barbarous  people 
made,  it  would  be  more  difadvantageous ,  and  of  lofs  to  themfelves,  than  their 
voluntary  fubmiflion  could  prove  of  benefit  to  the  Inca.  With  thefe  Inftru&ions, 
and  great  fupplies  of  Provifions,  which  they  daily  gathered  in  their  march,  they 
palled  the  fnowy  Mountain  with  the  more  difficulty,  becaufe  they  found  no  path 
to  guide  them,  travelling  for  the  fpace  of  at  leaft  thirty  Leagues,  through  an  un- 
peopled, and  a  moft  defolate  Countrey  •,  at  length  they  came  to  the  Province  Cu- 
chuna,  which  was  well  inhabited ,  though  they  lived  not  in  Towns  or  Villages , 
but  fcattered  over  the  Countrey,  where  every  one  was  moft  pleafed  to  raife  his 
Cottage.    The  Natives  being  allarmed  with  the  approach  of  this  Army,  built  a 
Fortrefs,  and  retired  into  it  with  their  Wives  and  Children  •,  the  place  was  fo 
weak,  that  it  might  eafily  have  been  forced  -,  but  the  I»cm  in  obedience  to  their 
King,  encompaffed  it  with  their  Army,  and  offered  them  conditions  of  Peace 
and  Friendmip-,  all  which  they  refufed,  and  for  the  fpace  of  above  fifty  days  per- 
fifted  in  their  obftinate  Refolution  -,  during  which  time  the  Incat  had  frequent  op- 
portunities to  have  deftroyed  them-,  but  the  orders  of  their  King,  and  their  for- 
mer Cuftoms  and  Principles  of  Mercy  and  Gentlenefs  forbad  them  to  make  ufe 
of  the  advantages  which  offered.    Howfoever  at  length  Famine,  the  ufual  de- 
ftroyer  of  the  befieged,  began  to  rage  amongft  them,  having  not  had  time  to  make 
their  provifions  for  a  Siege,  which  they  could  not  imagine  would  have  endured 
fo  long-,  but  being  much  diftrefled  by  Hunger,  which  the  Men  and  Women 
more  eafily  fuftered  than  their  Children ,  were  forced  at  length  to  permit  the 
younger  fort  to  adventure  abroad,  and  gather  the  herbs  of  the  field  for  their  fufte- 
nance-,  many  of  them  fled  to  the  Enemy,  which  the  Parents  rrnre  willingly  fuf- 
fered ,  than  to  fee  them  die  with  hunger  before  their  faces.    The  Incus  feizing 
thofe  that  were  font  abroad,  gave  them  to  eat,  with  fome  Provifions  to  carry 
with  them  to  their  Parents,  and  with  the  fame  occafion  offered  the  ufual  and 
accuftomary  terms  of  Peace  and  Friendfhip.     The  Indians  obferving  this  kind 
treatment ,  and  being  without  all  expectation  of  Succour ,  refolved  to  com- 
mit themfelves  to  the  Mercy  of  their  Enemies,  concluding,  that  if  they  were 
fo  pitifull  to  them  at  a  time  when  they  flood  out  in  oppofition  to  them ,  how 
much  more  companionate  would  they  be  after  their  fubmiflion  and  refignation  to 
their  Will  and  Pleafure:    With  thefe  hopes  they  left  their  Fortrefs,  and  furren- 
dred  all  to  the  Command  of  the  Mas  5,  nor  were  they  deceived  in  their  expecta- 
tions, for  all  kind  and  friendly  reception  was  given  them,  meat  being  fet  before 
them  to  fatisfie  their  hunger  -,  and  then  they  farther  informed  them,  that  the  Inca, 
whofe  Father  was  the  Sun,  had  no  other  defign  than  of  doing  good  to  the  Inhabi- 
tants of  the  Earth,  and  that  they  might  be  better  aflured  hereof  by  their  own  ex- 
perience, Garments,  and  other  Prefents,  were  given  to  the  moft  principal  Com- 
manders of  them,  in  the  name  of  the  Ma;  and  the  common  fort  being  feafted,  at 
leaft  their  prefent  hunger  fatisfied,  they  were  all  difmifled,  and  font  to  their  own 
homes  with  entire  contentment  and  affured  fecurity. 

The  Generals  after  this  difpeeded  Intelligence  to  the  Inca  of  all  that  had  pafled, 
defiring  that  People  might  be  fent  them  for  planting  two  Colonies  in  that  Coun- 
trey ;  for  in  regard  the  foil  was  rich  and  fruitful! ,  it  was  capable  to  maintain  a 
confiderable  number  of  People-,  and  that  it  would  be  requifite  alfo  to  eftablilh 
a  Garifon  in  thofe  parts,  both  for  fecurity  of  the  late  Conquefts,  as  alfo  for  pre- 
vention of  fuch  mifchiefs  as  may  arife  for  the  future.  The  Inca  accordingly  font 
them  Women  with  their  Children,  fufficient  for  two  Colonies,  one  of  which 
they  planted  at  the  foot  of  the  Mountain ,  where  the  Fortrefs  was  built,  which 
they  called  Cuchuna,  after  the  name  of  the  Mountain,  and  the  other  Moquehua$ 
which  People  are  diftant  five  Leagues  one  from  the  other,  and  the  Provinces  con- 
ferve  ftill  their  denomination,  being  within  the  Jurifdiction  of  Cottfuyu.  Whilft 
thefe  Commanders  were  bufied  in  regulating  thefe  People,  and  giving  orders  for 
their  inflection  in  Religion  and  Laws,  they  came  to  underftand  that  thefe  Indians 
were  notorioufly  skilled  in  the  arts  of  poifoning ,  which  upon  every  occafion  of 
offence  they  adminiftred  to  their  Adverfaries,  the  which  was  not  fo  deadly  as  to 
kill  prefently ,  but  with  time  reduced  the  body  to  a  languiihing  and  macerated 


Book  III.  Koyal  Commentaries.  5i 

condition ;  fuch  as  were  of  fo  ftrong  a  Conftitution ,  as  to  refill:  the  Poifon  and 
live ;  were  yet  rendred  loathfome  by  botches  and  boils,  which  broke  from  their 
Bodies ,  and  became  overfpread  with  a  white  Leprofie ,  nor  did  it  onely  affeci 
tlieir  Bodies,  but  their  Minds  alfo,  making  them  fools,  or  ftupid,  or  elfe  mad  and 
raving-,  which  were  all  pleafant  effe&s  to  the  revengefull  adverfaries,  though  no- 
thing could  be  more  grievous  and  heavy  to  their  Parents  and  Relations.  The  Cap- 
tains being  informed  of  this  evil  which  wasamongft  this  People,  gave  advice 
thereof  unto  the  lnca,  who  thereupon  immediately  commanded,  that  whofbever 
fhould  be  found  guilty  of  that  Crime,  fhould  be  burnt  alive,  that  no  reliques  or 
metrory  fhould  remain  of  them.  This  Law  of  the  lnca  was  fb  joyfully  received 
by  the  Natives,  that  they  themfelves  gave  information  againft  the  Criminals,  and 
readily  with  their  own  hands  executed  the  Sentence,  burning  not  onely  the  Offen- 
ders ,  but  whatfoever  moveables  alfo  were  found  in  their  Houfes ,  which  they 
demolilned,  and  laid  level  with  the  ground:  With  them  alfo  they  burnt  their 
Flocks  and  Herds ,  rooted  up  the  Trees  which  they  had  planted ,  and  deftroyed 
every  thing  that  they  poflefled ,  left  the  evil  and  peftilence  of  the  Mafter  fhould 
adhere  unto,  or  infect  the  Inheritance.  The  which  punifhment,  and  feverity 
in  its  execution,  fo  affrighted  the  Natives,  that  they  never  after  durft  more  at- 
tempt this  wickednefs,  during  the  time  of  the  Incat\  though  fb  foon  as  the  Spa- 
niards came  amongft  them,  they  revived  this  evil  again,  which  till  then  was  out 
of  ufe,  and  forgotten.  The  Captains  having  in  this  manner  fettled  their  Planta- 
tions, and  reformed  this  abufe  by  the  rigorous  punifhment  of  the  Delinquents, 
they  returned  to  Cozco,  to  render  a  more  large  account  to  the  lnca  of  their  Nego- 
tiations ,  who  gratioufly  received  them ,  and  gratified  their  good  Services  with 
due  Rewards. 

CHAP.     V. 

The  lnca  gains  three  Provinces,  and  conquers  after  a  blow 
dy  Battel. 

AFter  fome  years  Mayta  Capac  refblved  to  make  another  fally  abroad  for  the 
Conquelt  of  new  Provinces,  for  the  Covetoufnefs  and  Ambition  of  the 
lnca  increafed  with  his  Dominions  and  Succefs.  Wherefore  having  raifed  his 
Army,  and  fupplied  them  with  fufficient  Provifions,  they  marched  towards 
Pucara  of  Vmafuyu,  which  were  the  moft  remote ,  or  laft ,  People  which  his 
Grand-Father  (or  as  fome  will  have  it)  his  Father  had  reduced.  From  Pucara 
he  bended  his  courfe  Eaftward ,  to  that  Province  which  they  call  L/aricajfa , 
where  the  Natives  furrendred  themfelves  without  refiftence ,  being  much  con- 
tented to  receive  the  lnca  for  their  Lord  and  Mafter.  Then  he  proceeded  to 
the  Province  called  Sancavanj  which  fubmitted  with  the  like  readinefs  and  fa- 
cility ;  for  the  Fame  of  the  lnca  being  now  fpread  over  all  Countries ,  and  the 
great  Honours  atchieved  by  the  Father  and  Grand-Father  of  this  Prince  being 
the  common  difcourfe ,  fo  moved  the  Nations  in  all  adjacent  parts ,  that  with 
unanimous  confent  they  ran  to  embrace  thofe  conditions  of  Vaflalage  which 
the  lnca  fhould  impofe  upon  them.  Thefe  two  Provinces  are  about  fifty 
Leagues  in  length,  and  about  twenty  at  one  place ,  and  thirty  another  in  breadth, 
and  are  both  populous ,  and  abounding  with  Cattle.  The  lnca  having  given 
orders  for  inftructing  the  Natives  in  the  do&rine  of  his  Idolatrous  Religion , 
and  regulated  the  civil  Affairs ,  pafTed  forwards  to  the  Province  of  Pacajfa , 
where  he  encountred  no  oppofition  or  conteft  in  Battel,  but  every  thing  fell 


62  Royal  Commentaries.  Book  III. 

down  before  him  with  fuch  Obedience  and  Veneration ,  as  was  agreeable  to  one 
whofe  birth  and  defcent  was  from  the  Sun. 

This  Province  is  part  of  that  which  we  have  already  mentioned  to  have  been 
reduced  by  Lhque  Tupanqui,  fo  that  now  by  the  Father  and  Son  this  Countrey, 
which  contained  many  People,  was  entirely  fubje&ed.  Hence  entering  upon 
the  Royal  Way  of  Vmafuyu,  they  marched  towards  that  People,  which  to  this 
day  is  called  by  the  name  of  Hnaychu,  where  they  received  intelligence,  that  a 
great  number  of  People  were  aflembled  in  a  Body  to  oppofe  him  in  his  paffage, 
the  which  report  rather  haftened  than  retarded  the  march  of  the  Inca  in  pur- 
fuite  of  his  Enemies,  whom  he  firft  encountred  at  Huychu,  where  they  appeared 
in  defence  of  a  pafs  on  that  River,  fo  called ,  and  were  about  thirteen  or  four- 
teen thoufand  in  number,  all  of  them  Indians,  bearing  arms 5  and  though  they 
were  of  divers  Nations,  yet  they  called  themfelves  by  the  common  appellation 
ofColla.  The  Jnca,  according  to  his  ufual  Method,  fent  frequent  Mellages  to 
the  Enemy,  offering  them  terms  of  Peace  and  Friendihip,  which  were  all  re- 
jected by  them,  and  interpreted  to  be  effects  of  fear^  and  thence  took  fuch  en- 
couragements, that  they  daily  became  more  inflexible ,  and  at  length  fo  daring, 
and  impudent,  as  to  attack  the  very  Royal  Quarters  of  the  Jnca;  notwithstanding 
which,  the  Jnca  perfifted  with  fuch  patience  in  his  forbearance,  that  his  Souldiers 
began  to  murmur,  and  fay,  That  it  was  no  longer  tolerable  to  permit  thole  Bar- 
barians to  infult  over  the  Majefty  of  him  who  was  defcended  from  the  Sun,  nor 
could  their  infolence  be  longer  fupported ,  without  loling  that  Reputation  which 
they  had  formerly  acquired. 

Howfoever  the  Jnca  endeavoured  to  moderate  the  difpleafure  of  his  People,  by 
telling  them,  that  it  had  been  the  cuftome  of  his  Anceltours,  and  the  Command 
of  his  Father  the  Sun,  whofe  defign  was  to  doe  good  unto  the  Indians ,  to  fave 
their  Lives,  and  advance  their  wellfare ,  and  not  break  immediately  into  War 
and  Bloud ,  but  rather  to  expecl:  with  patience ,  and  fee  whether  they  would 
come  to  any  fight  or  knowledge  of  that  good  which  was  defigned  for  them. 
With  fuch  fair  words  as  thefe  the  Inca  for  fome  days  reftrained  the  fury  of  his 
Captains  from  engaging  with  the  Enemy,  untill  one  day  being  importuned  by 
his  Souldiers,  and  moved  by  the  infolence  of  his  Enemies,  who  prefled  hard  up- 
on him,  he  gave  order  to  put  his  Army  in  Array,  and  provide  for  a  Battel. 

The  IncM,  who  greatly  defired  to  fight,  readily  entred  the  Field,  and  the  Ene- 
my, who  had  often  provoked  them  to  an  Engagement,  as  willingly  joined,  fo 
that  the  Fight  began,  and  was  maintained  on  both  fides  with  great  heat  and  cou- 
rage, one  part  (as  they  imagined)  contending  for  their  Liberty,  revolving  to 
fubmit  to  none,  though  he  were  of  the  Race  and  Offspring  of  the  Sun,  ana  the 
other,  not  fupporting  fuch  infolent  obftinacy  towards  their  King,  were  animated 
to  contend  unto  the  utmoft  in  defence  of  his  Honour  and  Dignity.  The  Callas 
notwithstanding  fought  with  great  Courage  and  Refolution ,  but  yet  with  fo 
little  Art  or  Difcipline,  that  like  defperate  Men,  they  threw  themfelves  on  the 
Weapons  of  their  Enemies,  which  occafioned  great  (laughter  amongfl  them.  The 
Battel  continued.the  whole  day,  in  which  the  Inca  behaved  himfelf  like  a  great 
Captain,  fome  time  ordering  and  encouraging  his  Squadrons,  and  again  ventu- 
ring his  Perfon  in  the  midft  of  his  Enemies ,  and  in  both  Offices  deferved  the 
merit  of  a  good  Souldier. 


Book  III.  Royal  Commentaries.  (y> 

CHAP.    VI 

The  Auay chines  yield  themfelves,  and  are  Gratiou/ly  recei- 
ved to  Pardon. 

OF  die  ColUons  (which  is  the  common  Name  of  thefe  people)  were  killed 
according  to  their  own  account,  fix  thoufand  in  this  Battel  %  the  which 
Slaughter  was  chiefly  occafioned  by  their  own  unskilfulnefs,  and  want  of  art  to 
defend  themfelves  *,  when,  on  the  other  fide,  by  reafon  of  their  Difcipline  in  War, 
there  perifbed  not  above  five  hundred :  Howfbever,  the  Battel  was  fough?  with 
fuch  courage,  that  it  ended  not  untill  the  darknefs  of  the  night  feparated  both 
parties,  and  caufed  them  to  retire  to  their  refpe&ive  quarters :  The  day  following 
the  Colkons  viewing  the  heaps  of  their  dead,  and  feeling  the  fmart  of  their-  wounds 
now  cold,  began  to  droop,  and  lofe  all  their  former  hopes  and  courage^  not  know- 
ing what  courfe  or  refolution  to  take  s  for  to  overcome,  and  right  their  way  through 
their  Enemies,  was  impofiible,  and  to  efcape  by  flight  was  equally  as  difficult,  be- 
ing encompafled  on  all  fides,  by  their  Enemies  -,  and  to  furrender  and  yield  to  Mer- 
cy feemed  dangerous,  for  having  already  refufed  thofe  advantageous  Conditions 
which  the  Inca  had  profered  5  and  having  provoked  him  to  anger  by  their  obfti- 
nate  refiftence,  they  feared,  left  they  had  put  themfelves  beyond  all  hopes  or  ex- 
pectations of  pardon.  Howfoever,  in  this  perplexed  condition,  they  embraced 
the  couufel  of  the  moft  aged  and  wifeft  amongft  them,  which  was  to  yield  and  in- 
voke the  Clemency  of  the  Prince  •,  foi  having  heard  the  report  of  that  Mercy 
whici  this  I^a,  after  the  example  of  his  Anceftours,  had  ufed  towards  all,  as  well 
towards  Rebels,  as  to  the  obedient,  they  conceived  fome  hopes,  that  theyalfo 
might  prov:  die  effects  of  his  natural  companion.  Wherefore  fo  foon  as  it  was 
day,  they  attired  themfelves  in  the  moft  penitent  and  humble  that  they 
were  able ;  the  attires  of  rheir  heads  were  put  o&  their  feet  bare,  other 
garment  on  their  bodies,  than  their  Shirts  •■,  their  Captains  and  Leaders!  appeared 
with  their  hands  bound,  and  in  this  humble  pofture  they  proceeded  with,  filence 
to  the  Gates  where  the  Inca  was  quartered  •,  and  there  kneeling  down  before  him, 
they  faid,  That  they  came  not  to  ask  his  pardon,  for  that  they  well  knew,  that 
their  offence  and  rebellion  had  put  them  befides  all  hopes  of  obtaining  it  ^  onely 
they  were  before  him  to  prefenr  themfelves"  to  the  Swords  of  his  Souldiers,  that 
their  Bloud  might  expiate  their  Rebellion,  and  ferve  for  caution  and  example  to 
other  Nations,  now  they  refilled  or  difobeyed  him  whofe  Father  was, die  Sun.  . 
In  anfwer  whereunto  the  Inca  commanded  one  of  his  Captains  to  tell  them 
in  his  Name,  that  his  Father  the  Sun  had  not  fent  him  on  the  Earth  to  kill  or 
deftroy  the  Indians,  but  on  the  contrary  had  commanded  him  to.  iuccour, 
comfort  and  doe  them  good  5  and  that  teaching  them  to  reform  their:  beftial 
manner  of  life ,  he  mould  inftrutt  them  in  the  true  Religion  and  Worfhip  of 
the  Sun,  who  was  their  God :  To  which  end,  and  to  no  Other  purpofe  ( for  he 
flood  in  no  need  of  their  fervice)  he  travelled  from  Countrey  to  Countrey,  that 
he  might  publifh  thefe  Laws  and  Ordinances  of  rational  Government  amongft 
them,  which  he  had  received  ft  om  his  Father  the  Sun :  And  as  the  pious  Off  fpring 
of  fuch  a  Father,  he  received  them  to  pardon*  though  their  Rebellion  defer ved 
punilhment,  of  which  his  interceflion  on  their  behalf  with  his  Father  the  Sun,  had 
procured  a  releafe  5  conditionally,  that  for  the  future  they  ihould  reform  their 
Manners,  and  obey  the  Sun,  under  whofe  Laws  and  Protection  they  might  expect 
all  bleflings  of  profperity  and  repofe.  With  this  anfwer  he  commanded  that  they 
fhould  be  cloathed,  and  care  taken  of  the  wounded,  and  all  of  them  feafted  and 
refrefhed  with  provifions  •,  and  with  fuch  entertainment  difmifling  them  to  their 
own  homes,  they  acknowledged  that  Rebellion  was  the  caufe  of  all  their  mifchief, 
and  that  Submiffion  and  Obedience  was  by  the  Clemency  of  the  Inca  their  onely 

C  H  A  P. 

£a  Royal  Commentaries.  Book  III. 

CHAP.    VII. 

How  many  other  People  were  reduced  3  and  in  what  manner 
the  Inca  made  a  Bridge  of  Ofiers.    . 

TH  E  News  of  this  bloudy  battel  was  foon  fpread  over  all  the  Neighbouring 
Countries,  and  every-where  interpreted  as  a  juft  judgment  fent  from  the  Sun 
on  the  Indians,  who  had  refufed  his  beneficial  conditions,  and  difobeyed  the  Iwa$ 
on  which  apprehenfion  many  of  thofe  people,  who  had  taken  up  Arms,  and  for- 
med their  Camp  with  intent  to  oppofe  the  Inca,  did  now  lay  afide  their  thoughts  of 
War,  refolving  to  fubmit  and  depend  on  the  Clemency  of  the  Inca  •,  who  accor- 
dingly received  them  with  grace  and  favour,  prefenting  them  with  Veils,  and 
other  gifts,  with  which  the  Indians  remained  greatly  fatisfied,  and  in  every  place 
publifhed  the  Inca*  to  be  the  true  and  undoubted  offfpring  of  the  Sun. 

The  people  which  were  thus  reduced,  were  the  Inhabitants  from  Huaychu  to 
Callamar,  which  is  thirty  Leagues  to  the  Southward.  Hence  the  inca  proceeded 
from  Callamarca,  twenty  four  Leagues  farther,  by  the  high-way  of  Chan  as  to  Cara- 
colh,  Summoning  all  the  Natives  to  his  fervice  both  on  one  hand ,  and  the  o- 
ther  as  far  as  to  the  Lake  of  Paria ;  thence  taking  a  compafs  to  the  Eaftward  as 
far  as  Amis,  he  came  at  length  to  that  Vally,  which  to  this  day  is  ailed  Cbuquia- 
pu,  which  in  the  common  tongue  is  as  much  as  to  fay,  the  principal  or  chief  Lance ; 
in  which  divifion  he  planted  feveral  Colonies,  becaufe  he  had  obferved,  that  thofe 
Valleys  being  fruitful!  and  warm,  were  a  better  Soil  for  producing  Mayz  ( or  In- 
dian Wheat )  than  any  of  thofe  Provinces  within  the  Precin&s  of  Colla.  From 
the  Vale  of  Caracatu  he  continued  his  March  Eaftward,  to  the  skirts  of  the  great 
Snowy  Mountain  of  Amis,  which  is  above  thirty  Leagues  diftant  from  the  Royal 

Way  Of  Vmafuyu. 

In  thefe  Marches,  and  in  the  employment  he  had  of  fettling  Colonies,  and  con- 
ftituting  Laws  and  Government  in  nis  new  Conquefts ,  the  Inca  fpent  three  years, 
and  then  returned  again  to  Cozxo,  where  he  was  received  with  expreffions  of  joy 
and  acclamation.  And  having  there  repofed  two  or  three  years  more,  he  com- 
manded, that  preparations  mould  be  made  againft  the  next  Spring,  both  of  Men 
and  Provifions,  for  a  new  Conqueft ;  for  his  active  mind  not  funering  him  to  fit 
idle,  moved  him  to  enterprize  fomething  in  the  Countrey  of  Contifuyu,  which  is 
to  the  Weft  of  Cozco,  containing  many  great  and  large  Countries  under  it :  And 
becaufe  they  were  to  pafs  the  River  called  Apurimac,  he  commanded  a  Bridge  to 
be  made  for  tranfporting  his  Army ;  for  framing  of  which,  becaufe  it  was  a  thing 
as  yet  new  and  unknown,  he  consulted  with  the  moft  ingenious  Indians  in  the 
contrivance  5  and  becaufe  it  was  the  firft  Bridge  of  Ofiers  that  was  ever  made  in 
Pern,  I  (hall  defcribe  the  manner  how  it  was  made  \  not  agreeing  with  the  Wri- 
ters of  Peru,  who  tell  us  Stories  of  Bridges  made  of  Feathers,  but  omit  to  declare 
the  manner  and  faftiion  of  them. 

In  making  this  Bridge  they  twifted,  or  weaved,  great  quantities  of  Ofiers  toge- 
ther, which  are  not  of  the  fame  fort  which  we  have  in  Spain,  but  of  a  more  fine 
and  pliable  Sprig :  Of  three  Ofiers  they  made  one  Twift  for  the  length ,  and  ano- 
ther for  the  breadth  which  the  Bridge  was  to  be  h  to  thefe  Twifts  of  three  Ofiers, 
they  added  another  of  nine,  and  weaved  three  of  thefe  together ,  fo  that  it  came 
to  be  twenty  (even  Ofiers  in  thicknefs  j  and  fo  they  went  on  Weaving  in  this 
manner,  till  it  came  to  be  as  thick  as  a  Man's  body,  and  of  this  fort  they  made 
five  pieces. 

Having  thus  prepared  their  Bridge,  fbme  Indians  either  fwam  or  ferried  them- 
felves  over  on  a  Float  to  the  other  fide,  carrying  with  them  the  end  of  a  final  1 
Cord,  which  was  faftned  to  a  Bafle-rope,  made  of  Rufhes,  ailed  by  the  Indians 
Chahuar;  this  Rope  or  Cord  was  tied  to  the  end  of  one  of  the  twined  or  matted 
pieces,  and  by  the  force  of  many  hands  they  drew  it  over  to  the  other  fide  of  the  Ri- 

Book  III.  Royal  Commentaries.  65 

ver,  as  are  alfo  the  other  four  ■-,  all  which  they  {trained  very  hard,  by  help  of  the 
Rocks  on  the  other  fide  ;  and  where  they  found  not  the  convenience  of  Rocks, 
there  they  drove  in  Stakes,  or  cut  into  Quarries  of  Stone,  as  ftrong  and  (table  as 
the  Rock  it  felf.  The  Bridge  of  Apmimac,  which  is  now  in  the  King's  High- 
way of  Cczco,  is  fixed  on  one  fide  to  a  living  Rock,  and  on  the  other  fide  to  a 
Pillar  hewed  out  of  a  Quarry.  Thefe  ihores  or  fupports  of  the  Bridge  are  made 
with  great  holes  and  trunnels,  through  which  the  Ropes  pafs ;  and  for  ftrength- 
ning  them  the  better,  they  are  fortified  with  Walls  on  each  fide  5  through  this 
hollownefs  of  the  Rock  five  or  fix  Beams  are  crofted  from  one  Wall  to  the  0- 
ther,  and  placed  one  above  the  other,  like  the  fteps  of  a  Ladder ;  on  each  of  thefe 
Beams  they  give  a  turn  of  the  Rope  belonging  to  the  feveral  pieces,  which  are 
Matted  with  Ofiers,  and  {train  them  as  hard  as  by  a  Capftone,  fo  that  the  Bridge 
may  not  fink  with  its  own  weight :  Howfoever,  this  Bridge  is  not  fo  tight,  but  that 
it  finks  in  the  middle,  whereby  thofe  who  pafs  it  defcend  at  firft,  and  afterwards 
mount  again,  untill  they  come  to  the  end,  fo  that  it  remains  in  the  fafhion  of  a 
Bow  ■-,  nor  is  it  fo  firm ,  but  that  it  (hakes  as  often  as  the  Wind  blows  harder 
than  ordinary. 

Three  of  thefe  thick  matted  pieces  were  laid  one  on  the  other  for  the  floor 
and  foundation  of  the  Bridge ,  and  the  other  two  ferved  for  the  Rails  or  Walls 
on  each  fide :  the  floor  they  covered  with  thin  Boards,  which  they  laid  crofs- 
ways,  fo  that  the  length  of  the  Board  took  the  whole  breadth  of  the  Bridge,  be- 
ing about  two  Yards :  thefe  Boards  ferved  to  ftrengthen  the  matted  pieces,  and 
keep  them  from  being  fuddenly  worn  out  ■-,  and  alfo  they  were  eroded  with  Rims 
or  Ledges  of  Wood,  which  ferved  to  keep  the  feet  of  the  Beafts  which  patted 
from  flipping :  the  Rails  or  Walls  of  the  Bridge  were  greatly  fortified  with  thin 
Boards,  dofe  tied  to  the  matted  pieces,  which  ferved  to  flrengthen  it  in  that  man- 
ner, that  both  Man  and  Beaft  might  pafs  fecurely  over  it.  This  Bridge  ofJpu- 
r'mac,  which  is  the  mod:  confiderable  of  any,  is  about  two  hundred  paces  in 
length.  For  my  own  part,  I  cannot  fay  that  I  ever  meaiured  it,  but  that  difcour- 
fing  thereof  with  fome  in  Spain,  they  ailured  me  that  the  length  was  rather  more 
than  lefs,  and  that  feveral  Spaniards  had  pafled  it  on  horfe-back,  and  fome  of  them 
running,  which  (hews  perhaps  more  ra(hnefs  than  prudence,  and  lefs  wit  than 
fear.  This  great  Machine,  which  is  begun  onely  with  a  Twift  of  three  Ofiers, 
is  at  length  brought  to  a  mighty  and  (tupendious  work ,  and  is  more  curious  and 
wondermll  than  I  have  been  able  to  defcribe ;  the  ufefulnefs  of  it  hath  proved  fo 
great,  that  it  hath  been  untill  thefe  days  kept  in  repair  at  the  publick  charge,  and 
not  fuffered  to  fall  to  decay  like  other  greater  Machines  which  the  Spaniards  found 
in  that  Countrey.  In  the  times  of  the  incas  thofe  Bridges  were  yearly  repaired 
by  the  Neighbouring  Provinces,  which  were  appointed  to  provide  the  Materials, 
and  pay  the  Workmen  according  to  a  Tax  laid  on  them  refpedtively,  and  propor- 
tioned to  their  nearnefs  and  ability  ;  which  alfo  is  in  ufe  to  this  day. 


The  Renown  and  Fame  of  this  Bridge  is  the  caufe  that  many 
Nations  fubmit  themselves. 

TH  E  Inca  being  informed  that  the  Bridge  was  finithed,  commanded  his  Ar- 
my to  meet  at  their  rendezvous ;  which  confifting  of  twelve  thoufand  able 
Souldiers,  under  the  Command  of  experienced  Officers,  he  marched  towards  the 
Bridge,  which  he  found  well  guarded  againft  any  attempt  the  Enemy  could  make 
to- burn  it :  But  inftead  thereof,  the  Indians  of  Peru,  who  to  the  very  time  that 
the  Spaniards  invaded  them,  were  fo  fimple  as  to  admire  any  new  invention,  did 

K  now 

$6  Royal  Commentaries.  Book  III, 

now  ftand  aftcnifhed  at  the  fight  of  this  vvonderfull  Fabrick ,  and  needed  no  o- 
ther  testimony  and  evidence  to  prove  the  Iatak  defcent  from  the  Sun,  than  that 
prodigious  and  myfterious  work,  which  ( as  they  thought )  nothing  lefs  than  a 
Divine  Power  and  Wifedom  could  prefent  before  their  eyes.    Such  apprehenfi- 
ons  they  had  of  the  Spaniards,  when  they  faw  them  fighting  On  fierce  creatures, 
fuch  as  their  Horfes  appeared  to  them ,  and  to  kill  their  Enemies  at  a  diftance  of 
two  or  three  hundred  paces  with  Fire-arms,  which  they  called  Thunder  and  Light- 
ning -,  and  with  the  fame  ignorant  Spirit  of  admiration  are  they  {till  affe&ed,  as 
often  as  they  behold  any  hew  invention  not  known  to  them  before  -,  as  Mills  to 
grind  Corn ,  Oxen  to  Plow ,  and  Bridges  of  Stone  ere&ed  in  Rivers  with  Ar- 
ches, which  they  fanfie  to  be  placed  and  poifed  in  the  Air  j  and  with  afbnifh- 
ment  of  thefe  and  other  dungs,  they  break  out,  and  fay,  worthy  are  the  Spaniards 
to  be  Mafters  of  the  Indians.     And  in  the  time  of  Mayta  Capac,  the  Indians  being 
yet  more  fimple  than  in  thefe  days,  might  well  be  ftrook  with  fuch  admiration  ac 
the  fight  of  this  Bridge,  that  many  Neighbouring  Provinces  needed  no  other  ar- 
gument than  this  to  perluade  them  to  receive  the  Inca  i  one  of  which  people  was 
called  ChumpivUlca,  fituated  in  the  Divifion  of  Contifuyu,  containing  about  twenty 
Leagues  in  length,  and  ten  in  breadth  -,  all  which  received  him  as  a  perfon  of 
high  degree  and  merit,  both  for  the  greatnefs  of  his  Birth,  being  defcended  from 
the  Sun,  and  for  the  ftupendious  work  which  he  had  framed,  and  which  none 
but  a  Divine  Wiiedom  could  contrive  and  accomplifh ,  onely  a  fort  of  people 
called  Villilli  made  fbme  weak  refiftence ;  for  having  encompailed  a  fmall  fortrefs 
at  the  dread  of  the  approach  of  the  Enemy,  they  all  crouded  into  it ;  but  the  Inca 
begirting  them  round,  and  fending  his  ufual  Summons,  and  gratious  Propofitions 
of  Peace  5  in  the  fpace  of  twelve  or  thirteen  days  they  all  furrendred,  and  were 
received  to  grace  and  pardon^  and  having  fettled  this  Province  in  a  peaceable 
condition ,  he  crofted  the  defolate  part  of  Contifuyu ,  containing  about  fixteen 
Leagues,  where  he  came  to  a  Moor  or  Marifh  ground ,  of  about  three  Leagues 
broad,  which  hindred  the  paflage  of  his  Army.    Here  the  Inca  commanded  a 
Cawfe-way  to  be  made  of  great  and  fmall  Stones,  which  they  filled  up  with 
Earth,  and  covered  with  Turf:  And  for  better  expedition  and  encouragement  of 
Iris  people,  the  Inca  himfelf  worked ,  helping  to  raife  and  lay  the  greateft  Stones  ^ 
which  fo  animated  the  Souldiers  to  labour,  that  in  a  few  days  they  iinifhed  the 
Cawfe-way,  which  was  fix  Yards  broad,  and  two  Yards  thick  •,  and  which  the 
Indians,  even  to  thefe  times,  have  in  fo  great  veneration ;  both  becaufe  part  of  ic 
was  the  proper  handy-work  of  the  Inca,  as  alfo  for  the  convenience  and  benefit 
of  it,  whereby  the  way  is  made  fhorter,  when  formerly  with  much  labour  and 
travel  they  were  forced  to  take  a  large  compafs  to  avoid  the  Moorilh  Countrey  : 
And  for  this  reafon  they  keep  it  ftill  in  good  repair,  fo  that  fcarce  a  Stone  de- 
cays, or  finks  from  it,  but  another  is  put  into  its  place  by  the  care  and  induftry  of 
the  Surveyors,  who  are  appointed  thereunto  by  the  bordering  people ,  who  ha- 
ving feverally  their  dift in&  divifions  and  parcels  allotted  to  them ,  do  endeavour 
to  out-vy  each  the  other  in  confervation  of  that  common  benefit  and  conveni- 
ence: the  like  rule  is  obferved  for  maintenance  of  all  other  publick  Works, 
fuch  as  Bridges  and  Royal  Palaces,  Fortreffe,  and  the  like.  In  making  the  Cawfe- 
way,  the  Turf  they  laid  upon  it  was  of  great  ufe ;  for  it  did  not  onely  make  the 
way  fmooth,  foft  and  eafie,  but  alfo  the  Roots  of  the  Grafs  extending  themfelves 
within  the  Stones,  did  greatly  bind,  and  keep  all  clofe  together. 


Book  IIL  Royal  Commentaries,  67 

CHAP.    IX. 

The  Inca  gams  many  other  great  Provhces,  and  dies  in 

TH  E  Cauieway  being  in  this  manner  finished,  the  Inca,  Majta  Capac,  pafled 
over  it  to  the  Province'  called  Allca,  and  here  he  encountred  the  Indians  of 
that  Countrey  in  a  warlike  poSture ,  who  being  encouraged  by  the  advantage  of 
the  pafs,  which  they  defigned  to  defend,  being  fuch  as  was  afperous,  craggy,  and 
horrid  to  behold,  and  even  fuch  as  was  difficult  to  PaSTengers  to  travell  over,  how 
much  more  muft  it  be,  when  guarded  and  defended  by  armed  Men  -,  and  yet  fuch 
was  the  prudence  and  good  conduct  of  the  Inca,  and  his  Military  Art  and  Prowefs, 
that  though  People  were  killed  both  on  one  fide  and  the  other,  that  Still  he  gained 
ground  and  advantage  on  the  Enemy ,  which  they  with  great  admiration  obser- 
ving, did  unanimously  conclude,  that  the  Inca  was  of  the  true  Offspring  of  the 
Sun,  and  therefore  was  invincible,  and  on  this  vain  belief  with  common  confent 
refolved  to  fubmit ,  and  accordingly  received  him  as  their  Lord  and  King,  pro- 
mising him  all  Loyalty  and  Obedience- 

The  hca  pacing  in  a  triumphant  manner  through  this  People,  called  Alka,  pro- 
ceeded farther  to  other  greater  Provinces,  whofe  Names  are  Taurifma ,  Cotahuaci, 
Pumatampu,  Parihnana  Cocha,  which  Signifies  the  Lake  of  *  Pingmns  5  for  in  the  part  T  ,A  .fort  of 
of  that  Countrey  which  remains  unpeopled,  there  is  a  great  Lake,  which  the  Indians  coMtrey 
in  their  Language  call  Cocha,  or  the  Sea,  as  they  do  all  great  Waters ;  and  Pariim- 
ana  is  that  fort  of  Bird,  which  abounding  in  that  Province,  gives  the  denomination 
to  it,  and  is  a  Countrey  rich,  fertile  and  pleafant,  and  where  great  quantities  of 
Gold  arife,  the  Spaniards,  by  Contraction,  call  it  Par ina  cocha.  Pumaxampn  Signi- 
fies a  Den  of  Lions,  Puma  is  a  Lion,  and  Tampu  a  Den,  becauSe  it  is  a  Countrey 
where  many  Lions  are  found. 

From  Parihmna  Cocha  the  Inca  marched  forward ,  and  crofled  the  defolate 
Countrey  otCoropuna,  where  is  to  be  feen  a  mod  lofty  and  beautifull  Pyramid  of 
Snow ,  which  the  Indians  moll:  properly  call  Hmca,  which  ainongft  many  other 
apt  Significations  hath  this  of  wonderfull  •,  and  indeed  it  feemed  fo  great  to  the 
fimplicity  of  the  ancient  Indians,  that  they  adored  and  worlhipped  it  for  its  Beauty 
and  Eminence.  Thence  the  Inca  proceeded  to  the  Province  called  Arum,  which 
runs  along  as  far  as  to  the  Vale  of  Arequepa,  which,  as  Bias  Vakra  affirms,  Signifies 
a  founding  Trumpet. 

All  thefe  Provinces  and  Nations  Maya  Capac  added  to  his  Empire ,  with 
much  eafe  to  himSelf,  and  gentlenefs  towards  thofe  he  fubdued-,  for  they  having 
generally  heard  of  the  difficulties  the  Inca  had  overcome,  and  the  paflages  he  forced 
through  inacceffible  places,  could  not  imagine,  that  fuch  Actions  as  thefe  were  pof 
fible  to  be  performed  by  any  other  than  one  of  Divine  Extraction,  and  defended 
from  the  Sun,  by  which  opinion  they  chearfully  fubmitted,  and  became  proud  of 
their  fubjeclion :  In  every  of  which  Provinces  he  continued  fo  long  as  was  requi- 
fite,  for  the  fettlement  of  Affairs ,  and  peace  of  the  Government  ■-,  and  finding 
that  the  Vale  of  Arequepa,  was  defolate,  and  without  inhabitants,  notwithstanding 
that  it  was  a  moft  fuitfull  Situation,  and  an  Air  pure ,  and  ferene ,  he  therefore 
refolved  to  caufe  the  Inhabitants  of  other  parts  lets  agreeable,  which  he  had  con- 
quered to  tranfplant  themfelves  to  this  more  commodious  and  happy  foil  -,  and 
fuch  effect  had  his  perfuafions  on  the  people,  allured  by  the  pleafures  of  that  Cli- 
mate, and  the  commodioufnefs  of  the  Habitation ,  that  not  onely  fome  Colonies 
of  the  conquered  Countries ,  but  alfo  Several  of  the  natural  Subje&s  of  the  Inca 
tranfplanted  themfelves  to  the  number  of  about  three  thoufand  Families  into  that 
pleafant  Valley,  which  became  the  Original  of  four  or  five  diSlindl  Nations,  one 
of  which  is  called  Chimpa,  and  another  Smahuaya  •  And  having  fupplied  all  places 
with  Governours ,  and  neceflary  Officers ,  the  Inca  returned  to  Cozco,  having  in 
this  fecond  expedition  fpent  three  years  time;  during  which,  and  the  former  in- 

K  %  vafion, 

68  Royal  Commentaries.  Book  III. 

vafion,  he  made  an  addition  to  his  Empire,  in  the  Divifion  of  Comfcp  onely, 
of  almoft  ninety  Leagues  in  length,  and  ten  or  twelve  in  breadth  one  way,  and 
fifteen  another  way  •-,  all  which  trad  of  Land  was  contiguous,  or  adjoining  to  the 
other  parts  fubje&ed  to  his  power.  The  Inca  returning  home,  was  received  at 
Cozco,  with  all  theFeftivity,  Joy  and  Triumph  imaginable,  and  met  with  Songs  and 
Mufick,  chanting  out  the  praifes  of  his  mighty  and  heroick  A&ions.  The  Inca, 
having  rewarded  his  Souldiers  with  Preients  agreeable  to  their  merit,  disbanded 
his  Army ,  it  feeming  fumcient  for  the  prefent  time  the  atchievements  already 
made  •,  and  that  now  it  was  feafonable  to  give  reft  and  repofe  from  military  acti- 
ons, and  attend  to  the  Execution  of  the  Laws,  and  to  the  Government  of  his 
Kingdom,  a  great  part  of  which  he  confidered  to  be  the  care  of  making  provisions 
for  Widows  and  Orphans,  and  other  poor  and  difabled  People  -,  in  which  good 
works  he  palled  all  the  remainder  of  his  days  •,  his  Reign  having  continued  for 
thirty  Years,  as  is  faid,  but  the  truth  is,  there  is  fo  little  credit  to  be  given  to  Re- 
ports of  this  nature,  where  are  no  Regifters,  or  Letters,  that  we  know  not  what 
to  believe  in  the  Cafe  ■-,  onely  this  is  certain,  that  he  dyed  full  of  Honour,  and  Tro- 
phies, having  acquired  a  great  name,  both  in  War  and  Peace;  and  being  much 
beloved  and  honoured.  His  Death  was  lamented  with  fincere  grief  by  all,  which, 
according  to  theCuftome  of  the  Incas  continued  for  the  fpace  of  a  full  Year.  His 
Eldeft  Son,  Capac  Tupanqui,  born  of  his  Wife  Mama  Cuca,  he  left  his  Univerfat 
Heir  of  all-,  befides  whom  alfo  he  left  other  Sons,  and  Daughters  as  well,  fuch 
as  were  legitimate,  as  fuch  as  were  termed  illegitimate. 

CHAP.    X. 

Capac  Yupanqui,  the  fifth  Monarch,  reduces  many  Pro- 
vinces in  the  Divifion  of  Contifuyu. 

TH  E  Inca,  Capac  Yupanqui ,  (the  interpretation  of  whofe  Name  we  have  al- 
ready declared  amongft  the  proper  Names  of  his  Anceftors)  after  the  death  of 
his  Father,  bound  his  Head  with  the  coloured  Wreath,  in  token  of  his  entrance 
into  the  pofleffion  of  his  patrimonial  Inheritance,  and  having  performed  the  Ob- 
fequies  of  his  Father's  Interment,  he  immediately  took  a  Journey  through  all  parts 
of  his  Dominions,  making  enquiry  into  the  Behaviour  and  Lives  of  his  Officers, 
and  in  what  manner  Juftice  was  adminiftred  amongft  them.  In  this  Progrefs  he 
palled  two  years,  and  then  returned  to  Cozco,  where  he  commanded  that  Souldi- 
ers mould  be  levied ,  and  Provifions  made  for  the  following  Year,  intending  to 
extend  his  Conquefts  into  thofe  parts  of  Contifuyu,  which  lie  Eaftward  from  Cozco, 
where  he  was  informed,  that  there  were  many  and  great  Provinces,  and  abounding 
with  People.  For  the  more  eafie  paflage  to  thofe  parts  he  ordered  another  bridge 
to  be  made  over  the  great  River  of  Apurimac,  at  that  place  which  is  called  Huaca- 
chaca,  below  Accha,  which  was  accordingly  performed  with  all  diligence,  furpaf- 
fing  the  former  bridge  in  length  and  breadth,  becaufe  the  River  was  wider  in  thofe 

In  this  manner  the  Inca  departed  from  Cozco,  attended  with  twenty  thouland 
Men  of  War,  and  being  come  to  the  bridge,  which  was  about  eight  Leagues 
from  the  City,  through  a  rough  and  afperous  way,  three  Leagues  of  which  are  a 
fteep  defcent  to  the  River,  though  in  height  it  may  not  be  perpendicular  above 
half  a  League,  and  the  afcent  on  the  other  fide  may  likewile  contain  about  three 
Leagues  farther.  Having  pafled  the  bridge,  and  this  difficult  way,  they  entred  into 
the  pleafant  Countrey  of  Tanahiara,  which  at  that  time  contained  thirty  Nati- 
ons-, what  thofe  People  were  then,  and  how  numerous,  we  have  no  certain  ac- 
count, onely  we  are  allured,  that  the  Inhabitants  on  that  fide,  called  Piti,  fo  (bon 


Book  III.  Royal  Commentaries.  69 

as  they  heard  of  the  approach  of  the  Inca,  came  forth  to  meet  him,  both  Men  and 
Women ,  old  and  young,  and  with  Songs  and  Mufick ,  Acclamations ,  and  all 
xhings  that  might  teftifie  their  Joy,  they  received  him  for  their  King,  vowing  all 
Obedience  and  Vaftalage  to  his  Perfon.  The  Inca  on  the  other  fide  received  them 
with  a  gratious  Eye,  bellowing  on  them  fuch  Verts,  or  Garments,  as  were  in  the 
mode  and  faihion  of  his  Court:  Of  this  kind' treatment  the  Pitl  fent  advice  to 
their  Neighbours ,  being  of  the  fame  Nation  with  them  of  TanJhmrk ,  giving 
them  to  underftand  that  the  Inca  had  taken  up  his  aboad  amongft  them,  and  that 
they  had  received  him  for  their  Lord  and  Mafter,  according  to  which  example  of 
the  Piti,  the  Curacy  of  divers  Nations  came  likewife  in ,  and  fubmitted  them- 

The  Inca  received  them  all  with  his  accuftomed  goodnels,  and  as  an  evidence 
of  his  greater  favour,  he  was  defirous  to  (hew  himlelf  to  his  People,  and  vifit 
their  Countrey ,  which  contained  about  twenty  Leagues  in  length ,  and  about 
fifteen  in  breadth.  From  this  Province  olTanahmra,  he  pafled  into  another,  cal- 
led Ajmara,  between  which  two  there  is  a  fpace  of  ground  wholly  defolate  and 
unpeopled  of  about  fifteen  Leagues  over.  On  the  other  fide  of  this  defart,  a  great 
number  of  People  were  gathered  into  a  body  within  a  certain  indofed  ground 
called  Mucanfa,  to  ftop  the  paffage  of  the  Inca,  and  entrance  into  their  Countrey, 
which  contains  thirty  Leagues  in  length ,  and  fifteen  in  breadth ,  and  is  rich  in 
Mines  of  Gold,  Silver  and  Lead,  and  abounds  in  Cattle  and  People,  and  confifted 
of  at  lead  eighty  Nations,  before  they  were  reduced  to  the  Obedience  ohhe  Inca. 

At  the  Foot  of  this  Ir.clofure  the  Inca  commanded  his  Army  to  encamp,  fo  as 
to  cut  the  Enemy  off  from  all  fupplies ,  who  being  barbarous ,  and  ignorant  of 
War,  had  dispeopled  all  the  Countrey ,  and  gathered  them  into  one  body,  not 
confidering  that  by  this  means  they  were  cooped  up  on  all  fides,  and  hemmed  in, 
as  it  were  in  a  Cage.  The  Inca  continued  Several  days  in  this  manner,  with  an 
unwillingnefs  to  attack  them,  inviting  them  to  fubrmflion  with  all  fair  terms  and 
propofals  of  Peace,  and  offering  no  other  violence  to  them  than  to  hinder  them 
from  provifions  and  fuftenance  •,  that  fo  what  Reafon  and  Argument  could  not 
effed,  Famine  and  Hunger  might  enforce.  In  this  refolute  condition  the  Indians 
remained  for  the  fpace  of  a  whole  month,  untill  being  conftrained  by  the  necefli- 
ties  of  Famine,  they,  lent  Meffengers  to  the  Inca,  giving  him  to  underftand,  that 
they  were  ready  to  receive  him  for  their  King,  and  adore  him,  as  die  true  Off- 
ering of  the  Sun,  conditionally,  that  he,  on  the  Faith  and  Word  of  his  Divine 
Progeny,  promife,  that  fo  foon  as  they  (hall  have  yielded  themielves  to  him,  he 
will  conquer  and  fubjedl  under  his  Imperial  Command  the  neighbouring  Province 
olVmafuyu,  which  being  a  numerous  and  warlike  People  living  upon  Rapine  and 
Spoil,  did  make  frequent  incurfions  to  the  very  doors  of  their  Houfes,  eating  up 
their  provifions  and  paftures,  and  committing  many  other  mifchiefs  and  outrages  ^ 
for  which  injuries  they  had  often  made  War  upon  them,  which  ended  in  bloud  and 
confufion  on  the  one  fide  and  the  others  and  when  at  length  Peace  was  made,  and 
terms  of  accommodation  agreed  on,  they  fuddenly  broke  out  again  into  new  vio- 
lences, not  confidering  the  Faith  and  Promifes  they  had  given:  Wherefore  if  he 
pleafed  to  avenge  them  of  thefe  Enemies,  and  reftrain  their  incurfions  on  them  for 
the  future,  they  would  yield,  and  acknowledge  him  for  their  Prince  and  Lord. 

To  this  Propofal  the  Inca  made  anfwer  by  one  of  his  Captains,  That  the  defign 
of  his  coming  into  thofe  parts  had  no  other  aim  than  to  relieve  the  oppreifed, 
and  reclaim  the  barbarous  Nations  from  that  beftial  manner  of  living,  whereto 
they  were  accuftomed,  and  that  he  might  inftruft  them  in  the  Laws  of  Reafon 
and  Morality,  which  he  had  received  from  his  Father  the  Sun  •-,  but  as  to  the  a- 
yenging  them  of  their  Enemies  for  the  injuftice  and  injuries  they  had  done  them, 
it  was  the  Office  and  Duty  of  the  Inca  to  perform  •,  howfoever  it  became  not  them 
to  impofe  conditions  on  the  Inca,  who  was  their  Lord  and  Sovereign,  and  was  to 
give  rather  than  receive  terms,  and  therefore  that  they  (hould  refer  all  their  grie- 
vances to  his  Wifedom,  who  inheriting  the  juftice  of  the  Sun ,  his  Father ,  was 
inclinable  of  himfelf  to  redrefs  their  Oppreffions,  and  reduce  their  Enemies  to 
terms  of  Reafon  and  Juftice. 

^  With  this  Anfwer  the  Ambafladours  returned;  and  the  day  following  all  th? 
Indians  that  were  retired  within  the  inclofure  to  the  number  of  above  twelve  thou- 
fand  fighting  men,  with  their  Wives  and  Children  to  about  thirty  thoufand  fouls, 
came  forth,  and  in  feveral  Divifions  prefented  themfelves  on  their  knees  before 


7<d  Royal  Commentaries.  Book  III. 

the  Inca,  profefled  themfelves  to  be  his  Slaves  and  Vaflals,  and  in  teftimony  there- 
of offered  unto  him  Gold,  and  Silver,  and  Lead,  and  vvhatfoever  elfe  was  tne  pro- 
duct of  their  Countrey.  The  Inca  receiving  them  with  his  accuftomed  Goodnefs, 
ordered  that  meat  mould  be  given  them  to  fatisfie  their  prefent  hunger-,  and  like- 
wife  provifions  for  their  journey,  that  fo  they  might  all  return  to  their  refpe&ive 
Habitations  left  they  mould  faint  by  the  way,  and  want  due  Eefrefhment  and  care 

in  fnpif  TVoitpI 

in  their  Travel. 

CHAP.    XI. 

The  Conquefi  of  thofe  of  Aymara :  The  Curacas  are  re- 
ceived to  Pardon :  Marks  are  fet  ?tp  for  boundaries  on 
the  Confines. 

THefe  People  being  fent  home  to  their  refpedHve  dwellings ,  the  Inca  procee- 
ded to  another  part  of  the  fame  Province  of  Aymara,  called  Hnaquircat 
which  even  to  this  day  contains  two  thouland  Families;  from  thence  hedifpatch- 
ed  Meflengers  to  fummon  the  Caciques,  or  Lords  oiVmafuyu  to  appear  before  him  5 
for  that  being  defcended  from  the  Sun,  he  claimed  it  as  his  Prerogative,  to  hear 
and  decide  the  differences  between  them  and  their  Neighbours  0$.  Aymara,  about 
the  pafturage,  and  places  where  they  feed  their  Cattle:  and  that  refiding  now  in 
Huaqr.irca  he  expedted  their  coming  thither,  fo  that  he  might  impofe  Laws  and 
Rules  of  Reafon  on  them,  whereby  to  meafure  their  adtions,  that  they  might  not 
like  brute  Beafts  deftroy  one  the  other,  forcaufes  of  fo  fmall  import  or  moment, 
as  that  of  pafturage ,  fince  it  was  evident  that  the  Countrey  was  large ,  and  the 
grounds  abounding  with  Grafs,  fufficient  to  feed  the  Flocks  both  of  one  and  the 
other  People.  The  Curacas,  or  Chiefs  oUVmafuyu,  being  aflembled  together  to 
confult  of  this  common  concernment,  gave  this  general  anfwer,  That  they  had  no 
bufinefs  with  the  Inca,  fo  as  to  oblige  them  to  repair  to  his  place  of  Refidence, 
but  if  he  had  any  occafions  for  them,  that  he  fliould  feek  them  within  their  own 
Territories,  where  they  were  ready  to  attend  and  receive  him  with  Arms  in  their 
hands  5  whether  the  Sun  were  his  Father,  or  not,  they  did  neither  know  nor  care, 
and  if  he  were,  yet  the  Sun  was  no  God  of  theirs,  for  they  had  natural  Gods  of 
their  own ,  whofe  Protection  and  goodnefs  they  had  Co  well  proved,  as  not  to 
change  them  for  any  other :  That  the  Inca  might  beltow  his  Laws  and  Ordinances 
on  his  own  Subjects,  for  that  they  would  accept  of  none  which  reftrained  them 
from  a  liberty  of  taking  that,  to  which  their  Arms  and  Power  gave  them  a  right 
and  title  ;  and  by  the  fame  Arms  they  would  defend  themfelves  and  their  Coun- 
trey againft  any  who  mould  dare  to  difturb  them  in  their  Peace  and  enjoyments. 
This,  they  {aid,  was  all  the  anfwer  that  they  would  give ,  and  that  in  cafe  the 
Inca  required  any  other,  he  fliould  appear  in  die  field,  and  decide  the  controverfie 
like  a  valiant  Souldier.  The  Inca,  Capac  Tupanqui,  entering  into  confultation  with 
his  principal  Officers,  upon  this  anfwer  of  thofe  of  Vmafuyu ;  agreed  and  conclu- 
ded, that  the  fuccefs  of  this  War  depended  on  difpatch,  and  therefore  that  they 
mould  without  delay  make  an  attempt  upon  them ,  the  fuddenners  of  which 
would  fo  diftradt  and  confound  them,  that  the  furprifal  and  fear,  more  than  the 
real  hurt,  would  affright  them  into  fubmiffion ;  for  that  it  being  a  Law  and  Ma- 
xitne  of  the  firft  Inca,  Manco  Capac,  and  from  him  derived  to  all  his  Royal  Pofte- 
rity  to  fpare  the  bloud  of  the  Indians,  and  gain  them  by  all  arts  and  contrivances 
of  Gentlenefs  and  Invitation-,  and  that  War  and  Force  were  to  be  the  la  ft  reme- 
dies :  In  confideration  of  which,  Capac  Tupanqui  thought  fit  to  make  ufe  of  this 
Strategeme,  commanding  eight  thouland  feledl  Men  of  his  Army  to  march  day 


Book  III.  Royal  Commentaries.  71 

and  night  into  the  Province  of  Vmafuyu,  fo  that  by  the  fpeedinefs  of  their  march 
they  might  furprife  the  Enemy,  who  did  not  exped  the  motion  of  fo  great  a  body 
in  lefs  than  the  fpace  of  a  whole  month  5  but  feeing  them  already  in  the  midft  of 
their  C  ountrey  with  a  flying  Army,  and  the  grofs  Body  on  their  march  towards 
them,  and  considering  that  it  was  impoflible  for  them  to  aflemble  fo  foon  together, 
as  to  make  a  head  fufncient  to  refift,  began  to  repent  of  their  pertinacious  anfwer  5 
and  now  laying  afide  the  thoughts  of  War,  the  Caracas  with  fpeed  and  hafte  aflern- 
bled  together  from  all  parts,  refolving  that  the  onely  expedient  in  that  exigency 
was  to  ask  pardon,  and  mercy  for  their  late  offence-,  fo  that  one  after  the  other, 
as  they  chanced  to  come  in,  proftrated  themfelves  before  the  Inca,  acknowledging 
him  for  a  true  Child  of  the  Sun,  and  as  fuch  they  fwore  and  vowed  unto  him  all 
Faithfulnefs  and  Obedience. 

The  Inca,  contrary  to  the  expectation  of  the  Caracas,  who  expected  nothing 
lefs  than  death,  or  punilhment,  received  them  with  a  gratious  Clemency,  telling 
them  by  one  of  his  Captains,  that  when  he  confidered  their  Barbarity,  and  that 
they  were  wholly  ignorant  of  all  kind  of  Molality,  he  did  not  admire  at  their  re- 
fufai  to  accept  his  Religion,  and  the  lenity  of  his  government,  being  allured  that 
when  they  (hall  have  once  learned  and  proved  thofe  things  which  conduce  to  hu- 
mane Life,  they  will  blels  the  hour  in  which  they  were  perfuaded  to  forfake  thofe 
their  Idols,  which  were  formed  in  the  fimilitude  of  Beafts,  and  vile  Creatures,  and 
capable  of  nothing  but  contempt  3  wherefore  now  he  commanded  them,  that  in 
every  thing  they  Ihould  refign  themfelves  With  implicke  Faith,  and  entire  Obe- 
dience to  the  Religion,  Laws  and  Government  which  the  Jnca  and  his  Minifters 
ihould  impofe  upon  them,  for  fuch  was  the  pleafure  of  the  Sun  his  Father. 

The  Caracas  with  moft  profound  humility  anfwered ,  That  they  did  promife 
and  vow  to  acknowledge  no  other  God  than  the  Sun,  nor  no  other  King  than  the 
Incay  whole  Laws  and  Ordinances  being  founded  on  Realbn  and  Juftice ,  were 
the  beft  Rules  whereby  to  make  his  Subjects  happy.  The  Inca,  in  favour  and 
honour  to  thefe  his  new  Subjects,  fettled  his  Court  for  a  while  in  the  Province 
ofChirirqui  which  is  the  chief  and  capital  Seat  of  this  People  3  at  which  place 
informing  himfelf  of  the  fituation  and  pofition  of  their  part urages ,  and  of  the 
Caufes  and  Original  of  the  differences  arifing  between  thefe  People  and  their 
Neighbours,  did  after  mature  confideration  determine  where  the  confines  of  each 
Countrey  ihould  be  limitted;  and  in  teftimony  thereof  caufed  heaps  of  Stones 
to  be  thrown  up  at  fuch  places,  where  he  thought  fit,  to  remain  for  Boundaries 
and  Marks  to  diftinguith  the  Lands  of  one  People  from  the  others  the  which 
Land- marks  are  to  this  day  conferved,  and  continued  in  great  Veneration,  be- 
caufe  they  were  the  firft  of  that  Nature,  which  had  been  railed  in  Peru  by  order 
of  the  Inca. 

The  Cnracas  ot  both  Provinces  being  entirely  fatisfied  with  this  Sentence  and 
Determination  of  the  Inca,  with  profound  humility  kifled  his  Hands,  and  retur- 
ned to  their  refpedive  abodes,  whilft  the  hen  in  the  mean  time  vifited  at  his  lei- 
sure die  chief  places  of  both  thefe  Provinces,  that  fo  he  might  fettle  his  Govern- 
ment, and  eftabliih  his  Laws  amongft  them,  after  which  not  judging  it  fit  to  pro- 
ceed farther  in  his  Conquefts,  though  his  Profperiry  and  Succefs  was  greatly  invi- 
ting, he  returned  back  again  to  Cozco,  where  he  entred  in  this  triumphant  manner 
into  his  Imperial  City,  rirft  the  Caracas  and  Nobles  of  the  two  late  reduced 
Provinces,  who  came  out  of  curiofity  to  fee  the  Imperial  Seat,  carried  the  Inca  on 
their  Shoulders  in  a  Chair  of  Gold ,  in  token  of  their  fervitude  and  fubjedion, 
theSouldiers  marched  before  in  their  military  order,  their  Captains,  and  Chiefs 
followed  immediately  after  the  Chair  3  every  Squadron  keeping  its  due  order,  ac- 
cording to  its  degree  of  precedency ,  the  which  was  allotted  them  according  to 
their  Seniority,  the  new  Conquefts  giving  place  to  the  more  ancient  fubjeds :  and 
thus  the  triumph  being  ranked  in  this  order ,  the  whole  City  concurred  to  the 
folemnity,  going  fordi  according  to  their  ufual  manner,  to  meet  and  receive  their 
I»ca  with  Mufick,  and  Songs,  and  all  Feftivity. 


Royal  Commentaries.  Book  III. 

CHAP.    XII. 

The  Inca  fe?ids  to  Conquer  the  Quechuas ,  who  with  great 
willhignefs  fubmit  themjelves. 

TH  E  Inca  having  for  four  years  attended  onely  to  the  adminiftration  of  his 
Government,  and  the  benefit  of  his  Subjects,  thought  it  not  fit  to  fpend 
more  time  in  quietnefs  and  eafe,  left  his  Souldiers  living  in  peace  and  repofe, 
mould  grow  refty  and  luxurious ,  and  forgetfull  of  their  Military  Difcipfine  •, 
wherefore  he  commanded,  that  the  Souldiery  iliould  be  in  a  readinefs,  and  Prc- 
vifions  made  for  War  againft  the  following  year. 

And  now  the  time  of  entring  into  the  Field  being  come,  he  appointed  his  Bro- 
ther Auqp.i  Tun  for  his  Captain- General  and  four  other  lncas  of  his  neareft  rela- 
tions, who  were  well  prattifed  in  the  affairs  both  of  War  and  Peace,  to  be  Ma- 
jor-Generals, every  one  of  which  had  an  equal  fhare  of  5000  Men  committed  to 
his  charge,  and  all  fvve  of  them  in  joint  commiffion  commanded  the  Army :  The 
defign  was  to  carry  on  that  Conqueft  which  they  had  already  begun  in  the  Divi- 
fion  of  Conufttyu  •,  and  for  a  good  beginning  and  omen  to  their  future  proceedings , 
the  Inca  was  pleafed  in  perfon  to  accompany  them  as  far  as  to  the  Bridge  of  Htta- 
cachaca  5  where  having  recommended  to  them  the  example  of  his  Anceftours  as 
the  pattern  ^for  them  to  follow,  he  returned  again  to  His  City  of  Cozco. 

The  General,  with  his  other  Commanders ,  entred  into  the  Province  called 
Cotapampa,  where  they  were  met  by  the  Lord  thereof,  accompanied  with  one  of 
his  Kinfinen ,  who  likewife  commanded  another  Countrey  called  Cotanerit,  and 
both  of  them  Natives  of  ^uechua.  The  Caciques  having  intelligence  that  the  Inca 
had  fent  an  Army  into  their  Countrey,  aflembled  together,  and  unanimoufly 
refolved  to  receive  him ,  as  their  King  and  Lord ,  with  all  readinefs  5  for  ha- 
ving many  days  expected  and  defired  his.  coming,  they  all  upon  news  of  his  ap- 
proach went  forth  with  Songs  and  Dances  to  meet  the  Inca,  Auqui  Titu,  making 
great  demonftrations  of  joy  and  contentment,  one  of  them  in  behalf  of  all  the  reft, 
expreffing  himfelf  in  this  manner :    Inca  Apu,  (which  fignifies  General )  thou  art 

welcome,  becAufe  thou  art  here  to  give  us  a  new  Being ,  and  a  new  Title  of  being  Servants 
and  Subjects  to  that  great  Prince,  who  derives  his  Pedigree  from  the  Sun  :  And  becaufe  that 
thou  art  his  Brother,  we  honour  and  adore  thee  •-,  giving  thee  to  underfland,  that  hadfl  thou 
not  come  in  afhort  [pace  to  have  reduced  ns  to  this  Service  of  the\x\QZ,  we  were  all  refolved 
to  go  the  next  year  unto  CoZCO,  there  to  have  owned  and  acknowledged  our  felves  for  Ser- 
vants of  jour  King  ,  befeeching  him  to  receive  m  under  his  mighty  defence  and  protetlion  5 
for  the  fame  of  thofe  great  achievements  and  miraculous  atlions  performed  by  this  Ojf-fpring 
if  the  Sun  both  in  War  and  Peace,  have  affeFied  us  with  fuch  wonder  and  love  towards  him} 
that  every  day  ft ems  a  year,  untill  we  enjoy  the  honour  and  privilege  of  being  his  Subjects  • 
And  indeed  hereby  we  promife  our  felves  the  hafpinefs  of  being  delivered  from  the  Tyrannies 
and  Cruelties  with  which  our  Neighbours  of Chanca  and  Hancohualk;  '  .we  for  many  years 
from  the  times  of  our  Anceftours  and  Forefathers  mojl  gricvoufly  vexed  and  oppreffed  us  ; 
and  fe  if  thou  wilt  receive  us  under  tlr/  protetlion,  our  defires  will  be  fulf/led,  a::d  our  hap- 
p'r.icfs  confummated,  and  may  thy  Father  the  Sun  evermore  defend  and  preferve  thee.  Ha- 
ving iMd  thefe  tilings,  they  made  their  Obeifance  to  the  Inca  and  his  Generals, 
delivering  a  great  quantity  of  Gold  to  be  fent  as  a  prefent  to  the  Inca  their  Sove- 
reign. This  Province  of  Cotapampa,  after  the  War  of  Goncalo  Pkarro ,  was  the 
portion  allotted  to  Don  Pedro  Luys  de  Cabrera,  a  Native  of  Seville  •/  and  the  Pro- 
vince Cotanera,  and  another  called  Huamanpallpa ,  of  which  we  (hall  have  occafion 
hereafter  to  (peak,  was  the  pofleiiicn  of  my  Mafter  Gar^lafo  de  la  Vega,  and  was 
the  fecend  Dividend  which  was  made  in  Peru  \  and  of  the  rirft  we  (hall  fpeak  in 
its  due  place.  Jn  anfwer  hereunto  the  General  Aqui  Titu,  and  his  Captains,  re- 
plied inthe  name  of  the  Inca  •,  that  both  their  defires  and  affectionate  exprelTions 
towards  them  were  very  acceptable,  and  lb  obliging,  that  they  promifed  to  re- 

Book  III.  Royal  Commentaries.  y> 

count  every  fyllable  of  them  to  the  Majefty  of  their  Inc* ,  'who,  no  doubt,  but 
would  remain  fo  fenfible  of  their  good  will,  that  he  would  not  omit  to  make 
finable  returns  in  the  lame,  if  not  in  a  higher  degree,  than  he  had  towards  others. 
The  Curacy  were  greatly  pleafed,  that  their  words  mould  have  the  honour  to 
reach  the  Ears  of  the  Uc*;  and  therefore  every  day  gave  new  teftimonies  of  their 
affection,  by  their  readinefs  to  execute  what  Commands  loever  the  Captains im- 
pofcd  upon  them.  And  having  left  in  this  place  fuch  inftru&ions  as  were  con- 
venient for  the  orderly  government  thereof-,  they  proceeded  to  another  Province 
caljed  Huamampallpa,  which  yielded  it  (elf  without  any  contradiction  or  oppoiition 
whatsoever.  Thence  the  Incas  paiTed  a  River  which  divides  the  two  Provinces 
by  two  or  three  ftreams,  which  afterwards  a  little  lower  falling  in  together,  make 
that  famous  River  of  Amancay. 
One  of  thofe  ftreams  pafles  thorough  Chuqxiinca,  where  the  Battel  was  fought 

between  Francifco  Hernandez,  Giron,  and  the  Marefchal  Don  Alonfo  de  Aharado  -7  and 

fome  years  before,  on  the  very  fame  place,  a  Battel  was  fought  between  Dan  Die- 
go de  Almagro,  and  the  faid  Marefchal  j  in  both  which  Don  Alonfo  de  Aharado  was 

overthrown,  as  we  ihall  recount  in  its  due  place,  if  God  gives  us  life  to  arrive  fo 
far  in  this  Hiftory.  Thus  the  Incas  continued  their  progrefs  in  reducing  the 
Countries  both  on  one  fide  and  the  other  of  this  River  Amancay  $  which  though 
they  be  many  in  number,  yet  they  are  all  contained  under  the  common  appellation 
of  JHuechua,  wliich  abounds  with  Gold  and  Cattel. 


Many  Plains  ami  V allies  by  the  Sea-coaft  are  reduced,  and 
the  Sin  of  Sodomy  punijhed. 

SUch  Orders  being  given  and  eftablilhed  as  were  requifite  for  the  better  govern- 
ment and  adminiftration  of  affairs  in  the  conquered  places ,  they  proceeded 
into  the  defolate  Countrey  of  Hua/laripa,  which  is  a  defart  much  famed  for  the 
great  quantities  of  Gold  extracted  thence ,  and  where  much  more  remains  to  be 
ftill  digged  •,  and  having  crofted  one  fide  of  the  defart  for  about  5  $  Leagues,  they 
deleended  into  thofe  Plains  which  run  along  by  the  Sea-coaft :  All  this  Countrey 
by  the  Sea-coaft,  the  Indians  call  Tmca,  which  is  as  much  as  to  fay,  the  Hot  Coun- 
trey, under  which  name  are  comprehended  all  the  Vallies  which  border  on  the 
Sea ;  and  the  Spaniards  call  the  Low  grounds  Vallies,  which  are  watered  by  the 
ftreams  that  fall  from  the  Mountains  j  for  in  that  Countrey,  that  part  is  onely  ha- 
bitable which  lyes  towards  the  Sea ;  all  the  reft  being  dry,  is  nothing  but  dead 
and  barren  Sands,  where  grows  neither  Grafs,  nor  Herb,  nor  any  thing  for  the 
fuftenance  of  Mankind. 

On  that  fide,  by  which  the  hcas  pafled  into  thofe  Plains,  lyes  the  Vale  of  Ha- 
cari,  which  is  wide ,  rich  and  well  peopled ,  and  which  in  times  paft  contained 
aoooo  Indians  \  all  which  with  much  willingnefs  fubmitted  to  the  obedience  and 
fervice  of  the  Ima.  This  Vale  of  Hacari  led  them  into  other  Vales  called  Vumna, 
Camana,  Caraviki,  Pitta,  Quelle*,  and  others,  which  run  for  the  fpace  of  7°  Leagues 
North  and  South  along  the  Coaft  of  the  Sea  of  Zur  .-  All  which  Vales  here  na- 
med, are  each  above  20  Leagues  long  from  the  defart  to  the  Sea,  and  all  watered 
by  ftreams  on  one  fide  and  the  other  5  fome  of  which  are  fo  full  and  plentifull, 
that  after  they  have  fupplied  the  Lands  with  fufficient  moifture,  the  remainder 
empties  it  felf  into  the  Sea  j  and  others  perhaps  having  refreihed  the  Lands  for 
two  or  three  Leagues  from  their  Source  or  Fountain-head,  are  afterwards  abforpt, 
or  drank  up  by  the  drinels  of  the  Earth.  The  General  Aqm  Titx,  and  his  Cap- 
tains, having  reduced  all  thefe  Vallies  to  obedience  without  fighting  one  ftroke, 

L  rendred 

74  Royal  Commentaries.  Book  III. 

rendred  an  account  to  the  Inca  of  their  fuccefs  $  and  particularly,  that  having  made 
enquiry  into  the  fecret  cuftoms  of  thofe  Natives ,  and  into  their  Rites  and  Cere- 
monies, as  alfb  what  Gods  they  worshipped :  They  obferved  and  found,  that  their 
chief  Deity  was  the  Fifh  which  they  killed  and  eat  ■■,  and  alfo,  that  there  were  So- 
domites amongft  them  •-,  but  howfoever,  that  this  wickedness  was  not  general  or 
common  to  all  the  Vallies,  but  to  fome  few  •,  nor  was  it  openly  practifed,  but  in 
fecret,  being  that  which  nature  and  the  light  of  humane  reafon  did  abhor.  They 
farther  likewife  acquainted  the  Inca,  that  being  arrived  to  the  utmoft  bounds  which 
are  terminated  by  trie  Sea,  there  remained  on  that  fide  no  other  Land  to  fiibdue. 
The  Inca  was  much  pleafed  with  the  Relation  of  thefe  Conquefts,  and  much  more, 
that  it  had  coft  no  bloud  ■-,  wherefore  he  fent  to  Command  his  Souldiers,  that  ha- 
ving left  and  eftablifhed  fuch  Orders  as  were  neceflary  for  the  government  and  fe- 
curity  of  thofe  Countries,  they  mould  return  to  CW«  5  but  firft,  that  they  mould 
make  ftricl:  inquifition  concerning  thofe  who  were  efteemed  guilty  of  that  unna- 
tural fin  of  Sodomy,  and  not  onely  burn  thofe  aliW  in  a  publick  place,  who  were 
evidently  convicted  of  that  crime ,  but  even  thofe  who  were  but  fo  much  as 
fufpe&ed  thereof-,  that  they  mould  alfo  burn  and  deftroy  their  Houfes,  their  Trees 
and  Inheritance,  leaving  them  a  fad  fpe&acle  to  their  neighbours  and  acquaintance. 
And  farther,  the  Inca  commanded  that  they  mould  proclaim  and  publifh  this  his 
Edidt  againft  Sodomy  for  the  future  to  be,  That  whofoever  mould  be  found 
guilty  of  this  abomination,  that  not  onely  he  fliould  be  deftroyed  in  particular, 
but  likewife  his  Relations,  his  Neighbours ,  and  all  the  Inhabitants  of  the  parts 
round  fliould  be  puniflied  with  the  fame  deftru&ion,  mine  and  defolation. 

All  which  being  performed  exa&ly  according  to  the  pleafure  and  direction  of 
the  Inca ,  this  new  Law  was  with  great  admiration  and  aftonifliment  of  the  Na- 
tives put  into  execution  on  the  Offendours  ■-,  for  being  a  crime  fo  fhamefull  and 
deteftable  to  the  Inca,  and  his  proper  Subjects,  the  mention  and  name  thereof  was 
not  without  fome  abhorrence  taken  into  their  mouths  •-,  {0  that  if  any  Indian,  who 
was  a  Native  of  Coz,co,  mould  at  any  time  in  paffion  revile  his  neighbour  with 
that  word  and  opprobrious  term,  he  was  prefently  looked  upon  as  one  defiled, 
and  for  many  days  polluted,  untill  his  mouth  were  deanfed  from  a  word  fo  filthy 
and  deteftable. 

The  General  and  his  Officers  having  in  this  manner  executed  all  the  Com- 
mands of  the  Inca,  they  returned  to  Cozco,  where  they  were  received  in  great 
triumph,  and  rewarded  with  honours  and  favours  agreeable  to  their  merit.  But 
many  years  had  not  pafled  after  thefe  Conquefts,  before  the  Inca,  Capac  Tupanquiy 
refolved  to  begin  a  new  Expedition  in  perfon  for  enlargement  of  his  Dominions 
on  the  fide  of  Collafttyu  •,  ( for  as  yet  in  his  late  Marches  he  had  not  pafled  the  Di- 
vifions  of  Contifuyu  )  fo  that  in  order  hereunto,  he  commanded  that  twenty  thou- 
fand  feledt  men  ihould  be  put  in  a  readinefs  againft  the  following  year.  And 
that  in  the  mean  time  nothing  fhould  be  omitted,  which  might  contribute  to  the 
due  adminiftration  of  his  Government,  he  appointed  his  Brother  Aoui  Titu  to  re- 
main Deputy  in  his  place,  and  that  the  four  Major-Generals  which  had  accompa- 
nied him  in  the  laft  Wars  fliould  be  his  Counfellours.  Into  their  places  he  chofe 
four  other  Generals,  and  both  they  and  all  the  Captains  and  Officers  of  the  Army 
were  not  of  lefs  degree  or  quality  than  that  of  an  Inca ;  for  though  the  Forces 
which  came  from  divers  Provinces  were  conducted  by  their  own  Chief  or  Com- 
mander, yet  afterwards,  when  they  came  to  be  united  with  the  Imperial  Army,  an 
Inca  was  given  to  prefide  over  them ,  fo  that  the  Chief  became,  as  it  were,  his 
Lieutenant  •,  by  which  means  the  whole  Army  had  Incas  for  their  Officers,  and  yet 
none  feemed  to  be  difplaced  or  acquitted  of  ais  cha?ge.  By  which  method  and 
policy  in  government,  things  were  preferved  in  their  juft  balance •■,  for  unlefs  it 
were  in  matters  of  Law  and  Juftice,  which  admitted  of  no  difpenfation ,  it  was 
a  Maxim  amongft  the  Incai  never  to  difoblige  their  Cur  oca* ,  but  in  every  thing  to 
render  their  Yoke  fo  eafie  and  gentle,  that  the  Indians  might  be  fond  of  it  ■-,  and 
that  the  love  of  the  people  might  be  the  bafis  and  foundation  of  their  Govern- 
ment. Moreover,  the  Inca  thought  fit  to  take  his  Son,  who  was  his  Heir,  to  ac- 
company him ;  for  though  he  were  young,  yet  his  years  were  capable  of  educa- 
tion and  practice  in  the  War. 


Book  III.  Royal  Commentaries.  75 

CHAP.    XIV. 

Two.  Curacas,  of  great  Power  and  Authority,  refer  their  dif- 
ferences to  the  Arbitrement  of  the  Itica ,   and  become  his 
'  Subjects. 

"T"  HE  appointed  time  for  this  expedition  being  come,  Capac  Tupanqui  departed 
-*•  from  Cozco,  and  marched  as  far  as  the  Lake  of  Paria,  which  was  the  ulti- 
mate bound  or  limit  of  his  Fathers  Conqueft  •,  and  in  the  way ,  as  he  marched 
he  gathered  the  recruits  which  divers  Provinces  had  made  ready  for  him,  not 
omitting  to  vifit  the  Nations,  as  he  pafled,  that  fo  he  might  favour  and  honour 
them  with  his  prefence^  the  which  they  efteemed  fo  high  an  obligation,  that  in 
clivers  Countries  they  have  noted  the  places  with  a  particular  remark,  where  the 
lnca  pitched  his  Camp,  or  where  they  fent  him  provifions,  or  refreihed  himfelf-, 
the  which  places  to  this  day  the  Indians  conferve  in  great  Veneration,  as  if  the 
ground  had  been  hallowed  by  his  facred  feet. 

So  foon  as  the  lnca  arrived  at  the  Lake  of  Paria,  all  the  neighbouring  People 
fubmitted  themfelves  to  his  Service  and  Jurifdiclion  -,  fome  of  which  inclined  to 
Obedience  out  of  an  efteem  they  had  of  his  gentle  and  wife  Government,  and 
others  out  of  fear,  and  dread  of  the  power,  which  they  were  not  able  to  refiif.  In 
thefe  Marches  Meflengers  arrived  at  the  Court,  from  two  great  Captains  in  the 
Divifion  of  Collafuyu,  who  made  War  one  on  the  other.  Thefe  two  powerfull 
Curacas  were  defended  from  two  great  Generals,,  who  in  times  part,  before  the 
Empire  of  the  lnc*s,  being  Souldiers  of  Courage  and  Bravery,  railed  feparate  Ar- 
mies, and  began  each  to  let  up  for  himfelf,  and  lay  foundation  for  Authority  and 
Power :  But  as  Rule  and  Empire  can  bear  no  Equal,  or  Competitor,  thefe  two  great 
Men  turned  their  Arms  one  againfr  the  other,  and  continued  a  War  during  the 
whole  courfe  of  their  Lives :  the  which  created  fuch  animofities  between  their 
People,  that  their  Children  inherited  the  like  anger,  and  took  up  the  fame  occa- 
sion of  Quarrel,  which  was  never  decided  untill  the  lnca ,  Capac  Tupanqui  deter- 
mined their  differences. 

For  thefe  People  obferving  the  conftant  miferies  of  War,  in  which  they  were 
engaged,  deftroying  one  the  other  without  advantage  ■■,  for  that  their  courage,  and 
skill  in  war  being  equal,  neither  fubmitted  to  the  other,  or  reaped  other  benefit 
than  defolation,  and  the  fatal  confequences  of  War  5  they  therefore  agreed  with 
mutual  confent,  and  with  concurrence  of  their  Captains  and  Relations ,  to  remit 
all  their  differences  and  quarrels  to  the  fole  Arbitrement  and  determination  of  the 
Jnca,  Capac  Tupanqui,  refolving  to  ftand  to  whatfbever  he  lhould  fentence  in  deter- 
mination of  Right,  and  accommodation  of  the  Quarrels,  and  for  moderating  the 
heats  and  fury  between  them.  Thefe  terms  being  refolved ,  they  both  defired 
and  courted  the  acquaintance  of  the  lnca,  whofe  Fame  and  Reputation  for  Juftice 
and  Equity,  derived  from  his  ancient  Progenitors,  and  the  great  Actions  which 
he  had  performed,  with  tire  affiftence  and  help  of  his  Father,  the  Sun,  were  pub- 
lifhed  and  made  known  to  all  thofe  Nations.  One  of  thefe  great  Lords  was  cal- 
led Cari,  and  the  other  Cbipana,  both  which  were  the  Names  of  their  Fathers, 
and  which  each  of  them  conferved  from  Father  to  Son,  fucceflively  for  many  Ge- 
nerations, in  remembrance  of  their  Anceftours,  and  for  a  motive  to  imitate  and 
follow  their  Bravery  and  Valour.  Pedrode  Cieca  in  his  Hiftory  touches  this  paffage 
briefly,  and  calls  one  of  thefe  Curacas  Cari,  and  the  other  Capana.  Thefe  Perfons 
having  underftood  that  the  lnca  proceeded  in  his  Conquefts,  in  all  parts  adjacent, 
difpatched  their  Meflengers,  to  render  him  a  particular  account  of  all  the  Wars, 
Differences  and  Difputes  which  were  between  them ,  befeeching  him  that  he 
w^ould  be  pleated  to  permit  them  licence  to  appear  in  his  prefence,  that  they  might 
kifs  his  hands,  and  give  him  a  more  large  relation  of  the  grounds  and  caufes  of 

L  z  their 

y 6  Royal  Commentaries.  Book  III. 

their  Quarrels  and  Differences-,  being  deiirous  to  remit  all  their  pretentions  to  the 
fole  determination,  and  arbitrement  of  his  Majefty,  for  in  regard  that  he  was  de- 
fended from  the  Sun,  they  were  affared  of  his  juftice  and  Rectitude,  and  that 
his  Sentences  were  infallible  •,  and  therefore  protefted  that  they  would  adhere  unto 
and  reft  fatisfied  with  whatfoever  he  mould  declare  to  be  his  Judgment  and  ulti- 
mate Decifion  in  their  Controverfie. 

The  Inca  having  heard  the  Meffage,  gave  anfvver,  That  the  Curacas  might  be 
pleafed  to  come  at  fuch  time  as  would  beft  fuit  with  their  convenience,  and  that 
then  he  would  ufe  his  beft  endeavours  to  bring  them  to  a  right  underftanding 
of  each  other-,  ofwhichhedid  not  entertain  the  leaft  doubt,  in  regard  that  he, 
refolving  to  confult  the  Wifedom  of  his  Father  the  Sun  in  their  cafe ,  and  ap- 
ply his  Ordinances  and  Laws  to  the  prefent  difference ,  the  Judgment  he  mould 
pronounce  would  be  infallible,  and  uncapable  of  any  Errour  or  Miftake. 

This  gratious  Anfwer  was  very  fatisfa&ory  to  the  Curaca* ,  fo  that  they  both 
met  before  the  Inca.  at  the  time  appointed,  and  both  at  the  fame  time  caft  them- 
felves  on  their  knees,  and  kiffed  his  Hand,  that  neither  might  feem  to  have  a 
preference  before  the  other.  Carl,  whofe  Lands  bordered  neareft  on  the  fron- 
tiers of  the  Inca,  was  the  fir  ft  that  had  the  privilege  to  {peak  in  the  name  of  them 
both,  rendring  a  large  account  of  the  differences  which  were  between  them,  and 
of  the  Original  from  whence  they  did  arife  ■-,  he  declared,  That  their  Quarrel  was 
enflamed  by  Envy  and  Emulation,  whenfoever  one  obferved  the  other  to  gain 
and  advance  in  honour,  and  to  be  more  profperous  than  himfelf  5  fometimes  Co- 
vetoufnefs  was  the  motive,  when  both  defigned  on  each  others  Territories-,  but 
moft  commonly  the  Boundaries  and  Limits  of  their  relpe&ive  Jurifdi<fHons  was 
the  occafion  of  their  Wars:  For  determination  of  which  they  prefented  them- 
felves  before  his  Majefty,  humbly  imploring  his  facred  Sentence  and  Arbitrement 
to  determine  thofe  Wars,  of  which  they  were  weary,  and  which  had  for  many 
years  wafted  their  Countries,  to  the  great  Mifery  and  Defolation  of  each  others 
People  and  Subjects.  The  M*  heard  and  received  their  Requeft  with  his  accu- 
ftomary  gentlenefs  and  favour,  and  ordered  that  for  the  prefent  two  of  his  Cap- 
tains ,  who  were  hcu ,  and  ancient  Counfellours ,  lhould  feverally  take  one  of 
thefe  CuracM  into  his  charge  and  tuition,  to  teach  and  inftrucl  him  in  the  Laws 
of  Nature,  which  were  the  Rules  the  hcas  obferved  in  the  Government  of  their 
People,  that  fo  they  might  live  in  peace  and  unity,  and  giving  unto  every  one 
his  due  and  right,  both  in  Eftate  and  Honour..  And  as  to  the  differences  which 
arofe  about  the  Bounds  and  Extent  of  their  refpe&ive  Jurifdiiftions,  he  told  them 
that  he  would  fend  two  Incas,  who  were  of  his  Kindred,  to  take  informations 
from  the  Curacas  of  the  Provinces,  concerning  the  Caufe  and  Original  of  their 
long  continued  War  and  Quarrel.  The  which  being  performed ,  and  the  Inca, 
maturely  advifed  in  every  particular ,  he  debated  the  matters  with  his  Council, 
and  then  calling  the  Caracas  before  him,  he  told  them  in  few  words,  That  his 
Father  the  Sun  had  revealed  unto  him,  that  the  onely  way  and  means  to  recon- 
cile thefe  diffenting  Parties,  was  to  enjoin  them  to  keep  his  Laws  and  Precepts, 
the  defign  and  intent  of  which  was  to  conferve  Peace  and  Concord  in  the  World, 
and  that  fince  War  produces  nothing  but  Deftrudion ,  a  proof  and  evidence 
whereof  they  had  by  their  own,  which  had  wafted  each  others  force,  they  fhould 
now  at  length  be  advifed  to  Peace,  left  they  both  become  a  prey  to  feme  other, 
who  obferving  their  enfeebled  and  con  fumed  condition,  may  take  his  opportunities 
to  invade  them  in  their  weakness,  and  deftroy  them  both :  And  as  to  the  Limits 
of  their  refpective  Territories,  he  appointed  that  heaps  of  Stones,  or  Mounts 
mould  be  caft  up,  for  Land-marks  and  Boundaries  of  their  Frontiers,  which  be- 
ing paffed  and  invaded  in  a  hoftile  manner,  mould  be  accounted  a  breach  and  vio- 
lation of  the  Peace  on  the  fide  of  the  firft  Aggreflor.  Laftly,  he  told  them, 
That  this  was  the  Sentence  and  final  Determination  of  his  Father  the  Sun,  for 
procuring  Peace,  and  ending  all  ftrife  and  variance  between  them  •,  and  that  fince 
they  had  by  mutual  confent  conftituted  him  the  Umpire  and  Arbitrator  of  their 
Differences,  he  protefted  that  he  confirmed  the  Sentence  of  his  Father,  and  re- 
folved  to  proceed  feverely  againft  him  who  mould  give  the  firft  occafion  to  vio- 

late the  fame. 


Book  III.  Royal  Commentaries.  77 

The  Caracas  replied,  That  they  would  Sincerely  obey  his  Majefty,  and  that  out 
of  a  refpect  they  bore  to  his  Service,  they  promifed  to  be  his  true  Friends  and 
faithfull  Allies. 

Afterward  theSe  Caciques,  Carl  and  Cbipana,  being  in  private  togetker,  entred 
into  Difcourfe  concerning  the  Laws  of  the  hca,  the  Government  of  his  Hou 
and  Court,  and  the  rare  administration  of  Juftice  through  his  whole  Kingdom, 
where  no  Injury  or  Offence  palled  without  punifhment -,  but  more  particularly 
they  obferved  the  gentle  compullion  and  foft  violence  he  ufed  in  his  War,  as  al- 
io the  fweetnefs  of  his  temper,  and  impartial  Behaviour  towards  them  both-,  all 
which  being  rare  and  admirable  evidences  of  his  Excellencies  and  Vermes,  they 
both  refolved,  after  fome  fhcrt  conference  together,  to  yield  themfelves  and  Sub- 
jects to  the  Service  and  Devotion  of  the  hca.  And  hereunto  they  were  more  eafi- 
ly  inclined,  becaufe  they  perceived  that  the  hca  began  to  approach  near  to  them, 
and  to  have  his  Confines  contiguous  with  their  Frontiers,  and  therefore  confide- 
red  that  it  was  good  to  make  a  Vertue  of  Neceflity,  and  feem  to  doe  that  out 
of  Choice  and  free  Will,  rather  than  by  being  compelled  to  what  is  irreiiftible, 
loofe  all  the  merit  of  a  voluntary  Submiffion.  With  this  Refolution  presenting 
themfelves  before  the  lnca,  they  implored  His  Majefty's  Protection,  vowing  unto 
him  all  Homage  and  Obedience,  defiring  alfo  that  he  would  be  pleafed  to  fend 
Instructors  to  them,  who  might  direct  them  and  their  Subjects  in  the  Laws  of 
his  Father  the  Sun,  and  inform  them  of  all  particulars  which  may  be  requisite  for 
his  fervice. 

In  anfwer  whereunto  the  hca  told  them,  That  he  accepted  their  good  Intenti- 
ons, and  would  watch  all  occasions  to  requite  them  •?  then  he  commanded  that 
fuch  Veils  mould  be  given  to  the  Caciques ,  as  he  himfelf  wore ,  and  to  their 
Kindred  and  Attendance,  Garments  of  a  courfer  Thread,  for  which  they 
made  many  acknowledgments  of  Duty  and  Obligation.  In  this  manner  the 
Inca  reduced  thofe  feveral  People  and  Provinces  to  his  Empire ,  which 
within  the  Divifion  oiCollafuyu  were  Subjected  to  the  Dominion  of  thofe  Gr- 
ciques.  Moreover  he  added  to  thefe  new  Conquefts  the  Countries  of  Poco,  Ata, 
Mtru,  Maccha,  Caracara,  and  all  thoSe  other  Provinces  which  run  as  far  EaSt- 
ward  as  the  great  Mountain  of  AntU,  together  wltjj  all  that  wafte  and  defart 
Countrey  which  reaches  to  the  borders  of  that  Province  which  is  called  Tapac-ri, 
and  now  by  the  Spaniards  Tapacari,  containing  in  breadth  thirty  Leagues ;  and  by 
reafon  of  the  coldnefs  of  it  is  much  unpeopled  •,  howfoever  it  is  fruitful!  in  pa- 
stures, and  abounds  with  all  fort  of  Cattel  and  wild  Beafts,  and  is  full  of  Foun- 
tains •-,  and  particularly  there  is  one  Spring  of  Water,  ifluing  from  Mines  of  Sul- 
phur, fo  hot,  that  none  can  fuffer  his  hand  in  it  for  a  moments  fpace  •-,  and  yet 
what  is  Still  more  obfervable ,  there  are  other  Springs ,  not  far  from  thence ,  of 
cold  and  pleafant  Waters,  both  which  meeting  afterwards  together,  make  that 
River,  which  is  called  Cockapampa. 

Having  traverfed  this  defart  Countrey,  which  abounds,  (as  we  have  faid)  with 
Fountains  and  Pastures,  there  appears  a  Mountain ,  which  defcends  for  feven 
Leagues,  and  leads  to  the  plain  of  the  Province  Tapacri,  where  my  Matter  Garci- 
lajfo  de  la  Vega,  had  his  firft  proportion  allotted  to  him  in  the  Lands  of  Peru :  It 
is  a  Countrey  very  fruitfull  and  populous,  Stored  with  all  forts  of  Cattel,  for  the 
fbacc:  of  twenty  Leagues  in  length,  and  about  twelve  in  breadth :  About  eight 
Leagues  farther,  is  that  inoft  pleafant  Province  of  Cockapampa,  which  is  a  Valley 
of  thirty  Leagues  long,  and  four  broad ,  all  which  is  made  fruitfull  by  a  plenti- 
full  River,  that  waters  the  whole  Countrey :  Thefe  two  pleafant  Provinces,  with 
divers  others,  were  the  inheritance  of  Cari  and  Chipana ,  ( as  before  related )  and 
were  now  added  to  the  Dominion  and  Empire  of  the  he  as ,  extending  feventy 
Leagues  in  length. 

In  thefe  parts,  becaufe  they  were  pleafant  and  fertile,  the  Spaniards  in  the  Year 
1J7J.  Settled  a  Colony,  which  they  called  St.  Peter  ofCardenna,  fo  named  by  the 
chief  and  Sirft  Planter  thereof,  who  was  a  Gentleman,  and  a  Native  of Burgos,  cal- 
led Captain  Lewis  Oforio. 

The  Matters  of  thefe  two  Caciques  being  in  this  manner  ordered  and  difpofed, 
the  hca  commanded  two  of  his  principal  Officers  to  make  a  Survey  of  their  Coun- 
tries, and  to  take  with  them  fuch  Perfbns  as  were  proper  and  able  to  govern  thoSe 
new  Subjects,  and  instruct  and  teach  them  in  the  Laws  they  were  now  to  ob- 


yS  Royal  Commentaries.  Book  III. 

ferve.  And  thus  the  Inca  having  finiihed  this  work,  which  he  efteemed  fufficient 
for  that  year,  and  more  than  was  expected ,  he  returned  to  Co^o,  accompanied 
with  the  two  Caciques,  who  were  curious  to  fee  the  fplendor  of  the  Indian  Court, 
where  they  were  kindly  received,  and  treated  with  Banquets  and  Sports;  and  be- 
caufe  it  was  pleafing  to  the  Inca,  the  whole  City  endeavoured  to  honour  and  ca- 
refs  them  with  all  the  demonftrations  imaginable  of  Civility  and  Refpeft.  After 
fome  days  thus  palled,  he  gave  them  liberty  to  return  into  their  own  Dominions, 
being  greatly  fatisfied  with  the  entertainment  they  had  received,  and  at  their  de- 
parture he  gave  them  to  underftand,  that  he  intended  fpeedily  to  vifit  their  Coun- 
tries again,  that  fo  he  might  reduce  thofe  Indians  which  inhabited  the  parts  be- 
yond them,  and  that  therefore  they  mould  make  fuch  provisions  as  were  necefla- 
ry  for  the  fupport  and  maintenance  of  his  Army  and  Attendance. 

CHAP.    XV. 

Of  the  Bridge  made  with  Straw,  Rujhes  and  Flags  5  and 
how  Chayanta  was  reduced  at  that  place  where  the  Lake 
empties  it  felf. 

TH  E  Inca,  Capac  Tufanqui ,  was  fo  much  pleafed  with  the  convenience  and 
fuccefs  of  the  laft  Bridge,  which  (as  we  faid)  was  built  at  Huacachaca,  over 
the  River  oiApurimac,  thatjie  ordered  another  of  the  like  fort  to  be  made  at  that 
place  where  the  Lake  Tuicaca  empties  it  felf,  that  fo  it  might  be  in  a  readinels 
againft  the  time  that  he  intended  to  return  to  complete  his  Conquetts  in  the  Di- 
vilion  oiColLfuyu--,  and  becaufe  thofe  Countries  were  plain,  and  commodious  for 
the  march  of  an  Army,  the  Mas  were  unquiet  untill  they  could  make  a  complete 
and  entire  Conqueft  of  all  that  Diviiion.  The  Bridge  of  Huacachaca ,  as  alio  all 
the  others  which  are  in  Peru,  are  made  of  Olier,  onely  that  which  pafles  the  wa- 
ter called  by  the  Spaniards,  The  Conduit,  becaufe  it  is  the  vent  by  which  the  Lake 
empties  it  (elf,  is  made  of  Flags  and  Ruihes,  and  fuch  like  materials;  This 
pafles  over  the  water,  as  that  at  Seville,  which  is  made  upon  Boats,  and  is  not 
arched,  as  that  we  have  formerly  mentioned.  There  is  a  fort  of  Ruflies  which 
grow  over  all  Peru,  that  are  of  a  fine  and  pliant  fort ,  convenient  and  eafie  to 
weave  with,  the  Indians  call  them  Yehu,  which  they  ufe  in  thatching  their  Houfes. 
That  fort  which  grows  in  Collao  is  excellent  feeding  for  the  Catcel,  and  of  which 
they  make  their  Baskets  and  Hampers,  like  little  Cherts  with  covers,  (called  by 
them  Patacas)  and  hereof  alfo  they  make  Cords  and  Ropes ;  the  bed  fort  of  thefe 
Ruihes  grows  in  the  River  which  falls  from  the  Lake  Tuicaca ,  whereof  there  is 
great  abundance,  as  alfo  of  Flags  and  Bulrumes,  and  a  fort  called  Enea.  The  In- 
dians cut  great  quantities  hereof,  at  the  proper  feafons  of  the  year,  of  wliich  they 
make  provisions,  to  be  dried  and  prepared  for  fervice  of  the  Bridge,  as  occafions 
(hall  require.  With  thefe  Ruihes  they  twitted  four  great  Ropes,  as  big  as  a  Man's 
Leg,  two  of  which  they  caft  over  the  River,  and  fattened  them  on  each  fide: 
This  water  on  the  top  or  fuperfcies  of  it,  feems  ttiil  and  quiet,  but  towards  the 
bottom  runs  with  a  ftrong  current,  as  fome  fay  that  have  made  an  experiment  of 
it.  Thefe  Ropes,  or  Cables,  which  ferve  in  the  place  of  Boats,  are  covered  with 
great  bundles  of  Flags  and  Ruihes,  all  twitted  and  twined  one  within  the  other ; 
and  over  thefe  they  throw  the  other  two  great  Ropes,  to  keep  down  and  ttreng- 
then  the  whole  work-,  over  thefe  Ropes  they  caft  great  quantities  of  Ruihes,  twi- 
ned into  letter  cords,  about  the  bignefs  of  a  Man's  Arme,  woven  one  within  the 
other,  and  made  fo  firm  and  dole,  that  neither  the  trampling  cfBeartsor  the 
Feet  of  Men  can  break  or  diforder  them.    Thefe  fmaller  cords  the  Spaniards  call 



Book  III.  Royal  Commentaries.  no 

the  floar  of  the  Bridge,  which  Bridge  was  about  thirteen  or  fourteen  Foot  broads 
and  about  a  Yard  thick,  and  about  an  hundred  and  fifty  Paces  in  lengthy  fo  that 
we  may  imagine  what  a  vaft  quantity  of  is  required  for  a  work  of  this  na- 
ture. It  is  moreover  obfervable,  that  this  Bridge  requires  reparations  every  fix 
Months,  or  rather,  to  be  made  new,  for  the  whole  composition  of  it  being  no- 
thing but  Straw  and  Rulhes,  which  are  fading  and  decaying  materials,  muft  be 
often  renewed,  efpecially  the  Ropes  or  Cables,  which  are  the  main  traves  of  the 
work,  muft  be  maintained,  and  kept  in  good  repair.  This  Bridge,  as  likevvife 
all  other  publick  conveniences,  were  in  the  times  of  the  Incas  kept  up,  and  main- 
tained at  the  charge  and  labour  of-  the  neighbouring  Countries  3  fo  that  many 
Hands  making  light  work,  and  the  materials  provided  from  year  to  year,  the 
good  order  obferved,  made  it  a  matter  without  much  trouble  or  difficulty.  The 
end  of  thefe  main  Cables,  which  werethe  Foundation  of  this  fort  of  Bridge,  were 
fixed  in  the  ground,  and  not  feifed,  or  made  faft  to  Rocks  of  Stone,  as  fome 
others  were ;  and  the  Indians  fay,  that  this  is  the  better  invention,  for  that  this 
Bridge  may  be  removed,  and  carried  either  higher  or  lower  on  the  River,  as  oc- 
casion requires. 

The  Bridge  being  thus  made  and  completed,  the  Ma,  with  his  eldeft  Son  and 
Heir,  departed  from  Cozco,  travelling  by  lhort  journies,  untill  they  arrived  at  the 
remoteft  parts  of  thofe  Provinces  which  belonged  to  Can  and  Cbipana,  being  thofe 
Countries  which  we  formerly  mentioned  by  the  names  ofTapacri  and  Cocbapampa, 
where  the  Caciques  attended  in  a  readinefs  with  their  Souldiers  to  receive  the  Inca. 
From  Cocbapampa  they  proceeded  forward  to  Cbayama,  and  in  their  way  thither  they 
pafled  a  moft  defolate  and  barren  Countrey ,  where  is  not  one  Foot  of  good 
Ground,  but  onely  Stones  and  Rocks  •,  and  which  produces  nothing  but  Bufhes 
bearing  Thorns,  as  long  as  a  Man's  finger,  and  which  the  Indians  ufe  for  Needles 
to  fow  the  poor  Drapery  they  wear  5  and  which  fort  of  Thorn  grows  common  in 
all  parts  of  Peru  -.  Having  pafled  this  defart,  which  contains  about  twenty  Leagues 
in  length,  and  about  as  much  in  breadth,  they  entred  into  Cbayanta;  where  the 
Inca  commanded  the  Prince  his  Son  to  fend  the  Summons  which  were  ufual,  and 
accuftomary  to  the  Inhabitants  of  that  Province. 

At  the  receipts  of  thefe  Summons  the  Indians  were  divided  into  different  opini- 
ons-, fome  were  for  prefent  Submiffion  and  Obedience  to  this  celeftial  Race  which 
was  defcended  from  the  Sun,  being  affared  all  thofe  Laws  which  were  given  and 
impo&d  by  fuch  an  infallible  Light,  could  not  be  other  than  juft,  gentle,  and  fuch 
as  tended  rather  to  the  Liberty  and  Security  of  the  Subjects,  than  to  the  Intereft 
and  Advantage  of  the  Governour.  Howfoever  others  that  were  of  a  different 
fentiment,  and  more  ftubborn  in  their  humour,  argued,  That  they  had  no  need 
of  a  King,  or  new  Laws,  fince  that  thofe  which  they  had  already  were  good  and 
profitable,  and  fuch  as  their  Anceftours  had  lived  under  with  great  happinefs  and 
fecurity -,  that  they  had  Gods  already  of  their  own,  whom  they  worfhipped  and 
ferved,  and  knew  no  neceffity  that  there  was  of  a  new  Religion,  or  Cuftoms$  and 
what  was  moft  grievous,  that  they  muft  fubmit  to  thepleafure  of  a  Prince,  who 
preached  Religion  and  Sanctity  to  them,  and  made  them  promifes  of  Privilege 
and  Liberty  •,  whenas  perhaps  to  morrow,  fo  foon  as  he  had  gained  them  under 
his  power,  he  would  then  impofe  fuch  Laws  as  were  flavifh  and  agreeable  to  his 
own  Luft  and  Pleafure  •,  and  therefore  they  concluded,  that  it  was  better  not  to 
truft  to  fuch  a  hazard,  but  rather  to  live  in  their  own  freedom,  or  elfe  die  in  the 
defence  of  it. '  \ 

In  this  Sufpence  matters  remained  for  fome  days,  both  parties  infifting  on  the 
truth  of  their  opinions,  untill  at  length  the  fear  of  compulf ion  from  the  Inca,  and 
the  hopes  of  receiving  good  and  wnolfome  Laws  from  him,  extorted  an  anfwer 
which  was  dubious,  and  favouring  fomething  of  both  opinions-,  for  they  declared 
that  they  were  willing  to  receive  the  Inca  for -their  King  and  Lord,  but  as  to  his 
Laws,  they  were  ignorant  of  them,  not  knowing  whether  they  conduced  to  their 
Benefit  or  Damage ,  untill  which  time,  that  they  were  informed  of  the  fubftance 
and  form  of  them ,  they  defired  a  ceflation  of  Arms,  and  of  all  violence,  and 
that  die  Inca,  with  his  Army,  might  enter  into  their  Countrey  upon  parole,  that 
in  cafe  his  Laws  proved  not  to  their  contentment ,  that  then  he  would  quit  his 
ftation,  and  leave  them  to  their  own  freedom  and  liberty ,  but  if  they  appeared 
as  good  as  he  avouched  and  affirmed  them  to  be,  that  then  immediately  they 


80  Royal  Commentaries.  Book  III, 

would  fubmit  and  proftrate  themfelves  before  him,  and  acknowledge  him  to  be 
of  the  true  race  and  progeny  of  the  Sun. 

Though  this  people  was  in  no  capacity  of  giving  conditions  to  the  Inca,  yet  he 
was  pleafed  to  accept  fuch  as  they  offered  5  being  refolved  to  adhere  to  the  old 
Maxim  of  his  Anceftours,  which  was  rather  to  conquer  with  love  and  affection, 
than  by  force  5  and  therefore  he  allured  them  on  his  word,  that  in  cafe  they  did 
not  think  to  adore  his  Father  the  Sun,  nor  yet  to  accept  his  Laws,  he  would  then 
leave  them  to  their  own  choice  and  freedom :  The  which  promife  he  made  on 
an  undoubted  confidence,  that  fo  foon  as  thofe  Myfteries  and  excellent  Statutes 
were  revealed  to  them,  they  could  not  but  accept  and  embrace  them  •,  and  that 
they  would  onely  be  troubled,  that  fuch  admirable  beauty  of  reafon  arrived  Co 
late  to  their  hearing  and  knowledge. 

Upon  this  affurance  and  promife  the  Inca  entred  into  Chayanta,  where  he  was 
received  with  much  awe  and  veneration,  but  not  with  that  mirth  and  rejoycing 
as  they  ufed  in  other  parts  at  this  Solemnity :  For  as  yet  thefe  poor  people  flood 
wavering  between  hope  and  fear,  untill  the  Reverend  Counfellours  deputed  by 
the  Inca,  with  the  Prince  his  Son  and  Heir,  took  fome  pains  for  feveral  days  to 
declare,  and  expound  to  them  the  Laws  relating  to  their  Idolatrous  Religion,  and 
to  their  Secular  Government :  the  which  they  inculcated  fo  frequently*  and  with 
fuch  patience  and  plainnefs,  untill  at  length  they  became  capable  of  that  Doctrine 
which  they  taught.  The  Indians  flood  gaping  all  this  whi! i  with  wonderfull  at- 
tention, admiring  that  fuch  Laws  fhould  be  made  for  their  honour  and  advantage  5 
and  then  burft  out  into  Acclamations,  faying,  That  worthy  were  they  to  be  ac- 
counted Gods,  and  efteemed  for  Lords  of  the  Univerfe,  who  were  able  to  frame 
and  deliver  fuch  Laws  and  Statutes  to  Mankind-,  the  which  they  promifedto  re- 
.  ceive  and  obey  •-,  and  that  renouncing  all  their  former  Idols,  rites  and  vain  cuftoms, 
they  vowed  and  fwore  to  embrace  the  Religion  of  the  foe  a  -,  and  in  token  thereof 
they  proftrated  themfelves  before  the  Prince,  who  repretented  the  Perfon  of  his 
Father  the  Sun,  and  the  inca,  Capac  Yttpanqui. 

Having  thus  yielded  themfelves  in  a  fblemn  manner,  they  fell  to  Dancing  after 
the  fafbion  of  their  Countrey,  fhewing  fome  new  Dances  which  they  had  pur- 
pofely  made  for  the  entertainment  of  the  focas  5  and  all  people  habited  themfelves 
in  their  beft  cloathes,  with  Tinfel  and  Ribbons,  tinging  Ballads  made  in  honour 
and  praife  of  the  Sun,  and  the  Inc as,  and  of  their  good  Laws  and  Government ; 
and  in  fine,  they  made  all  the  demonftrations  of  love  and  affection  imaginable. 

CHAP.    XVI. 

Of  the  many  Inventions  which  the  Indians  made  to  pafs  Ri- 
vers, 'and  to  take  Fifb. 

HAving  already  mentioned  the  two  feveral  forts  of  Bridges,  which  the  Imas 
made  for  patting  Rivers  ;  one  of  which  was  compofed  ofOfiers,  and  the 
other  of  Rufhes  and  Canes.  We  ifiall  now  proceed  to  declare  fome  other  In- 
ventions which  the  Indians  projected  for  the  fame  purpofe  ;  for  in  regard  the  la- 
bour and  charge  of  making  Bridges  was  fo  great,  that  they  were  onely  made  for 
convenience  of  the  great  Roads  and  the  King's  High- ways  --,  and  that  the  Coun- 
trey being  in  other  places  large  and  wide,  wanted  that  convenience  whereby  the 
people  might  maintain  communication  one  with  the  other  5  wherefore  Kecefliry, 
which  is  the  Mother  of  Ingenuity,  taught  them  feveral  contrivances  according  to 
the  difpofition  and  nature  of  the  Rivers ,  as  alfo  how  to  fwim  on  the  Seas  with 
fuch  floats,  as  ferved  their  prefent  occafions  5  for  they  had  not  as  yet  attained  to- 

Book  III.  Royal  Commentaries.  81 

the  Invention  of  Boats,  or  fuch  Canoes,  as  they  life  in  Florida,  or  the  Ifles  of  Bar- 
lovento,  and  other  places  of  the  Main  Land,  which  are  a  fort  of  Troughs  hewed 
out  of  Timber,  and  are  all  of  one  piece :  but  the  Wood  in  Pern  is  not  fit  for 
this  ufe,  being  fappy,  and  heavy  as  Iron,  and  therefore  not  boyant,  as  the  nature 
of  fuch  floats  require :  Wherefore  they  made  choice  of  another  fort,  of  a  more 
light  and  fpungy  Timber,  which  grows  in  the  Provinces  of  Sluitu,  from  whence, 
by  order  of  the  I»ca,  many  Trees  were  felled,  and  brought  down  to  the  banks  of 
the  Rivers.  Hereof  they  made  all  their  Boats  greater  or  lefler ,  fome  of  them 
were  of  five,  others  of  feven  pieces  of  Wood,  which  ferved  for  the  bottom,  tied 
one  to  the  other,  that  in  the  middle  being  the  biggeft :  The  firft  Boards  on  the 
fide  were  (bmething  (horter  than  thofe  of  the  Keel  •,  the  fecond  above  were  Shor- 
ter, and  the  third  lhorter  than  thofe  below  5  that  fo  that  being  pinched  in  above, 
and  not  all  of  the  fame  breadth,  the  Veflel  would  find  lefs  refiftence  in  its  motion 
through  the  Water  5  and  the  Stem  and  the  Held  of  the  Boat  were  both  of  the 
fame  faftrion :  To  both  the  ends  of  thefe  Boats  they  faftned  a  Cord ,  fo  that, 
Paffengers  being  defirous  to  Ferry  over,  they  drew  the  Cord  on  one  fide  •■>  and 
being  to  return,  they  drew  that  which  was  faftned  to  the  other.  I  remember  that 
I  pafled  a  River  in  one  of  thefe  Ferries  •-,  which  becaufe  it  had  been  made  in  a 
time  when  the  Ikm  reigned,  the  people  accounted  it  a  Relique,  and  had  it  in  great 
efteem  and  veneration. 

Befides  thefe  Ferries,  they  have  other  lefler  Boats  more  manageble ,  made  of 
Canes  and  Reeds  clofely  woven,  and  fhaped  upwards  iharp,  like  the  Prow  of  a 
Boat,  that  they  may  with  lefs  refiftence  cut  the  Water :  the  Mid-ihips  are  made 
broad,  and  wide,  and  capacious  to  receive  the  Loading :  One  of  thefe  Boats  is 
governed  by  a  fingle  Indian,  who  places  himfelf  at  the  Stern,  and  lying  on  his 
bread  with  nis  hands  and  feet  on  each  fide  in  the  water  inftead  of  Oars,  he  Sculls 
and  Steers  along  with  the  current  to  the  place  he  defigns :  If  the  current  be  very 
rapid,  they  row  along  the  bank  of  the  River  to  take  the  advantage  of  a  hundred 
paces  upwards ,  making  account  that  the  fwiftnefs  of  the  ftream  will  carry  them 
zoo  paces  downwards  before  they  can  reach  the  other  fide :  When  a  Paflenger 
Ferries  over,  they  order  him  to  lye  flat  on  his  face,  ftretched  at  length  in  the  Boat, 
with  his  face  towards  the  Ferry-man,  and  to  hold  himfelf  faft  by  the  Cords,  and 
by  no  means  to  rife  or  ftir,  or  fo  much  as  open  his  eyes.  I  once  crofled  a  very 
fwift  current  in  one  of  thefe  Boats,  which  is  fomething  hazardous  ■■,  ( though  on 
fmoodi  and  ftill waters  there  is  no  danger)  I  then  remember  that  the  Ferry-man 
conjured,  me  with  all  the  Loves  in  the  World ,  that  I  would  neither  lift  up  my 
head,  nor  open  my  eyes :  I  being  then  but  a  Boy,  was  fo  affrighted,  that  I  thought 
either  the  Earth  would  fink,  or  the  Heavens  fall :  Howfoever,  I  could  not  for 
my  life  but  lift  up  my  head,  and  open  at  leaft  one  of  my  eyes  to  fee  if  there  were 
any  enchantment,  or  fome  difcovery  of  a  New  World  in  the  matter  •,  and  being 
in  the  middle,  I  lifted  up  my  head  a  little,  and  feeing  the  water  round,  me-thoughts 
we  had  fallen  from  Heaven  above  ■-,  and  I  became  fo  giddy,  that  my  brains  turned, 
and  fwam  fafter  than  the  Boat,  which  was  carried  with  a  very  rapid  and  violent 
ftream  •,  fo  that  I  prefently  (hut  my  eyes  again,  and  confefled  that  the  Boat-man 
bad  much  reafon  for  the  caution  he  gave  me. 

They  have  likewife  another  fort  of  Float  made  of  large  Gourds,  joined  and 
faftned  ftrongly  together,  about  the  bignefs  of  a  Yard  and  a  half  fquare:  Here- 
unto they  fit  a  Rope  in  fafhion  of  a  Poitral  to  a  Horfe's  Saddle,  wherein  the  I>- 
&*n  Boat-man  puts  his  head  5  with  which  fwimming  away,  he  Tows  the  Boat  af- 
ter him  with  her  Lading,  untill  he  pafles  to  the  other  fide  of  the  River,  or  Arme 
of  the  Sea  •,  and  if  the  Lading  be  heavy,  fo  that  the  Boat  draws  much  water,  he 
is  then  affifted  by  an  Indian  or  two  more,  who  pulh  at  the  Stern,  and  drive  the 
Boat  forward. 

But  in  thofe  great  Rivers,  where  the  current  is  very  forcible  and  rapid,  fo  that 
they  are  not  paffable  in  thefe  Boats  of  Gourds  or  Rufhes  •,  and  where  alfo  the 
banks  of  the  River  are  fo  rocky,  that  there  is  no  place  to  Land  either  on  one  (hore 
or  the  other :  there  they  make  ufe  of  their  great  Cables  made  of  Canes,  called 
Chabuar,  which  they  throw  over  from  the  higher  parts  of  the  craggy  places,  fa- 
ttening them  to  great  Trees  or  firm  Rocks :  Within  this  great  Cable  they  put  a 
Cafe,  or  Basket  made  of  Ofiers,  capable  to  receive  three  or  four  perfons  •,  to  each 
end  whereof  they  fix  an  Ear,  or  handle  of  Wood,  through  which  they  pafs  the 
Cords  for  drawing  it  from  one  fide  to  the  other  ■-,  and  in  regard  the  Cable  is  very 

M  large, 

8  2  Royal  Commentaries.  Book  III. 

large,  it  hath  a  mighty  fwing  and  fall  in  the  middle  ;  and  therefore  they  lore  the 
Ropes  of  the  Basket  very  ealily,  and  by  degrees,  untill  it  comes  to  the  middle, 
which  is  the  lowed:  part  of  the  Cable ;  and  thence  by  main  force  they  draw  it  up- 
wards. There  are  certain  Indians  who' live  near  that  place,  and  are  appointed  by 
the  Countrey  for  that  work,  and  are  very  affiftant  and  helpfull  to  Paflengers  with- 
out any  confederation  of  intereft,  or  payment  whatfoever.  Some  Paflengers  who 
have  ufed  that  kind  of  Ferry,  putting  their  legs  and  feet  in  the  basket,  have  with- 
out other  help  than  their  armes  and  hands  onely  forced  themfelves  upwards  upon 
die  Cable.  I  remember,  when  I  was  a  Boy,  that  I  pafled  this  way  three  or  four 
times  •-,  but  being  very  young,  the  Indians  carried  me  on  their  backs  •,  in  the  fame 
manner  they  tranfport  their  Cattel  on  the  other  fide  ,  but  this  is  done  with  much 
more  trouble :  For  but  few  of  them  can  pafs  at  a  time,  and  thofe  of  the  leiler 
fort,  fuch  as  Sheep,  Goats  and  Kids,  which  they  tye  faff  within  the  basket  •,  and 
as  for  Mules,  Horfes,  Affes  or  Cows,  they  are  of  too  great  a  burthen  for  this  fort 
of  Ferry,  but  are  driven  about  to  the  great  Bridges,  or  to  fhallower  places,  where 
die  River  is  fordable.  This  kind  of  paffage  the  Indians  call  Vruga,  and  is  onely 
made  ufe  of  by  the  Countrey  people,  that  have  occafion  to  pafs  from  one  fide 
to  the  other  5  but  in  the  great  Roads  the  convenience  is  better. 

The  Indians  all  along  the  Coaft  of  Pern,  Fifli  in  their  little  Boats'  made  of 
Rufhes,  and  adventure  four  or  five  Leagues  out  at  Sea  in  them,  and  farther  if  oc- 
cafion require  •-,  for  that  Sea  is  called  the  Pacifick ,  being  calm  for  the  moft  part, 
and  not  fubjeft  to  bad  weather  •-,  but  when  they  carry  things  of  great  burthen, 
they  ufe  Floats  made  of  Timber.  The  Fifher-men,  when  they  go  to  Sea,  kneel 
down  in  their  Boats,  and  fit  on  their  legs ,  and  fo  row  with  a  Paddle  made  of  a 
large  Cane,  cleft  towards  the  end  •,  for  in  that  Countrey  they  have  great  Canes, 
which  are  as  big  as  a  Man's  thigh  5  of  which  we  (hall  treat  more  largely  hereafter. 
This  Cane  they  hold  with  both  hands,  one  being  placed  at  the  top,  and  the  other 
in  the  middle  3  and  the  end  being  made  broad  in  the  (nape  of  an  Oar,  they  Row 
their  Boat  forward  5  the  Boat  being  very  light,  feels  every  ftroke  of  the  Oar,  and 
turns,  then  they  change  the  hand  to  the  other  fide,  and  fo  fhift  it  over  again, 
which  moves  the  Boat  with  an  incredible  fwiftnefs. 

Then  for  their  Fifhery,  when  they  go  to  take  great  Fifh,  they  ufe  a  Filgig  in 
the  fame  manner  as  they  ftrike  Whales  with  in  Bifcay.  To  this  Filgig,  which  is  a 
fliarp  Spear  at  the  end  of  a  Staff,  they  fallen  a  line  of  about  20, 30  or  *o  fathom  in 
length,  the  end  of  which  they  tye  to  the  head  of  the  Boat  5  the  Fifh  being  ftrook, 
the  Inditn  vears  his  Line,  and  gives  him  Rope  as  faft  as  he  can  •,  and  when  he  hath 
given  it  all  out,  he  then  plays  with  the  Fifh  untill  it  is  quite  tired  •,  and  fo  ma- 
ttering it,  they  take  it,  and  fome  of  them  are  of  an  incredible  bignefs.  They 
Fifh  alfo  with  Nets  and  Hooks  •,  but  they  make  no  great  matter  of  their  Fifh- 
ing  in  that  manner  --,  for  their  Nets  being  fmall  and  manageable  by  one  Man,  can 
never  inclofe  any  number  $  and  their  Hooks  being  ill  made,  not  knowing  the 
ufe  of  Steel  or  Iron,  they  take  very  few  with  that  Aft  •,  for  though  they  have 
Mines  of  both  Metals,  yet  they  know  not  how  to  feparate  and  purifTe  the  Ore : 
Their  Boats  of  Rufhes  are  not  able  to  bear  Sail,  becaufe  they  have  no  Keel,  nor 
hold  in  the  water,  and  perhaps  make  better  way  with  a  Paddle,  than  with  a  Sail  5 
though  on  their  Floats  made  of  Wood,  they  fet  up  a  Sail,  which  ferves  them  be- 
fore the  Wind. 

Thefe  are  the  Arts  which  the  Indians  have  invented  for  making  fliort  Voyages 
on  the  Seas,  and  for  paffing  fwift  and  rapid  currents  -,  the  which  have  received 
little  improvement,  for  they  were  in  ufe  when  I  was  there,  and  believe  they  have 
ftill  Continued  in  the  fame  manner  without  alteration ;  for  they  being  a  poor  fort 
of  miferable  people,  of  mean  deje&ed  fpirits,  follow  the  old  road,  not  afpiring 
to  greater  matters,  than  a.fupply  of  their  neceffities.  In  the  Hiftory  of  Florida, 
the  fixth  Book,  treating  there  of  their  Canoes,  we  have  touched  upon  their  contri- 
vances to -Pafs  and  Navigate  on  Rivers,  which  have  a  fwift  and  rapid  current  5 
fo  that  now  we  fhall  not  enlarge  farther  thereupon,  but  rather  proceed  to  the  o- 
ther  Conquefts  of  the  M a,  Capac  Tftpan^i. 


Book  III.  Royal  Commentaries.  83 


Of  the  Conquefi  of  five  large  Proz-i?ices ,    be  fides  others  of 
lefs  confederation. 

THE  Inca  having  iecured  the  Countrey  of  Chayanta  with  a  furncient  force 
and  fupplied  it  with  Officers  requifite  for  adminiftration  both  of  their  reli- 
gious and  civil  Government.  He  proceeded  forward  to  other  adjacent  Provinces, 
amongft  which  Charca.v/as  of  great  Renown,  comprehending  many  different  Na- 
tions and  Languages  under  its  Dominion  5  all  which  were  in  the  Divifion  of  Col- 
Ufuyu  •.  The  chief  or  principal  Countries  of  which  were  Tutura,  Siplfpo,  Chaqm ;  to 
the  Eaftward  of  which,  and  towards  the  Mountain  Amis,  are  other  Provinces  cal- 
led Ckamura,  where  grows  great  plenty  of  the  Herb  which  they  call  Cues,  though 
it  be  not  fo  good  as  that  which  grows  about  Cezco.  There  is  alio  another  Pro- 
vince named  Sacaca,  with  divers  more,  which  for  brevity  fake  we  omic  5  to  all 
which  the  hca  fent  his  Summons  in  his  accuftomary  form  and  manner. 

Thele  feveral  Nations,  who  had  already  been  informed  of  all  the  particulars 
which  had  pafled  in  Chayanta,  returned  their  anfwers  much  after  the  fame  man- 
ner ;  the  fubftance  of  all  which  was,  That  it  was  their  great  honour  to  have  the 
knowledge  of  fo  holy  a  Religion,  as  that  which  enjoined  them  to  adore  the  Sun, 
and  to  ferve  the  Inca,  who  was'defcended  from  him 5  and  that  they  had  the  pri- 
vilege to  be  offered  fuch  good  and  wholtbme  Laws  for  their  Government :  And 
therefore  dellring  his  Majefty  to  receive  them  under  his  potent  Protection,  they 
refigned  up  their  lives  and  fortunes  to  his  difpofal  3  and  in  regard,  that  having  re- 
ceived new  Laws  and  fuperftitious  Rites,  differing  from  thole  of  their  adjacent 
Neighbours,  they  ftood  in  great  danger  of  having  their  Apoftacy  revenged  by 
them  5  they  therefore  defired,  that  thofe  people  alfo  might  be  reduced,  and  obli- 
ged to  embrace  the  fame  Laws,  Religion  and  Worlhip  with  them. 

The  Inca  returned  them  anfwer,  That  they  mould  not  need  to  trouble  them- 
felves  for  thofe  matters,  but  that  they  mould  rather  with  entire  confidence  remit 
all  their  care  unto  him,  who  knew  the  times  and  ways  bed:  for  their  protection, 
being  allured  that  their  fubjeclion  to  him  was  their  beft  fecurity,  and  that  none 
had  ever  fuffered  for  receiving  his  Laws  and  Vaflalage,  but  rather  lived  with  joy 
and  comfort  under  thofe  infallible  Oracles  which  the  Sun  had  gratiouily  difpenfed 
to  them.  With  thefe  aflurances  this  people,  without  other  Queries  or  Demurs, 
yielded  themfelves  •,  on  which  particulars  we  {hall  not  farther  enlarge,  in  regard 
nothing  of  moment  offers  on  that  fubject  In  this  Conqueft  the  Inca  {pent  two, 
and  fome  lay  three  years  -,  and  having  left  Guards  fufficient  in  the  Countrey  to 
curb  and  prevent  all  Incurfions  of  the  Neighbourhood,  he  returned  to  Cozed,  vifi- 
ting  in  his  way  all  thofe  Nations  which  had  formerly  fubmitted  themfelves ;  he 
commanded  the  Prince  his  Son  to  take  another  way,  that  fo  he  might  pleafe  his 
Subjects  in  other  parts,  who  efteemed  themfelves  highly  honoured  with  the  pre- 
fence  of  their  Kings  and  Princes. 

The  Entry  which  the  Inca  made  to  his  Court  was  very  Magnificent  and  Royal, 
being  attended  by  his  own  Captains,  and  with  the  Cm-teat,  of  the  late  fubjecled 
Provinces,  who  out  of  honour  to  the  Inca,  and  curiofity  to  fee  the  Imperial  Court, 
made  up  fome  part  of  his  Equipage ;  and  the  people  with  Demonftrations  of  Joy 
and  Triumph  were  not  wanting  to  welcome  the  return  of  their  Inca.  -  Some  few- 
days  after  the  Prince  Rocca  likewife  came,  whofe  Arrival  the  people  alfo  celebra- 
ted with  Dances  and  Songs  in  praife  of  his  Noble  and  Victorious  Adions.  Then 
the  Inca  having  gratified  his  Commanders  for  their  pains  and  faithfulnefs  in  the 
late  Expedition ,  he  gave  them  leave  to  return  to  their  own  Houfes,  there  to 
enjoy  repofe  and  reft  after  their  long  and  tedious  journies ;  and  refiding  now  at  his 
own  Court,  he  attended  to  the  government  and  adminiftration  of  thofe  matters 
which  relpe&ed  the  happinefs  and  advantage  of  his  Subjeds  •,  for  his  Territories 

M  i  were 

84  Royal  Commentaries.  Book  III. 

were  now  become  very  large,  extending  from  Cozco  along  the  Coaft  of  that  Sea 
which  is  called  Zur,  above  one  hundred  and  eighty  Leagues  as  far  as  Tutyra  and 
Chaqui  --,  then  to  the  Weftward  from  the  City ,  the  Dominion  reached  feventy 
Leagues  one  way,  and  eighty  another:  and  to  the  Eafhvard  it  ran  to  the  River 
Paucar  tampu,  being  thirteen  Leagues  full  Eaft  from  the  City  ;  and  to  the  South- 
eaft  forty  Leagues;  fo  that  the  Empire  being  grown  thus  large  and  wide,  the  Inca 
thought  fit  for  fome  time  to  fix  boundaries  to  his  Conquefts,  that  fo  he  might  at- 
tend to  the  confervation  of  what  he  had  already  gained,  and  to  the  benefit  and 
fecurity  of  his  Subjects :  And  now  living  for  fome  years  in  peace  and  plenty,  he 
had  leifure  to  enrich  and  adorn  the  Temple  of  the  Sun,  and  of  thofe  felected  Vir- 
gins which  the  Inca,  Manco  Capac,  had  endowed :  he  alio  built  many  other  Edifices, 
both  within  and  without  the  City,  and  in  divers  Provinces,  where  they  were 
mod  to  advantage.  He  made  likewife  Aqueduct,  and  opened  Springs  for  wate- 
ring the  grounds  5  he  built  divers  Bridges  to  pafs  Rivers  and  Streams,  to  the  great 
convenience  of  publick  Roads ;  he  opened  'divers  new  ways  for  commodious  tra- 
vel ,  and  for  better  communication  of  one  Province  with  another.  In  fhort,  he 
omitted  nothing  which  might  conduce  to  the  publick  benefit,  to  the  advantage 
of  his  Subjects,  and  to  the  greater  Glory  and  Grandeur  of  his  own  Majefty. 


The  Prince  Inca  Rocca  reduces  many  and  great  Provinces 
both  within  the  Land,  and  along  the  Sea-coaft. 

IN  thefe,  and  fuch  like  Affairs,  the  Inca  employed  himfelf,  for  the  fpace  of  fix 
or  feven  years ;  and  then  it  was  judged  fit  to  reafliime  again  the  thoughts  of 
War,  for  the  farther  enlargement  of  Empire  ;  to  which  end  orders  were  given  for 
raifing  an  Army  of  twenty  thoufand  men,  under  the  conduct  of  four  Major  Gene- 
rals, and  o[  the  Prince  Rocca,  who  was  to  command  in  Chief:  The  Defign  was  to 
ttttjch  towards  Liincbafuyu ,  which  lies  Northward  from  Cow.,  on  which  fide 
their  Dominions  did  not  reach  farther  than  Rimac  tampu ,  which  was  not  above 
feven  Leagues ,  and  was  the  utmoft  Bounds  in  thofe  Quarters  to  which  the 
firft  Inca,  Afunco  Capac,  had  proceeded  •,  fince  which  time  the  other  Intfj  did  not 
efteem  it  worthy  tl:e  troubles  of  a  Conqueft,  being  a  Countrey  defblate,  rocky 
and  without  Inhabitants. 

The  Prince  leaving  Cozco ,  came  to  the  River  Apurlmac,  which  he  palled  on 
great  floats,  prepared  for  that  purpofe  •-,  and  becaufe  the  Countrey  was  defblate, 
he  proceeded  as  far  as  Ctirahuaci,  and  Amancay  being  about  eight  or  ten  Leagues 
from  the  City,  and  without  any  oppofition  reduced  all  thofe  poor  Indians  where- 
foever  he  pafled.  From  the  Province  Amancay  he  took  to  the  left  hand  along  the 
great  road,  which  leads  from  Cozco  to  Rimac,  and  leaving  the  Defart  which  is  cal- 
led Cocbacajfa,  being  about  twenty  two  Leagues  over,  he  entred  into  the  Province 
called  Sura,  which  is  very  populous,  and  rich,  both  in  Gold  and  Cattel,  and  where 
the  Inca  was  received  with  ready  fubmiffion.  Thence  he  proceeded  to  the  next 
Province,  called  Apucara,  where  alfo  he  was  received  without  oppofition;  for  in 
regard  thefe  Countries  were  always  at  enmity^  together ,  they  were  not  able  to 
unite  in  a  common  League,  nor  yet  refift  in  a  iingle  condition. 

From  Apmara  he  marched  forward  to  the  Province  Rucana,  which  is  divided  into 
two  parts,  the  letter  and  the  greater :  The  People  hereof  are  both  beautifull  in 
their  Bodies,  and  ingenious  in  their  Minds,  by  advantage  of  which  they  more 
eafily  apprehended  the  felicity  they  ihould  obtain  under  the  Government  of  the 
Inca,  and  therefore  with  joy  and  applaufe  received  his  Commands.    Thence  he 


Book  III.  Royal  Commentaries.  85 

defcended  to  the  Sea  Coaft,  which  the  Spaniards  call  the  Lames,  and  pafled  the 
firft  Valley,  which  in  thofe  parts  hath  the  name  of  Nanafca,  which  fignifies  dole- 
full,  or  difmal  •,  what  might  be  the  occafion  of  this  Epithet,  is  not  cerrain,  but 
it  is  believed  that  it  might  be  from  fome  great  puniihment,  or  calamity,  which 
had  happened  there-,  the  Spaniards  call  it  Lanafca,^  where  alio  the  l»ca  was  recei- 
ved without  oppofition,  and  obeyed  without  conditions-,  the  like  fubmiffion  was 
yielded  by  the  Inhabitants  of  all  the  Vallies  from  Nanafca  to  Arequepa,  which  lies 
by  the  Sea-coaft  for  the  fpace  of  above  eighty  Leagues  in  length,  and  fourteen  or 
fifteen  in  breadth :  the  chief  Valleys  are  Hacari  and  Camata,  containing  twenty 
thoufand  Inhabitants }  there  are  other  Vallies  of  lefs  confideration,  which  are  Ati- 
ca,  Vcunna ,  Atiquifa  and  Quclka ,  all  which  yielded  ready  Obedience ,  both  be- 
caufe  they  neither  had  force  to  refill:,  being  a  poor  naked  People ,  and  becaufe 
every  Valley  had  its  particular  Lord,  and  fome  of  them  two  or  three,  amongft. 
whom  were  perpetual  Quarrels  and  Drflentions. 

And  fince  we  are  now  treating  of  thofe  places,  it  will  not  feem  an  improper 
Digreffion,  though  perhaps  out  of  its  due  order,  if  we  fhould  recount  a  remar- 
kable pafTage,  which  happened  in  the  Valley  of  Hacari,  fome  time  after  that  the 
Spaniards  were 'Matters  of  it.  The  occafion  was  this:  Two  Caracas,  who  had 
not  as.  yet  been  baptized,  were  greatly  at  variance  together,  about  the  Limits 
or  Bounds  of  their  Jurifdiiftions,  which  increafed  fo  high,  that  they  often  endea- 
voured to  decide  the  Difference  in  Battel  \  to  prevent  which,  the  Spanish  Gover- 
nours  fent  a  Commiffioner  to  them ,  with  power  to  determine,  and  put  a-  final 
end  to  their  Difputes  by  a  friendly  and  amicable  Compofure :  The  Judge,  or 
Umpire,  having  heard  both  fides,  allotted  unto  each  fuch  Boundaries  as  he 
thought  did  of  right  belong  unto  them,  refpedtively  obliging  them  to  maintain 
Peace  and  Friendlhip  together  -,  which  though  they  promifed  to  doe,  one  of  them 
who  thought  himfelf  injured  and  aggrieved  by  this  Divifion,  concealed  his  paf- 
fion  and  intention  to  Revenge  under  the  fpecious  appearance  of  Friendlhip:  for 
the  Day  being  come,  when  the  Solemnities  of  the  Peace  were  to  pafs,  they  both 
ate  and  drank  together-,  the  Banquet  being  ended,  the  offended  Curaca  arofe,  and 
taking  two  Cups  in  his  hand,  filled  with  Liquour,  as  if  he  intended  to  drink  a 
Health  to  the  confirmation  of  their  Friendlhip,  ( as  the  cuftome  amongft  the  In- 
dians is )  he  offered  one  of  the  Cups ,  which  was  prepared  with  poifon ,  to  his 
Enemy,  reierving  the  other,  which  was  wholfome,  for  himfelf}  but  the  other 
Curaca  obferving  fome  change  in  the  Countenance  of  him  who  made  him  the 
offer,  and  a  DifTatisfa&ion  in  the  terms  he  received,  refufed  the  Cup  which  he 
reached  to  him,  defiring  rather  to  have  the  other  which  he  referved  for  himfelf. 
The  Curaca,  not  to  feem  cowardly,  or  to  offer  that  which  he  refufed  himfelf,  was 
eafily  perfuaded  to  change  his  hands ,  and  with  that  reached  to  his  Enemy  the 
wholfome  Cup,  and  without  difficulty  drank  up  the  Poifon  himfelf;  of  which 
dying  in  a  few  hours  after,  he  gave  a  fufficient  evidence ,  that  the  Draught  was 
not  more  deadly  than  the  Poifon  of  his  own  Rage  and  Malice ,  with  which  he 
fwelled  and  burft. 



86  Royal  Commentaries.  Book  III. 

CHAP.     XIX. 

How  Colonies  were  transplanted  from  parts  on  the  Sea  Coaji 
to  the  Inland  Countries. 

FRom  Nanafca  the  Inca  jranflated  Gome  Indians,  who  were  Incas  of  that  Nation, 
to  plant  themfelves  on  the  River  Apmimac,  becaufe  that  the  Climate  of  that 
Region,  from  Cozxo  to  Rimac,  being  very  hot,  agreed  beft  with  the  Temperament 
'or  Conftitution  of  the  People  of  Nanafia,  whofe  Countrey  was  in  the  fame  de- 
gree of  heat  with  that  of  Apurimac,  whenas  on  the  contrary,  the  People  which 
were  tranfplanted  from  the  Defart,  which  is  a  more  cool  and  moderate  Climate, 
.were  fubjecf  to  Difeafes  and  Calentures ,  and  not  able  to  fupport  the  intolerable 
heats  I  for  which  reafon  the  Incas  in  the  eftabliihment  of  their  Colonies,  had  al- 
ways a  refpeft  to  the  Conftitution  of  the  People,  that  fo  they  might  not  pafs 
from  one  Extreme  to  another,  but  that  their  new  Habitation  might  correspond 
in  fome  degree  with  the  Air  of  their  native  Soil.  This  regard  the  Inca  having  al- 
ways to  his  Colonies,  the  People  which  he  planted  on  the  Banks  of  the  River 
Apurimac,  were  extracted  from  the  hotter  Climates  5  but  there  was  no  need  of 
great  numbers  for  this  pccafion,  becaufe  that  moft  of  the  Land  on  both  fides  of  that 
River  is  rocky  and  barren  •-,  onely  there  are  fome  pieces  of  good  ground,  which 
the  Inca  was  defirous  to  have  manured  in  the  manner  of  Gardens ,  and  places  of 
Pleafure-,  becaufe  that  foil  which  borders  on  the  River,  produces  moft  excellent 
and  rare  Fruit. 

Matters  being  fettled  in  this  pofture,  and  every  thing  eftablifhed  in  due  order, 
relating  to  the  Government  of  the  new  acquired  Provinces ,  the  Prince  Rocca  re- 
turned to  Cozco,  where  he  was  kindly  received  by  his  Father,  and  the  whole 
Court,  and  being  then  to  disband  his  forces,  he  difmifled  the  Commanders  with 
fignal  marks  of  his  Favour  and  Efteem. 

And  now  the  Inca,  Capac  Tupanqai,  finding  himfelf  to  decay  with  Years,  and  to 
enter  into  a  Region  of  Life,  which  required  eafe  and  repofe,  he  refolved  to  put  a 
full  ftop  to  the  enlargement  of  his  Conquefts,  and  onely  fpend  the  remainder  of 
his  Days  in  the  Administration  of  juftice,  and  performing  matters  tending  to  the 
Benefit  and  Advantage  of  his  People.  In  this  eafinefs  feveral  years  pafled,  du- 
ring which  time  the  Inca  performed  the  part  of  a  kind  and  indulgent  Prince,  and 
the  People  of  loving  and  loyal  Subjeds,  who  with  all  readinefs  and  affection  ap- 
plied themfelves  to  the  ferviceof  the  Incas  particularly  in  building  the  Temple  of 
the  Sun,  and  ere&ing  other  Edifices,  wherein  they  (hewed  great  willingnels  and 
diligence,  becaufe  they  were  works  recommended  to  them  by  the  Inca  •,  more- 
over they  of  their  own  accord,  within  the  Divifion  of  every  Province,  built  other 
Houfes  for  the  Convenience  and  Divertifement  of  the  Inca. 

In  this  Profperity  and  Eafe  the  Inca,  Capac  Tupanqui,  died,  with  the  Character 
of  a  valiant  and  able  Prince,  and  worthy  of  the  Title  Capac,  which  caufed  him 
to  be  much  lamented  in  the  Court,  and  in  all  parts  of  his  Kingdom,  with  deep 
Refentments-,  he  was  afterwards  embalmed,_  and  interred  in  the  Sepulchre  of  his 
Fathers.  He  left  for  his  Heir  and  SuccelTbur  Rocca ,  his  Eldeft  Son,  which  he 
had  by  Coya  Mama  Curi-jllpa,  his  Wife  and  Sifter ;  he  left  alfo  many  other  Sons 
and  Daughters,  as  well  natural  as  legitimate ,  the  precife  number  of  which  we 
cannot  determine,  though  fome  fay,  that  they  were  above  Eighty,  which  is  not 
much,  for  fome  of  thefe  Incas  have  arrived  to  a  hundred,  fome  two  hundred, 
nay  fome  are  confidently  reported  to  have  had  three  hundred  Sons  and  Daugh- 


Book  III.  Royal  Commentaries.  87 

CHAP.    XX. 

The  Description  of  the  Temple  of  the  Sun ,  and  of  its  great 

TH  E  principal'  Idol  in  efteem  both  with  the  Inca  and  his  Subje&s,  was  the 
Imperial  City  of  Cozxo  it  felf,  which  the  Indians  adored  as  a  facred  Relique, 
both  becaufe  it  was  founded  by  the  firft  Inca,  Manco  Capac ,  and  becaufe  it  was 
the  Repository  of  innumerable  Trophies  acquired  by  Victory,  and  was  the  Seat 
and  Throne  of  the  Incm,  who  were  efteemed  for  Gods.    This  fuperftition  ap- 
peared in  every  little  inftance ;  for  in  cafe  two  Indians  of  equal  quality  did  but 
meet  on  the  way,  one  coming  from  Cozco,  and  the  other  travelling  thither  ■,  he 
that  came  from  thence,  gave  always  the  firft  falutation,  and  the  upper  hand  to 
him  who  was  going  thither  ■-,  and  if  he,  who  had  been  at  this  City,  was  ever  af- 
ter efteemed  by  his  Neighbours  as  a  Pilgrim  or  a  Holy  Man,  how  much  more 
was  he  to  be  reverenced,  who  was  a  Citizen,  or  Native  of  the  place :  And  in 
purfuance  of  this  humour  and  opinion,  whatfbever  was  faid  to  come  from  C0^co, 
though  it  were  but  Lentils  or  Seeds,  and  did  not  furpals  others  of  like  kind  in 
its  Excellency,  yet  it  had  always  the  pre-eminence,  and  was  thought  an  impiety 
to  think  or  judge  otherwife.    To  keep  up  this  fancy  and  belief  in  the  people,  the 
Incas  laboured  to  adorn  and  enoble  the  City  with  many  Sumptuous  Edifices  ana 
Royal  Palaces,  many  of  which  they  built  for  their  own  ufe,  as  we  (hall  hereafter 
declare,  when  we  come  to  defcribe  the  publick  Buildings,  amongft  which  there 
is  none  comparable  to  the  Temple  of  the  Sun,  which  was  enriched  with  incre- 
dible Wealth  5  to  which  every  he*  particularly  added  fomething ,  and  improved 
and  perfected  that  which  his  Predecefibur  had  left  deficient.    The  Riches  of  that 
Temple  were  fo  immenfe,  that  I  lhould  not  adventure  to  defcribe  them,  did  I 
not  find  them  mentioned  in  all  the  Spanifh  Hiftories  of  Peru  5  but  neither  what 
they  have  wrote,  nor  I  delivered,  are  able  to  reach  the  vaftnefs  of  that  real  Wealth. 
The  Building  of  this  Temple  is  efteemed  the  Work  of  the  King  Tupanqui,  the 
Great  Grandfather  of  Huayna  Capac ;  not  that  he  was  the  Founder  of  it,  having 
received  its  beginning  from  the  firft  Ma ,  but  becaufe  he  completed  the  Adorn- 
ment of  it,  and  exalted  it  to  thofe  immenfe  Riches  and  Majefty  in  which  the 
Spaniards  found  it. 

Now  to  defcribe  this  Temple ;  it  is  to  be  noted,  that  that  place  which  was  the 
Chamber  of  the  Sun,  is  now  the  Church  of  the  Divine  St.  Dominic^  but  be- 
caufe I  have  not  the  exadt  meafures  of  the  length  and  breadth  of  it ,  I  omit  to 
mention  it  at  guefs  •,  onely  that  how  large  foever  it  be,  it  is  all  made  of  Freeze- 
ftone  well  polilhed. 

The  High  Altar  (which  for  our  better  underftanding  we  call  by  that  Name, 
though  the  Indians  knew  not  how  to  eredt  an  Altar)  is  placed  at  the  Eaft-fide? 
the  Roof  was  flat,  made  of  lofty  Timber  •■>  but  the  Covering  was  thatched  with 
Straw,  becaufe  their  Art  arrived  not  to  make  other.  All  the  four  Walls  of  the 
Temple  were  Wainfcoated  from  the  top  to  the  bottom ,  with  Panes  and  Frames 
of  Wood  all  over  guilded :  In  the  upper  place,  where  we  feat  the  High  Altar, 
was  the  Figure  of  the  Sun  drawn  upon  a  Plate  of  Gold,  much  broader  and  thicker 
than  the  Boards  which  covered  the  Walls  •,  this  Figure  reprefented  the  Face  of 
the  Sun  in  a  round  (hape,  with  all  his  Rays  and  Emiflions  of  Fire,  and  Light  pro- 
ceeding from  him  much  in  the  fame  manner  as  our  Painters  draw  him :  The  Fi- 
gure was  fo  great  and  large,  that  it  took  up  all  the  Quarter  of  the  Temple,  from 
one  Wall  to  another :  Beiides  this  'Reprefentation  of  the  Sun,  the  Indians  erected 
no  other  Idols  in  their  Temples,  becaufe  they  did  not  acknowledge,  nor  adore 


88  Royal  Commentaries.  Book  III. 

-  —  ■    —      —  ■    ■  ■    —  ■  ■  ■  ■  -  ■  - 

any  other  Gods,  though  fome  Writers  maintain  a  different  opinion.  When  the 
Spaniards  firft  entred  the  City  ofCoaco,  this  Figure  of  the  Sun  fell  to  the  lot  of 
a  certain  Nobleman  called  Mario  Serra  de  Legui^ano ,  whom  I  knew,  and  left 
*  a  Game  at  there  alive  when  I  came  thence  for  Spain  •,  he  was  fo  great  a  Gamefter  at  *  Pri- 
Cards.  mero,  and  all  other  Games-,  that  though  die  Image  was  very  great,  yet  he 
made  a  fhift  to  lofe  it  in  one  Nights  play  ^  whence  that  Proverb  came,  as  Acofta 
fays,  Play  for  the  Sun  before  the  Day  breaks.  Sometime  after  which,  the  Common- 
Council  of  the  City  taking  notice,  how  much  this  Son  or  Member  of  theirs  was 
given  to  play,  and  how  much  he  loft,  thought  fit,  as  the  beft  expedient  to 
wean  him  from  that  Vice,  to  chufe  him  Alcalde,  or  Chief  Juftice  in  Ordinary, 
for  the  fpace  of  a  year :  In  execution  of  which  employment  he  applied  himielf 
with  fo  much  diligence  and  care  in  the  difcharge  of  his  truft,  that  being  a  Gentle- 
man of  excellent  parts,  he  took  not  a  Card  in  hand  for  the  whole  year  follow- 
ing 5  the  City  obferving  this  his  a&ive  diligence,  continued  him  in  Office  for  a 
year  longer ,  and  afterwards  kept  him  conftantly  employed  in  one  publick  charge 
or  other-,  fo  that  this  Macio  Serra  difufing  his  courfe  of  Gaming,  came  at  length 
to  abhor  it,  calling  to  mind  the  many  dangers,  troubles  and  inconveniences 
to  which  it  had  betrayed  him  •,  which  ferves  as  a  pregnant  example  to  demon- 
ftrate  to  us,  how  much  idlenefs  contributes  to  Vice,  and  employment  unto  Ver- 
tue.  But  to  return  to  our  Hiftory,  we  fay,  that  a  Calculate  may  in  fome  mea- 
fure  be  made  of  the  Riches  of  that  City,  when  an  Image  of  Gold  of  that  pro- 
portion and  value  fell  to  the  lot  and  (hare  of  one  fingle  perfon.  On  each  fide 
of  this  Image  the  Bodies  of  the  dead  1mm  were  placed ,  embalmed  with  fuch 
rsre  Art  ( we  know  not  how )  that  they  feemed  ftill  living :  their  poftures  were 
fitting  on  Chairs  of  Gold,  erected  on  tnofe  very  Frames  of  Gold  on  which  they 
ufually  fate  when  they  were  alive  :  their  Faces  were  turned  towards  the  people  5 
onely  Huayna  Capac,  as  if  he  had  merited  a  fupereminence  over  all  the  others, 
was  placed  with  his  Face  towards  the  Figure  of  the  Sun ,  as  if  he  had  been  the 
moft  beloved,  and  greateft  Favourite  of  all  his  Race  5  and  indeed  his  Vertues 
and  Royal  Endowments,  which  appeared  in  him  from  his  Infancy,  were  fuch,  as 
procured  for  him  a  degree  above  the  reft,  and  a  place  amongft  the  Gods  which 
they  adored.  Thefe  Bodies,  with  what  Treafure  they  were  able,  the  Indians  con- 
cealed in  fuch  fecret  Vaults,  that  none  of  them  came  to  appear  untill  this  year 
of  1  ss9,  when  the  Lkenciado  Polo  made  a  difcovery  of  five  of  them,  three  where- 
of were  Kings,  and  the  other  two  were  Queens. 

The  principal  Gate  opened  to  the  North,  as  it  is  at  prefent  •-,  befides  which 
there  were  feveral  other  fmall  Doors  for  better  convenience  of  the  Temple  5  all 
which  were  lined  on  the  infide  with  Plates  of  Gold,  as  alfo  the  Jambs  or  Pofts  of 
the  Doors.  On  the  top  of  the  Temple  without,  on  the  higheft  Wall,  was  a 
large  Circle  of  Gold  in  form  of  a  Crown,  of  above  a  Yard  in  breadth,  which 
encompafled  the  whole  Temple. 


Book  III.  Royal  Commentaries.  89 

CHAP.    XXI. 

Of  the  Cloiflers  of  the  Temple ,  and  of  the  fever al  Cham- 
bers of  the  Moon  a?id  Stars ,  Thunder  and  Lightning , 
and  of  the  Rain-bow. 

FRom  the  Temple  there  is  a  paflage  into  the  Cloifters ,  which  are  encompaf1 
fed  with  four  Walls,  one  of  which  is  the  Wall  of  the  Temple :  the  top 
of  this  Cloifter  is  fpread  with  a  Cieling  of  Gold ,  of  about  a  Yard  in  breadth , 
and  was  the  Ornament  and  Crown  aloft  •,  but  the  Spaniards  afterwards  defpoUed 
the  Roof  of  the  Gold ,  and  in  place  and  memory  thereof  laid  a  Cieling  of  white 
Plafter  5  the  which,  when  I  departed  thence,  was  ftill  white  and  frefh,  and  the 
Walls  found  and  ftanding  as  formerly.  The  Provoft,  or  Matter  of  this  Cloifter, 
had  five  large  Chambers  fquare  allowed  him  for  his  Lodgings,  not  contiguous, 
or  joyning  one  to  the  other,  but  feparate  and  apart,  being  covered  in  form  of  a 
Pyramid,  and  which  made  the  other  three  Walls  of  the  Cloifter. 

One  of  thefe  fquare  Chambers  was  dedicated  to  the  Moon,  whom  they  ftyled 
the  Wife  of  the  Sun ,  and  therefore  was  neareft  to  the  principal  Chapel  of  the 
Temple  •,  all  the  fides  within,  as  alfo  the  Doors  were  Plated  with  Silver,  for  the 
better  correfpondence  and  refemblance  with  the  colour  of  the  Moon,  whofe 
Image  was  alfo  erected  in  Silver,  with  the  face  of  a  Woman,  and  placed  in  the 
fame  manner  as  that  of  the  Sun.  Into  this  Chamber  they  did  ufually  enter  to 
make  their  vifits  to  the  Moon ,  and  recommend  themfelves  to  her  favour -,  for 
that  (he  being  the  Sifter  and  Wife  of  the  Sun,  was  confequently  the  Mother  of 
the  Ihcm,  and  of  all  their  generation  •,  wherefore  they  called  her  Mamaqmtia, 
which  fignifies  as  much  as  Mother- Moon ,  to  whom  they  offered  Sacrifices  as 
they  did  to  the  Sun.  On  each  fide  of  this  Image  they  placed  the  Bodies  of  the 
dead  Queens,  according  to  their  Order  and  Seniority.  Onely  Mama  Ocllo,  who 
was  the  Mother  of  Huayna  Capac,  had  the  chief  place ,  being  feated  neareft,  and 
with  her  face  juft  oppofite  to  the  Moon ;  in  regard,  that  having  been  the  Mother 
of  a  Son  fo  excellent  and  famous,  did  feem  to  have  merited  the  primary  place  of 

The  Chamber  next  hereunto  was  dedicated  to  Ventu  the  Evening-Star,  and 
the  other  feven  Stars,  and  to  all  the  other  Stars  in  general.  The  Star  Vam  they 
called  Cbafia,  which  is  as  much  as  to  fay,  long  and  curled  Locks  ■-,  they  named 
this  Star  the  Page  of  the  Sun,  becaufe  it  always  attended  on  him,  going  fome- 
times  before,  and  fometimes  after  him  --,  for  the  feven  Stars  they  entertained  a 
particular  refpecT: ,  becaufe  of  the  ftrangenefs  of  their  pofition ,  and  their  equal 
proportion  :  Thefe  Stars  they  fanfied  to  be  the  Attendants  and  Hand-maids  to 
the  Moon  5  and  for  that  reafon  they  lodged  them  in  the  Lobby,  or  Chamber  next 
to  her,  that  fo  they  might  be  near,  and  the  place  more  commodious  for  their  fer- 
vice  5  for  they  were  of  opinion,  that  the  Stars  were  Attendants  belonging  to  the 
Court  of  the  Moon ,  and  not  of  the  Sun ,  becaufe  they  appeared  in  the  Night 
onely,  and  vanifhed  fo  foon  as  the  Morning  dawned,  and  the  Sun  arofe. 

This  Chamber  had  its  Walls  and  Doors  all  plated  with  Silver  like  that  of  the 
Moon  5  the  Roof  was  painted  like  a  Starry  Sky,  full  of  Stars  of  the  greater  and 
lefler  Magnitude. 

The  next  Chamber  hereunto  was  dedicated  to  the  Lightning,  Thunder  and 
Thunder-bolt,  which  three  they  comprehended  under  one  common  Name  of 
Tllapa ,  and  the  diftin&ion  of  them  was  denoted  by  the  Adjunct  Verb  :  As  for 
example  •,  when  they  fay,  Did  you  fee  the  Tllapa  ?  then  they  mean  Lightning  $ 
or  did  you  hear  the  Tllapa  ?  then  it  is  Thunder  5  or  did  you  fee  where  the  Tllapa 
fell,  or  the  damage  it  did  ?  then  they  underftand  the  Thunder-bolt. 

N  All 

oo  Royal  Commentaries,  Book  III. 

All  which  they  did  not  efteem  for  Gods,  but  regarded  them  as  Servants  of  the 
Sun,  as  the  Ancients  did ,  who  fanfied  the  Thunderbolt  to  be  the  Arms  of  Jupi- 
ter-? and  for  that  reafon  they  allotted  them  Lodgings  in  the  Temple  of  the  Sun, 
the  which  were  adorned  all  over  with  Gold :  howfoever  they  formed  no  Statue 
or  Reprefentation  of  them,  becaufe  they  knew  not  how  to  decypher  any  Simili- 
tude or  Hieroglyphick  to  exprefs  them ;  This  triple  fignification  of  Tlkpa.  the  Spa- 
mjh  Hiftorians  have  not  underftood,  for  if  they  had,  they  might  have  made  a  pro- 
per ufe  of  it,  in  making  our  word  Trinity  more  intelligible  to  the  capacity  of  the 
Indians?  than  by  fome  other  lefs  fignificant  terms  which  they  have  ufed  and  framed, 
but  have  not  reached  the  Imagination  or  Genius  of  that  People.  Thus  much  I 
write,  and  as  I  have  often  faid,  fo  I  ftill  aver  the  fame  to  be  true,  becaufe  I  have 
fucked  it  in  with  my  milk,  and  have  heard  it  from  my  Anceftours  ;  and  as  to 
other  matters  concerning  the  Thunder,  we  refer  the  Reader  to  what  we  have  al- 
ready declared. 

The  fourth  Chamber  they  dedicated  to  the  Rain-bow,  becaufe  they  apprehen- 
ded it  to  be  a  Ray,  or  Emiflion  from  the  Sun,  and  for  that  reafon  the  hcas  placed 
it  in  their  Arms,  or  Scutcheons,  as  a  badge  of  their  Family  and  Alliance  ■?  this 
Chamber  was  alfo  furnilhed  with  Gold,  and  on  the  Walls  a  Rainbow  was  pain- 
ted very  naturally,  with  all  its  colours,  which  reached  from  one  fide  to  the  other; 
the  Indians  call  it  Cuychu,  and  have  it  in  fuch  Veneration,  that  when  they  fee 
it  in  the  Air,  they  (hut  their  Mouths,  and  clap  their  Hands  before  if,  be- 
caufe they  have  an  opinion,  that  if  the  Rainbow  mould  difcover  their  Teeth, 
his  Influences  would  fpoil  them,  and  caufe  them  to  rot •?  the  which  was  one 
ambngft  their  vulgar  Errours ,  which  they  held  without  any  reafon,  or  founda- 
tion for  it. 

There  was  moreover  a  fifth  and  laft  Chamber  appropriated  to  the  High-Prieff, 
and  other  inferiour  Priefts  under  him,  who  attended  on  the  fervice  of  the  Temple, 
who  were  all  Incas,  defcended  from  the  Royal  Bloud:  This  Chamber  was  not 
ordained  for  a  room  to  fleep  or  eat  in,  but  for  a  place  of  audience,  or  confutation, 
in  what  manner  to  regulate  the  Sacrifices ,  arfd  all  other  matters  appertaining  to 
the  Services  of  the  Temple-,  the  which  Chamber,  as  all  the  others,  was  furnilhed 
and  adorned  with  Gold  from  the  top  to  the  bottom. 


Of  the  Name  of  the  High  Prieft?  and  of  other  parti  of  this 

THE  Spaniards  call  the  High  Prieft  Filaoma,  by  corruption  of  the  true  word 
Villac  Vmu,  which  is  compounded  of 'Villa,  which  fignifies  as  much  as  to 
fpeak  or  utter,  and  Vmu,  which  is  to  divine  or  foretell  j  as  if  we  mould  fay,  a 
Soothfayer,  or  one  skilful!  in  Divination  •,  not  that  he  is  to  declare  his  own  fenti- 
ments,  but  fuch  as  by  his  frequent  intercourfe  and  communication  with  the  Sun, 
and  by  virtue  and  privilege  of  his  Priefthood ,  he  ihall  have  received  from  him, 
namely,  all  thofe  Rabies  which  the  Devils  have  uttered  through  the  Organs  of  their 
Idols,  or  by  fecret  voices,  founding  in  their  Sanctuaries,  or  by  the  Interpretation 
of  Dreams,  or  fuch  kind  of  fuperftitious  Rites,  have  all  been  efteemed  oraculous 
and  myikrious  fayings,  conveyed  to  them  by  the.  Adminift rations  of  the  High 


Book  III.  Royal  Commentaries.  gi 

Of  thofe  five  Chambers  which  we  have  already  mentioned,  there  were  three 
onely  that  I  faw  remaining  in  their  ancient  ftate  of  Walls  and  Roof-,  and  thefe  al- 
{b  were  defpoiled  of  their  Plates  of  Gold  and  Silver  ;  but  the  other  two,  which 
were  the  apartments  of  the  Moon  and  Stars  were  demolilhed,  and  laid  level  with 
the  ground.  In  the  outfide  of  thefe  Walls,  which  bordered  on  the  Cloifters, 
were  four  Niches,  or  Tabernacles  made  of  free  Stone,  as  the  Walls  themfelves 
were;  and  thefe  Niches  had  cafes  of  Stone  cut  and  placed  within  the  hollow  of 
the  Tabernacle,  the  which  were  lined  with  Plates  of  Gold,  not  onely  on  the  top 
and  fides,  but  on  the  bottom  alfo;  and  the  corners  of  thefe  (tone-cafes,  or 
frames,  were  all  inlaid  with  pretious  Stones ,  fuch  as  Efmeralds  and  Turquoifes, 
becaufe  that  Countrey  neither  yields  Diamonds,  nor  Rubies:  On  great  feftival 
Days  the  Inca  did  ufually  fit  in  one  of  thefe  Tabernacles,  fometimes  in  one,  and 
fometimes  in  another,  as  was  appointed  for  the  Feftival. 

In  two  of  thefe  Tabernacles,  in  the  fame  Wall  which  looked  to  the  Eaft- 
ward,  I  remember  that  I  obferved  many  little  holes  in  the  Cafes,  or  Frames, 
which  were  embofled  within  the  Stone ,  and  thofe  which  were  in  the  corners 
reached  from  one  fide  to  the  other;  thofe  holes  which  were  in  the  middle  of 
the  Tabernacle,  onely  marked  or  pitted  the  Wall:  Enquiring  of  the  Religious, 
which  belonged  to  that  Houfe,  what  thefe  holes  meant,  they  told  me,  that  in  the 
times  of  Indian  Gentilitm  thofe  were  the  places  in  which  the  pretious  Stones  were 
fet;  thefe  Tabernacles,  and  all  the  Doors,  which  were,  twelve  in  number,  that 
opened  to  the  Cloifter,  were  all  plated  with  Leaves  of  Gold ,  excepting  onely 
the  Chambers  of  the  Moon,,  together  with  thofe  of  the  Stars ,  which,  as  we 
have  faid,  in  refemblance  of  what  they  reprefented,  were  overlaid  with  Silver 

Befides  thefe  five  principal  Chambers  (which  we  have  already  mentioned  to 
be  appertaining  to  the  Temple  of  the  Sun )  there  were  other  Rooms  of  leffer 
note ,  which  belonged  to  the  Priefts,  and  the  Servants  under  them,  who  were 
made  Mas  by  privilege,  becaufe  that  no  other  Indian,  how  great  foever  he  were, 
though  a  Cnraca,  or  Lord,  had  not  the  liberty  to  enter  within  that  Houfe, 
much  lefs  -was  it  granted  to  Women,  though  Daughters,  or  Wives  of  the  King 
himfelf:  The  Priefts  attended  to  the  fervice  of  the  Temple  by  Weeks,  which 
they  reckoned  by  Quarters  of  the  Moon;  during  which  time  they  abftained  from 
the  company  of  their  Wives,  not  departing  from  the  confines  of  the  Temple,  ei- 
ther by  day  or  night. 

Thofe  Indians  which  performed  the  Drudgery  of  inferiour  Services  of  the  Tem- 
ple, fuch  as  Porters,  Sweepers,  Cooks,  Butlers,  and  the  like,  were  the  very 
fame  that  were  Menial  Servants  and  Officers  in  the  Palace  of  the  Inca* ;  for  thefe 
two  Houfes  of  the  Father  and  Son  were  ferved  with  like  attendance ,  excepting 
onely  that  in  the  Temple  of  the  Father  no  Woman  had  admiflion,  and  in  the  Pa- 
lace of  the  Son  no  Sacrifices  were  offered;  all  other  matter  had  an  equality  of 
Grandeur  and  Majefty. 

N  i  CHAP. 

ai  Royal  Commentaries.  Book  III. 


Of  the  Places  where  they  offered  Sacrifice,  and  where  they 
put  off  their  Shoes  before  they  entred  into  the  Temple  • 
as  alfo  of  the  Fountains  which  belonged  to  it. 

TH  E  places  where  they  burned  their  Sacrifices  were  appointed  according  to 
the  folemnities  of  them ;  for  fome  were  offered  in  one  open  fquare,  and 
fome  in  others  3  for  there  were  many  hallowed  places  belonging  to  the  Temple, 
in  which  the  Inca*  ordered  the  celebration  of  the  Sacrifices,  according  as  their  plea- 
fure  and  devotion  dire&ed.  That  general  Sacrifice  which  was  made  at  the  great 
Feftival  of  the  Sun,  called  Raymi,  was  offered  in  the  open  Market-place  of  the 
City  j  other  Feafts  of  lefler  note  were  celebrated  in  an  open  Court  before  the 
Temple,  where  all  the  People  and  Nations  of  divers  Provinces,  belonging  to  the 
Dominion  of  the  Empire,  aflembled  together  to  keep  the  Holy-day  with  Dances 
and  Songs,  and  other  Recreations-,  but  they  could  not  pafs  beyond  that  place 
into  the  body  of  the  Temple,  nor  remain  there  with  Shoes  on  their  Feet,  becaufe 
the  ground  was  hallowed,  being  within  the  confines,  and  fan&ified  limits  of  the 
Temple 5  the  which  we  obferve  here,  to  denote  how  far  thofe  boundaries  ex- 

There  were  three  principal  Streets,  which  ran  Northward  from  the  Market- 
place to  the  Temple  5  one  of  which  palled  by  the  brook  fide,  and  another,  which 
in  my  time  they  called  the  Prifon-ftreet,  becaufe  the  Sf <«mar ds  made  their  Prifon 
in  it,  (which,  as  I  am  informed ,  is  fince  changed  5 )  a  third  led  from  a  corner 
of  the  Market-place  to  the  Temple.  There  is  another  Street  to  the  Eaftward  of 
thefe  three,  which  leads  ajfo  to  the  fame  place,  and  which  is  now  ailed  the 
Street  of  St.  Anftin  -,  through  all  which  four  Streets  there  was  a  way  to  the  Tem- 
ple 5  but  the  principal  Street,  and  moft  direct  way  thither,  was  that  which  we  call 
the  Street  of  the  Prifbn,  though  the  Indians  called  it  the  Street  of  the  Sun,  be- 
caufe that  that  being  in  the  middle,  and  in  the  ftreighteft  line  of  all  the  reft,  was 
the  common  paflage  by  which  they  went,  and  carried'  all  their  Offerings  and  Sa- 
crifices to  the  Temple.  There  was  alfo  another  Street  which  ran  Eaft  and  Weft, 
and  croffed  the  other  four  mentioned  Streets,  which  was- the  place  deterrriined 
for  them,  where  to  leave  their  Shoes-,  and  though  they  intended  not  to  go  fb 
far  as  the  Temple,  yet  that  ground  being  within  the  Verge  of  ir,  no  perfon  could 
pafs  it,  unlefs  defcalced,  and  with  bare  feet  paid  his  reverence  to  the  hallowed 
Earth ,  from  which  place  are  above  two  hundred  paces  to  the  Gate  of  the 

"But  to  return  now  to  the  Ornaments  of  the  Temple-,  there  were  five  Foun- 
tains of  Water,  which  ran  from  divers  places  through  Pipes  of  Gold  -,  theCi- 
fterns  were  fome  of  Stone,  and  others  of  Gold  and  Silver,  in  which  they  warned 
their  Sacrifices,  as  the  Solemnity  of  the  Feftival  appointed.  In  my  time,  there 
was  but  one  of  thofe  Fountains  remaining,  which  ferved  the  Garden  of  a  Con- 
vent with  Water  •■,  the  others  were  loft,  either  for  want  of  drawing,  or  opening, 
or  cleanfing-,,  and  this  is  very  probable,  becaufe  to  my  knowledge,  that  which 
belonged  to  the  Convent  was  alfo  loft  for  fix  or  feven  months ,  for  want  of 
which  Water ,  the  whole  Garden  was  dryed  up ,  and  withered ,  to  the  great  la- 
mentation of  the  Convent,  and  the  whole  C  ity,  nor  could  any  Indian  underftand 
how  that  Water  came  to  fail,  or  to  what  place  it  took  its  courfe. 


Book  III.  Royal  Commentaries.  y^ 

At  length  they  came  to  find,  that  on  the  Weft-fide  of  the  Convent  the  Wa- 
ter took  its  courfe  under  ground,  and  fell  into  the  Brook,  which  pailes  through 
the  City  -,  which  in  the  times  of  the  Incas  had  its  banks  kept  up  with  ftones,  and 
the  bottom  well  paved,  that  the  Earth  might  not  fall  in  ■-,  the  which  work  was 
continued  through  the  whole  City,  and  for  a  quarter  of  a  League  without-,  the 
which  now,  by  the  carelefsnefs  and  flothof  the  Spaniards,  is  broken,  and  the 
pavement  difplaced;  for  though  the  Spring  commonly  yields  not  water  very  plen- 
tifully, yet  at  fome  times  it  rifes  on  a  fudden,  and  makes  fuch  an  incredible  in- 
undation, that  the  force  of  the  current  hath  difordered  the  Chanel,  and  the  bot- 

In  the  Year  1^98.  there  happened  a  great  eruption  of  Water  from  this  Foun- 
tain, which  broke  the  main  Pipe,  and  the  Chanel ,  fo  that  the  fury  of  the  Tor- 
rent took  another  courfe,  and  left  the  garden  dry ;  and  now  by  that  abundance  of 
rubbifh  and  (ullage  which  comes  from  the  City,  the  chanel  is  filled  up,  and  not 
fo  much  as  any  mark,  or  fignal  thereof  remains. 

The  Friars,  though  at  length  they  ufed  all  the  diligence  imaginable,  yet  they 
could  not  find  the  ancient  Chanel ,  and  to  trace  it  from  the  Fountain  head  by 
way  of  the  Pipes,  it  was  an  immenle  work,  for  they  were  to  dig  through  Houfes, 

> conveyances  under  ground,  to  come  at  it,  for  the  Head  of  the  Spring 
Nor  could  any  Indian  be  found  that  could  give  any  direction  herein, 

and  dee 

was-  hig 

which  difcouraged  them  in  their  work,  and  in  the  recovery  of  the  others  which 

anciently  belonged  to  the  Temple. 

Hence  we  may  obferve,  the  ignorance  and  inadvertifement  of  thofe  Indians, 
itid  how  little  the  benefit  of  Tradition  availed  amongft  them-,  for  though  it  be 
onely  forty  two  Years  at  this  day  fince.  thofe  Waters  forfook  their  courfe;  yet 
neither  the  lofs  of  fo  neceflary  a  provision  as  Water,  which  was  the  refrefhment 
of  their  Lives,  nor  6f that  ftrearh  which  fupplied  the  Temple  of  the  Sun,  their  God, 
Could  by  Nature,  or  Religion,  conferve  in  them  the  memory  of  fo  remarkable  a 
particular.  The  troth  is,  that  it  is  probable  that  the  VJndertakers,  or  Mafter- 
wotkmen,  of  thofe  Water-works ,  did  communicate,  or  make  known  to  the 
Priefts  onely  the  fecret  conveyances  of  thofe  Waters,  efteeming  every  thing  which 
belonged  to  the  Honour  and  Service  of  the  Temple  to  be  fo  facred,  that  it  was 
not  to  be  revealed  to  common  ears  •,  and  for  this  reafon,  perhaps,  the  knowledge 
of  thefe  waters  might  dye,  and  end  with  the  order  of  Priefts.  Had  any  tiling  re- 
mained which  was  to  have  been  enquired  into,  as  matters  of  Tribute,  or  of  things 
relating  to  the  Regalities,  or  Services,  which  are  fecular  and  profane;  there  is  no 
doubt  but  the  Memory  of  the  People  or  Tradition  would  have  given  us  light 
therein,  as  we  plainly  fee  in  the  Hiftory  of  thefe  Countries,  which  were  oonfer- 
ved  by  appointed,  and  approved  Notaries,  though  in  thefe  days  they  begin  to  fail, 
and  wear  Out  of  memory,  being  fwallowed  up  by  the  modem  Hiftories  of  this 
New  Empire. 

G  H  A  P. 

94  Royal  Commentaries.  Book  III. 

CHAP.     XXIV. 

Of  the  Garden  of  Gold,  and  of  other  Riches  belonging  to  the 
Temple,  and  of  many  other  things  in  that  Empire,  after 
the  Fafhion  of  them. 

TO  return  now  to  this  Fountain,  I  fay,  that  at  the  end  of  fix  or  feven  months 
after  it  Was  loft,  it  happened,  that  fome  Indian  Boys  playing  about  the 
Stream,  difcovered  an  eruption  of  Water  from  the  broken  Pipe  ■■>  of  which  they 
acquainting  one  the  other,  at  length  it  came  to  the  knowledge  of  the  Spaniards, 
who  judging  it  to  be  the  water  of  the  Convent,  that  had  been  loft,  and  diverted 
from  its  former  courfe,  gave  information  thereof  unto  the  Friars,  who  joyfully  re- 
ceived the  good  news,  and  immediately  laboured  to  bring  it  again  into  direci  con- 
veyance, and  conduct  it  to  their  Garden ;  the  truth  is,  the  Pipes  lying  very  deep, 
were  buried  with  Earth,  fo  that  it  coft  much  labour  and  pains  to  reduce  it  to  its 
right  chanel-,  and  yet  they  were  not  fo  curious  or  induftrious  as  to  trace  the 
Fountain  to  the  Spring  Head. 

That  Garden  which  now  fupplies  the  Convent  with  Herbs  and  Plants,  was  the 
Garden  which  in  the  times  of  the  InsM  belonged  to  their  Palace,  called  the  Garden 
of  Gold  and  Silver,  becaufe  that  in  it  were  Herbs  and  Flowers  of  all  forts,  lower 
Plants,  and  Lhrubs,  and  taller  Trees,  made  all  of  Gold  and  Silver,  together  with 
all  forts  of  wild  Beafts,  and  tame,  which  were  accounted  rare  and  unufuah  there 
were  alfo  ftrange  Infe&s,  and  creeping  things,  as  Snakes,  Serpents,  Lizards,  Ca- 
melions,  Butter-flies  and  Snails-,  alio  all  forts  of  ftrange  Birds  and  every  thing  dif- 
pofed  and  in  its  proper  place  with  great  care,  and  imitated  with  much  curiofity, 
like  the  nature  and  original  of  that  it  reprefented. 

There  was  alfo  a  Mayzall,  which  bears  the  I»iUn  Wheat,  of  an  extraordinary 
bignefs,  the  feed  whereof  they  call  Sluinua,  likewife  Plants  which  produce  lefler 
Seeds,  and  Trees  bearing  their  feveral  forts  of  Fruit,  all  made  of  Gold  and  Silver, 
and  excellently  well  reprefenting  them  in  their  natural  Shapes.  In  the  Palace  alfo 
they  had  heaps  or  piles  of  Billets,  and  Faggots,  made  of  Gold  and  Silver,  rarely 
well  counterfeited.  And  for  the  greater  adornment  and  Majefty  of  the  Temple 
of  their  God  the  Sun,  they  had  caft  vaft  Figures  in  the  forms  of  Men,  and  Wo- 
men, and  Children,  which  they  laid  up  in  Magazines,  or  large  Chambers,  called 
Pirva;  and  every  year  at  the  principal  feafts  the  People  prefented  great  quantities 
of  Gold  and  Silver,  which  were  all  employed  in  the  adornment  of  the  Temple? 
and  thofe  Gold-fmiths  whofe  Art  and  Labour  was  dedicated  to  the  Sun,  attended 
to  no  other  work  than  daily  to  make  new  Inventions  of  rare  workmanfhip  out  of 
thofe  Metalls.  In  (hort,  they  made  all  forts  of  Veflels,  or  Utenfils,  belonging  to 
the  Temple,  of  Gold  and  Silver,  fuchasPots,  and  Pans,  and  Pails,  andFire-iho- 
vels,-  and  Tongs,  and  every  thing  elfe  of  ule  and  fervice,  even  their  very  Spades, 
and  Rakes  of  the  Garden  were  made  of  the  like  Metall,  that  with  very  good  rea- 
fon  they  might  call  the  Temple,  and  all  the  Houfe  of  the  Sun,  the  Corkancha,  or 
the  Ingot  of  Gold. 

In  imitation  of  this  Temple  at  Cozxo ,  they  made  the  Temples  which  were  in 
the  other  Provinces  of  that  Kingdom,  of  many  of  which,  as  alio  of  the  feleft  Vir- 
gins Pedro  de  Cie^a  de  Leon  makes  mention  in  his  Obfervations  of  that  Countrey  •-,  but 
omits  to  defcrioe  either  the  number  of  them,  or  the  places,  in  which  they  were, 
but  onely  fuch  as  occurred  to  him  in  his  travels  through  the  great  roads  leaving 
thofe  unmentioned,  which  remained  on  both  hands  out  of  the  way  5  perhaps  to 
avoid  a  tedious  prolixity  he  might  pafs  them  by,  in  regard  that  by  the  model  of 
one,  the  others  may  be  defcribed. 


Book  III.  Royal  Commentaries.  ^c 

In  die  adornment  of  which  Temples  the  Curacy  contended,  according  to  that 
abundance  which  their  Countries  produced  of  Gold  and  Silver,  and  herein  they 
were  very  zealous,  that  fo  they  might  both  honour  their  God,  and  flatter  their 
Prince-,  by  which  means  all  the  other  Temples  were  plated  with  Gold  and  Sil- 
ver, and  might  ftand  in  fbme  competition  and  terms  of  companion  with  that  of 

The  neareft  Kindred  or  Relations  to  the  Cur  mm  were  made  the  Priefts  of  thofe 
Temples  which  were  in  the  Provinces,  though  the  Chief  Prieft,  or  Superintendent 
over  them  was  an  Inca  of  the  Bloud  Royal,  becaufe  it  was  neceftary  that  he  mould 
dired  the  manner  and  order  of  their  Sacrifices,  after  the  ufe  and  cuftome  of  Co*™  3 
for  in  regard  diey  were  now  to  abhor  and  rejeci  their  Sacrifices  of  Men,  and  Wo- 
men, and  Children,  and  were  forbidden  to  eat  Man's  Flefh,  and  many  other  bar- 
barous Rites  of  abomination  and  fuperftition ;  it  was  necefTary  for  them  to  have 
the  fuperiour  guidance  of  an  lnca,  left  they  mould  forget  the  true  way,  and  re- 
lapfe  back  again  into  their  former  cuftomes.  This  Superintendency  which  the 
Mm  exercifed  was  very  acceptable  to  the  Indians,  for  as  they  efteemed  much  of 
their  management  both  of  civil  and  martial  Affairs  3  fo  likewife  they  believed 
that  they  had  moft  need  of  their  direction  in  religious  Worfhip,  from  whom  all 
the  knowledge  thereof  was  defcended  to  them.  And  thus  much  fhall  fuffice  to 
have  touched  concerning  the  riches  of  that  Temple  3  other  matters  of  which  may 
be  properly  related  in  their  due  places. 

CHAP.    XXV. 

Of  the  famous  Temple  o/"Titicaca,  and  of  the  Fables  and 
Allegories  alluding  to  it. 

AMongft  the  many  famous  Temples,  which  were  dedicated  to  the  Sun  in  Peru, 
and  which  in  Ornament  and  Riches  might  compare  with  that  of  Cozco  3  that 
in  the  Ifle  otTukaca  was  of  chief  Fame  and  Renown.  The  word  Tukaca  fignifies 
the  Foreft  of  Lead ,  being  compounded  of  Thi,  which  is  lead,  and  Caca,  which 
is  a  Foreft,  the  Lake  in  which  this  Ifland  is  (ituated ,  hath  taken  the  fame  name, 
being  about  two  Mufquet  fhot  from  the  main  Land,  and  is  about  five  or  fix  thou- 
fand  paces  in  compafs,  where  the  Incas  reported ,  that  the  Sun  their  Father  firft 
placed  Iris  two  Children,  the  Man  and  Woman,  whom  he  fent  into  the  World 
to  convert  Mankind  from  the  Errour  of  their  ways ,  and  to  teach  and  inftruft 
them  the  Rules  of  right  Reafon  and  Religion.  To  this  Fable  they  add  many 
others  of  ancient  date,  faying,  that  the  Rays  of  the  Sun,  after  the  general  Floud, 
were  firft  feen  in  that  Ifland,  and  in  that  Lake,  before  they  appeared  in  any  other 
place  3  and  that  this  Lake  is  feventy  or  eighty  fathom  deep  in  fome  places,  and 
about  eighty  Leagues  in  compafs  3  the  reafon  they  give  for  not  being  navigable,  or 
why  Boats  cannot  go  upon  it,  1  can  fay  little  unto,  onely  BIm  Valero,  writes,  than 
there  is  fuch  quantities  of  the  Magnet,  or  Load-ftone  in  all  parts  of  it,  that  hinder 
the  Navigation,  or  ufe  of  the  Compafs. 

By  help  of  this  Fable,  and  his  own  Ingenuity,  the  firft  Inca,  MancoCapac,  took 
the  advantage  to  perfuade  the  Indians,  that  he  and  his  Wife  were  the  Children  of 
the  Sun,  and  that  they  were  placed  in  it  by  their  Father,  that  from  thence  they 
might  proceed  into  the  World,  to  teach  and  inftrutl  it  in  the  way  of  trae  Reli- 
gion, as  we  have  at  large  related  in  the  beginning  of  this  Hiftory.  1  he  IncM, 
who  were  Amautas,  or  Philofophers,  and  wife  in  the  politicks,  made  ufe  of  both 
thefe  Fables,  and  related  them  by  way  of  Prophecy :  faying,  that  when  the  Sun 
darted  his  firft  Rays  of  Light  into  that  Ifland,  he  then  gave  a  fign  and  promife, 
that  from  that  place  the  firft  of  Light  fhould  ifluej  the  which  promife 


q6  Royal  Commentaries.  Book  III. 

was  afterwards  accomplifhed  by  thofe  Kings,  who  proceeded  thence,  and  taught 
the  World  how  to  caft  away  the  turpitude  of  their  manners,  and  live  by  another 
Law  and  Rule  of  Reafon.  By  advantage  of  thefe,  and  other  fuch  Inventions,  it 
was  not  difficult  for  the  Incas  to  perfuade  the  other  Indians  of  their  defcent  from 
the  Sun,  and  to  confirm  their  belief  by  thofe  many  benefits  and  advantages  which 
their  Doctrine  and  Religion  brought  with  them.  On  the  aflurance  of  thefe  two 
Fables  the  teas,  and  all  his  Subjects  did  really  efteem  this  Ifland  to  be  a  facred  and 
a  holy  piece  of  Ground ^  and  with  that  opinion  they  erected  a  rich  Temple  on 
it,  all  plated  with  Gold,  and  dedicated  to  the  Sun  5  where  generally  all  the  Pro- 
vinces fubjected  to  the  Inca,  did  yearly  offer  Gold,  and  Silver,  and  pretious 
Stones,  in  a  thankfull  acknowledgment  of  thofe  two  Bleffings  he  had  given  them 
in  that  place  5  and  that  Temple  being  of  greater  Devotion,  had  the  fame  atten- 
dence,  and  Officers  belonging  to  it,  as  that  of  Cozxo.  And  fo  immenfe  was  the 
quantity  of  Gold  and  Silver,  which  was  amafled  in  that  Ifland,  befides  that  which 
was  caft  and  framed  into  Utenfils,  for  the  fervice  of  the  Temple,  that  the  Re- 
port which  the  Indians  make  of  it  is  incredible,  and  more  to  be  admired,  than  be- 
lieved. Bleu  Valera  fpeaking  of  the  Riches  of  this  Temple,  and  of  the  quantities 
of  Gold  and  Silver  which  abounded,  after  all  Veffels  and  Ornaments  were  fup- 
plied,  faith,  that  he  was  informed  by  thofe  Indians  who  are  called  Mitmac,  and 
are  a  Colony  who  inhabit  in  Copa-Cavano,  that  there  was  fuch  a  fuperfluity  of 
Gold  and  Silver,  after  all  was  finifhed,  as  might  have  been  fufficient  to  have  raf- 
fed and  completed  another  Temple,  without  other  materials  whatfoever-,  and  that 
fo  foon  as  thofe  Indians  had  news  of  the  Invafion  of  the  Spaniards,  and  were  in- 
formed that  their  Errant  and  Bufinefs  was  to  defpoil  them  of  their  Riches,  they, 
demolifhed  their  Temple,  and  threw  all  the  materials,  and  the  immenfe  Wealth 
of  it,  into  that  great  Lake. 

There  is  another  Story  which  pafles,  not  unlike  this,  That  in  the  Valley  of 
Onos,  which  is  about  fix  Leagues  from  Cokjco,  towards  the  Sea  of  Z»r,  there  is  a  lit- 
tle Lake  of  lefs  than  half  a  League  round,  but  very  deep,  and  encompafled  with 
high  Woods-,  It  is  reported,  that  when  the  Indians  underftood  of  the  Arrival  of 
the  Spaniards,  they  threw  a  great  quantity  of  the  Treafure  belonging  to  Cozco  into 
it ,  and  amongft  the  reft ,  that  Chain  of  Gold  which  Hmyna  Capac  caufed  to 
be  made,  of  which  we  fhall  fpeak  in  its  due  place-,  upon  aflurance  and  belief 
hereof  twelve  or  thirteen  Spaniards,  who  fojournedat  Cozco,  not  Inhabitants,  but 
Merchants,  and  Adventurers,  entred  into  an  agreement  together,  on  terms  of 
equal  benefit  and  lofs,  to  poflefs  themfelves  of  that  Treafure  by  draining  the  Lake 
for  it ;  in  order  whereunto  they  founded  the  depth,  and  found  twenty  three  or 
twenty  four  fathom  water ,  befides  the  mudd ,  which  was  alfo  deep ;  then  they 
refolved  to  open  a  fluce,  or  bay,  at  the  loweft  ground,,  or  level  of  the  Lake,  that 
fo  a  wide  chanel  being  made  for  the  water  to  pafs  into  the  River  of  Tucay,  the 
Lake  might  be  fewed  or  emptied  by  the  great  vent  it  would  find  by  fuch  an  eva- 
cuation -,  in  other  parts  they  could  not  open  it  farther,  becaufe  of  the  Rocks,  and 
difad  vantage  of  the  ground,  nor  did  they  lay  their  Trench  open  to  the  top,  (which 
perhaps  might  have  been  better,)  but  to  fave  charges  made  a  Mine,  and  cut  their 
Drain  under  ground.  This  work  was  begun  in  the  Year  1557.  with  great  hopes  and 
expectations  of  Treafure-,  and  being  entred  about  fifty  paces  within  the  Earth,  they 
unhappily  crofted  upon  a  Vein  of  hard  Rock,  at  which  pecking  a  long  time,. they 
found  that  they  ftruck  more  fire  out  of  it,  than  they  drew  water-,  in  which  ha- 
ving fpent  much  money,  time  and  labour,  they  at  length  gave  over  the  work  as 
defperate,  and  defifted  from  their  Enterprife.  I  remember  that  I  entred  two  or 
.  three  times  within  the  vault ,  whilft  they  were  working,  and  have  heard  it  often 
reported,  that  the  Indians  threw  infinite  Treafure  into  Lakes,  Caves  and  Moun- 
tains, beyond  all  hopes  or  poffibility  of  recovery. 

Thofe  Kings  who  were  lncas ,  befides  the  Riche?  they  beftowed,  and  encou- 
ragement they  gave  for  the  adornment  of  this  Temple,  they  endeavoured  much 
to  improve  the  very  Land  of  this  Ifle,  that  fo'they  might  render  it  fertile,  and  fit 
to  bea:  Fruit ;  and  that  in  gratitude  to  this  place,  on  which  their  Anceftours  de- 
fending from  Heaven,  had  fet  their  firft  footfteps,  they  might  enoble  it  with  all 
forts  of  good  Husbandry  and  Agriculture :  to  this  end  they  levelled  and  cleared  it 
(  'locks  and  Stones,  then  they  made  Walks,  and  covered  them  over  with  good 
1  irth,  and  Manure  brought  from  fan  and  made  the  ground  capable  to  produce 
M*yz,  or  /»<//Vw-Wheat,  which  by  reafon  of  the  coldnefs  of  the  Climate,  is  not 


Book  III.  Royal  Commentaries.  97 

produced  in  that  Countrey  5  this  grane,  with  other  feeds  they  fowed  in  the  Gar- 
dens, which  they  had  made,  and  which  yielded  good  increafe,  together  with  a 
fmall  quantity  of  Flax,  the  which  Fruits  the  King  fent  as  facred  Prefents  to  the 
Temple  of  the  Sun,  and  the  feleft  Virgins  at  Cozco,  with  orders  to  difperfe  them 
all  over  the  Convents  and  Temples  of  his  Dominions,  of  which  they  fent  fome 
grane  of  this  Year  to  this  place,  and  next  Year  to  the  other,  which  were  in  high 
efteem,  as  Reliques  or  facred  Donatives-,  and  hereof  they  fowed  fome  in  the  Gar- 
dens belonging  to  the  Temples  of  the  Sun,  and  of  thofe  Houfes  which  were  of 
publick  ufe  within  the  Provinces  $  and  divided  and  reparted  them  amongft  the 
People  5  fome  Granes  of  this  Corn  they  caft  into  the  Granaries  of  the  Sun,  and 
of  the  King,  and  into  the  publick  Magazines  of  Com,  believing  that  fome  divine 
virtue  was  contained  in  it,  and  that  it  would  bleft  and  increafe  the  Corn  with 
which  it  was  mixed,  and  conferve  it  from  corruption,  and  render  all  more  whol- 
fome  for  humane  fuftenance  •-,  and  that  Indian  who  was  fo  happy  as  to  be  able  to 
get  but  one  grane  of  this  May*,,  to  throw  into  his  Heap,  was  poiTefled  with  a  cer- 
tain belief,  that  he  mould  never  want  Bread  in  the  wnole  courfe  of  his  Lifej  fo 
fuperftitious  were  they  in  all  matters  relating  to  their  Religion,  and  their  lm*s. 



Royal  Commentaries, 

BOOK    IV. 

CHAP.    I. 

Of  the  Convent  of  thofe  Virgins  who  were  dedicated  to  the 

AMONGST  the  many  things  worthy  of  Obfervation,  which  thofe 
Heathen  Kings  followed  in  their  vain  Religion  and  Gentilifm  •,  the 
Profeffion  which  fome  of  their  Women  made  of  perpetual  Cha- 
ftity,  and  the  Retirements  which  were  built  for  them  in  feveral 
Provinces  are  not  here  to  be  omitted  5  and  for  better  undeman- 
ding who  thofe  Women  were,  to  whom  they  dedicated  them- 
felves,  and  wherein  they  were  employed ,  we  ihall  declare  very  diftinftly,  be- 
caufe it  is  a  matter  which  the  Sfamjh  Hiftorians  touch  but  {lightly ,  and  as  the 
Proverb  goes,  as  the  Cat  doth  a  Coal  of  fire :  and  particularly  we  (hall  here  treat 
of  the  Houfe  at  Cozco,  becaufe  that  that  was  the  model  or  pattern  of  all  the  reft. 

In  that  City  is  a  certain  Lane,  which  they  call  Acllahuad,  which  is  as  much  as  the 
Houfe  of  the  feparated  Virgins:  This  Lane  pafled  through  the  two  Streets,  which 
lead  from  the  Market-place  to  the  Convent  of  St.  Dominick^,  which  was  anciently 
the  Temple  of  the  Sun-,  one  of  thefe  Streets  pafled  directly  from  a  Corner  of  the 
Market-place,  bending  on  the  left  hand  towards  the  great  Church  to  the  North- 
ward. When,  in  the  Year  1 570.  that  I  departed  from  that  City,  this  then  was 
the  chief  Street  for  the  Merchants-,  and  the  other  Street  which  pafles  from  the 
middle  of  the  Market-place,  where  in  my  time  the  Prifon  was,  led  dire&ly  on 
the  right  hand  to  the  faid  Convent  of  St.  Dominkkj.  The  Front  of  this  Houfe  was 
juft  oppofite  to  the  Market-place,  and  opened  between  thofe  two  Streets  before 
mentioned ;  the  backfide  of  it  bordered  on  another  Street,  which  crofles  Eaft  to 
Weft  •,  fo  that  this  Houfe  was  placed  in  an  open  fquare  between  the  Market- 
place and  the  three  Streets  •■,  and  between  this  and  the  Temple  of  the  Sun,  there 
was  a  feparate  pile  of  Buildings,  with  the  great  Area,  or  Court- yard,  before  the 
Temple.  Whence  we  plainly  perceive  the  miftake  of  thofe  Writers,  who  report, 
that  thofe  Virgins  had  their  Lodgings  within  the  Temple  of  the  Sun  ■■,  and  that 
they  were  Prieftefles,  and  Afliftants  to  the  Priefts  in  their  Offertories  and  Sacri- 
fices. For  in  regard  it  was  the  defign  and  intention  of  the  tmat  to  feparate  thefe 
Virgins  from  the  converfation,  and  fociety  of  Men  •,  and  that  as  Women  were 
not  permitted  to  enter  within  the  Temple  of  the  Sun,  fo  neither  were  men  allow- 
ed admiffion  into  the  retirements  of  thefe  Virgins-,  it  cannot  be  rationally  belie- 
ved that  thefe  Virgins  could  have  any  other  than  a  diftincl:  Houfe,  diftant  and  dif- 
joined  from  any  other  i  and  for  this  reaibn  they  called  them  the  feleft,  becaufe 

O  2  they 

ioo  Royal  Commentaries.  Book  IV. 

they  were  fele&ed  apart  and  chofenwith  refpedl  to  their  lineage  ai .  beauty ;  and 
that  for  aflurance,  that  they  were  Virgins  at  the  time  of  fuch  admiflion  into  the 
Monastery,  they  were  received  into  that  Order  at  eight  years  of  age,  or  under. 

And  becaufe  thefe  Virgins  who  belonged  to  the  Monaflery  at  Cozco  were  dedi- 
cated, and  as  it  were  efpoufed  to  the  Sun ,  it  was  efteemed  neceflary  that  they 
fhould  be  of  his  Lineage  and  Bloud,  that  is,  Daughters  of  the  tocos,  or' of  his  Un- 
cles, and  fuch  who  were  defcended  by  Father  and  Mother  of  the  lame  Lineage, 
and  not  Baflardized  by  mixture  of  humane  bloud  with  divine  race,  but  pure  and' 
unfpotted  ;  for  fince  their  opinion  was,  that  they  were  efpoufed  unto  the  Sun,  and 
that  he  was  to  have  Children  by  them,  'twas  reafon  that  they  fhould  be  without 
fpot  or  blemifh,  and  their  bloud  pure  and  undefiled. 

Thefe  Monks,  or  Nuns,  were  commonly  about  ijoo  in  Number,  governed 
by  grave  Matrons ,  admitted  to  the  fame  profeffion ,  who  had  lived  and  grown 
old  under  the  fame  rules  and  obfervance  of  their  Vow :  To  thefe  were  properly 
committed  the  care  and  government  of  the  younger  fort ,  and  from  this  Office 
they  took  the  Name  ofMamacuna,  or  Mother  of  the  Maids,  the  word  Mama  fig- 
nifying  a  Mother ;  and  Cuna  in  compofition,  care  or  watchfulnefs.  With  this 
Title  their  Offices  were  very  agreeable,  for  ibme  were  Abbeffes,  others  Miftrefies 
to  inftrucl:  the  Novitiates,  not  onely  in  their  Religious  Worfhips,  but  likewife  in 
Spinning,  Weaving,  Sowing,  and  the  like  employments  •,  fome  alfo  were  Por- 
ters belonging  to  the  Gates,  others  took  care  of  the  Hufwifery,  and  Management, 
of  the  domeftick  affairs,  and  to  make  a  provifion  of  Neceffaries,  with  which  they 
were  fufficiently  fupplied  out  of  the  Eftate  of  the  Sun  s  for  they  being  his  Wives, 
could  not  be  denied  a  maintenance  out  of  his  Revenue- 

CHAP.    II. 

Of  the  Rules  and  Statutes,   and  Employment  of  thefe  Select 

THey  were  Reclufes,  and  for  ever  lhut  up,  during  the  whole  term  of  their 
lives,  and  obliged  to  perpetual  Virginity  ■-,  they  had  no  Locutory,  or  place 
allowed  them  at  which  they  might  fee  or  converfe  with  Man  or  Woman ;  nor 
had  they  other  fociety  than  one  with  another  ■-,  for  they  held,  that  the  Wives  of 
the  Sun  were  to  have  no  communication  with  other,  than  with  himfelf  3  and  this 
their  Sedufion  was  fo  Ariel  and  rigorous ,  that  though  the  Inca  might  personally 
have  claimed  this  privilege*,  yet  becaufe  no  other  fhould  dare  or  adventure  on 
this  attempt  by  his  example,  he  alfo  denied  himfelf  this  liberty  -,  onely  the  Coya, 
or  Queen,  with  her  Daughters,  had  the  freedom  to  enter  in,  and  vifit  this  Mo- 
naftery ;  and  by  them  the  Iwa  prefented  his  Salutes,  demanding  of  their  health, 
and  what  their  occafions  and  neceffities  required.  I  once  faw  this  Houfe  {landing 
alone,  without  any  other  Building  before  it ;  for  onely  that,  and  the  Temple  of 
the  Sun,  which  made  up  two  Streets,  and  four  other  great  Courts,  which  had 
been  the  Palaces  of  their  Kings,  remained  entire  -,  having  been  fpared  by  the  In- 
dians, out  of  refpeft  to  their  God  the  Sun,  and  the  Imas  their  Kings,  when  in  a 
general  Infurre&ion  againft  the  Spaniards  they  fet  fire,  and  confumed  all  the  reft  of 
the  City.  Amongft  other  rarities  of  this  Building,  rhere  was  a  narrow  Gallery, 
in  which  two  onely  could  go  a-breaft ,  that  ran  through  the  whole  Houfe ; 
and  this  was  the  paflage  to  feveral  Chambers  and  Apartments  on  each  hand,  where 
the  Offices  of  the  Houfe  were  kept,  and  where  the  Women  worked :  At  every 
one  of  thefe  Doors  was  a  Portreis  3  and  in  the  fartheft  Chamber,  at  the  end  of 
the  Gallery,  was  the  Apartment  for  the  Wives  of  the  Sun,  where  none  entred 
befides  themfelves.    This  Houfe  had  its  common  Gate,  which  we  call  the  Great 


Bo  o  k  I V.  R  oyal  Commentaries.  i  o  i 

Gate  3  at  which  none  entred  befides  the  Queen,  and  fuch  as  intended  to  profefs 
the  Order. 

At  the  entrance  of  this  Gallery  there  was  a  Gate  for  the  common  ufe  and  ler- 
vice  of  the  Houfe ,  at  which  there  were  twenty  Porters  always  attending  to  bring 
in,  or  carry  away  whatfoever  was  needfull  3  but  none  of  them  could  pals  farther 
than  the  fecond  Gate  upon  pain  of  Death,  though  they  received  Commands  from 
within  fo  to  doe  •,  nor  could  any  that  was  within  give  fuch  Command,  or  Licence, 
but  on  the  fame  penalty. 

There  were  500  Maidens  appointed  to  attend  the  Service  of  thefe  Virgins,  who 
were  Daughters  of  thofe  who  had  the  privilege  to  be  called  Leas  5  not  fuch 
as  were  defcended  from  the  true  Line,  and  pure  Bloud  of  the  Royal  hats,  for 
thofe  were  efteemed  and  feparated  as  Wives,  or  Spoufes  of  the  Sun  5  but  fuch  as 
the  Firft  hie*  had  made  Mas  by  title  and  privilege,  as  before  related  3  to  which 
ftrangers,  or  thofe  who  were  afterwards  reduced,  could  not  attain.  Thefe  Mai- 
dens had  alio  their  Mamacmas,  or  Matrons  of  the  fame  Lineage  appointed  to 
them,  being  fuch,  as  having  palled  their  years,  and  grown  old  in  that  Houfe,  had 
part  of  the  care  and  management  thereof  committed  to  them.  When  the  Spa- 
niards  had  overcome  this  City  of  Cozco ,  and  that  they  divided  the  publick  Build- 
ings amongft  themfelves  for  places  to  dwell  and  inhabit ;  one  half  of  this  Con- 
vent, which  belonged  to  the  Offices,  fell  to  the^  lot  of  Pedro  del  Barco,  whom  in 
the  fequel  of  this  Hiftory  we  mall  have  occalion  to  mention 3  and  the  other 
half  was  the  mare  of  the  Licenciado  de  la  Gama ,  who  refided  there  when  I  was 
very  young  3  and  afterwards  it  belonged  to  Diego  Ortiz  de  Guzman,  a  Gentleman 
born  at  Sevil,  whom  I  knew,  and  left  at  Cozco,  when  I  departed  thence  for 


The  principal  employment  of  thefe  Wives  of  the  Sun  was  to  Spin  and  Weave 
all  the  garments  which  the  Ma  and  the  Cya  his  lawfull  Wife  wore  on  their  own 
Perfons  -,  they  made  alfo  all  the  fine  Linen  which  was  offered  to  the  Sun  in  Sa- 
crifice •,  and  what  the  Inca  wore  about  his  head,  which  was  called  LLutu,  which 
was  about  the  breadth  of  the  middle  finger,  but  very  thick ,  and  fo  long  as  to 
take  four  or  five  turns  about  the  head,  with  a  coloured  Lift  reaching  from  one 
temple  to  the  other. 

Their  Cloathing  was  a  fhirt  which  reached  to  their  knees ,  called  Vnctt 3  the 
Spaniards  called  it  Cufma,  which  was  not  the  common  name  of  it,  but  onely  that 
which  a  particular  Province  gave  to  it :  They  wore  alfo  a  fquare  Mantle  of  about 
two  Foot  deep,  which  ferved  for  a  Cloak,  called  Tacolla.  Moreover,  thefe  Nuns 
made  Purfes  for  the  Inca  of  about  a  quarter  of  a  Yard  fquare,  which  they  car- 
ried under  their  Arme,  hanged  by  a  fine  Twift  curioufly  embroidered,  of  about 
two  fingers  broad,  and  was  in  falhion  of  a  Ribbon  on  the  left  Shoulder,  reach- 
ing crofs  to  the  right  fide :  Thefe  Purfes  they  called  Chufpa,  and  ferved  them 
to  put  their  Cue*  into,  which  was  an  Herb  that  Indians  now  commonly  eat,  but 
was  then  fo  rare,  that  none  had  the  privilege  to  eat  of  it  but  the  lnca  onely,  and 
his  Kindred  3  unlefs  fome  Caracas,  to  whom  the  King  out  of  a  particular  favour 
and  affection  lent  perhaps  fome  Baskets  of  it  every  year. 

They  alfo  made  certain  Tvvifts  of  two  colours,  which  were  Straw-colour  and 
Carnation,  which  they  called  Paycha :  thefe  Tvvifts  were  very  fine,  of  about  a 
Yard  long  3  but  were  not  defigned  for  fervice  of  the  Inca,  but  for  others  of  the 
Royal  Bloud,  which  they  wore  on  their  Heads ,  binding  their  Foreheads  from 
one  temple  to  the  other. 


io2  Royal  Commentaries.  Book  IV. 

CHAP.    III. 

Of  the  refpeft  they  {hewed  to  the  Works  which  thefe  SeleSi 
Virgins  made,  and  what  Law  there  was  agahift  thofe  who 
attempted  on  their  Chaftity. 

AL  L  thefe  Curiofities  were  the  handy-work  of  thefe  Virgins,  made  in  great 
quantity  for  their  Spouie  the  Sun  ;  but  becaufe  he  was  not  capable  to  re- 
ceive or  wear  thofe  Ornaments  on  his  own  Perfon ,  they  were  fent  unto  the  Inca 
as  his  lawfull  and  undoubted  Son  and  Heir,  that  fo  he  might  ufe  them  in  the  ftead 
and  place  of  his  Father  •■,  the  which  were  efteemed  by  him  as  Sacred,  and  with 
great  reverence  and  devotion  refpeded  by  the  Subjeds  of  his  whole  Empire. 
And  if  the  Greeks  and  ancient  Romans  did  in  the  times  of  their  Gentilifm  adore 
Juno,  Venm  and  Pallas  for  Goddefles ,  it  ought  not  to  feem  ftrange  if  thefe  poor 
and  fimple  people,  who  were  under  the  higheft  circumftances  of  invincible  igno- 
rance imaginable,  mould  with  a  fuperftitious  zeal,  and  devout  affedion,  adore 
and  worfhip  whatfoever  their  Religion  taught  them  to  be  Divine  and  Sacred  5 
for  they  apprehending  that  thefe  Virgins  were  Cqyas,  or  Queens  ancj  real  Wives  of 
the  Sun,  could  not  but  fhew  refped  and  reverence  to  whatfoever  proceeded  from 
their  hands  and  labour  5  for  which  reafon,  the  Mas  themfelves  could  not  beftow 
their  Works  on  any  that  was  not  an  Inca  of  the  true  Bloud ;  for  that  were  a  pro- 
phanation  of  fuch  holy  things,  and  a  direct  facrilege  to  employ  divine  produdi- 
ons  to  common  and  humane  fervices.  And  though,  as  we  have  formerly  faid, 
the  King  gave  Veftments  to  Caracas,  and  other  Governours,  as  Signals  of  his  grace 
and  favour  •,  yet  thofe  were  of  another  fort ,  as  we  {hall  hereafter  make  ap- 

Moreover,  the  employment  and  office  of  thefe  Virgins  was  to  make  the  Bread,' 
called  Cancu,  which  at  the  great  Feftivals  of  the  Sun,  named  Raymi  and  Gttna, 
were  offered  to  him  in  Sacrifice  :  they  alio  made  the  Liquour  which  the  Inca  and 
his  Kindred  drank  on  the  Holy-days  of  thofe  Feftivals  called  Aca.  All  the  Veflels 
which  were  ufed  in  this  Houfe,  fuch  as  Kettles,  Pots,  Jars,  and  the  like,  were  all 
made  of  Gold  and  Silver,  it  being  reafonable  that  the  Wives  of  the  Sun  mould 
live  in  an  equipage  agreeable  to  the  quality  of  fuch  a  Husband ;  fo  that  their 
Garden  alfo  was  adorned  with  Trees  and  Fruit  all  made  of  Gold  and  Silver,  with 
Plants,  and  Flowers,  and  Herbs,  and  Birds,  and  other  Animals ,  all  rarely  coun- 
terfeited after  the  manner  of  thofe  in  the  Garden  of  the  Sun. 

Thefe  were  the  chief  employments  of  thofe  Nuns  which  lived  in  the  City  of 
Coz,co  -,  the  other  part  of  their  Life  and  Adions  was  agreeable  to  the  profeffion 
they  made  of  perpetual  Virginity,  and  of  Reclufes  from  the  reft  of  the  World. 
That  Nun  who  violated  her  Chaftity,  was  buried  alive,  and  her  Lover  hanged : 
But  in  regard  that  ( as  they  faid )  a  fimple  death  onely  feemed  too  mean  a  punifh- 
ment  for  fo  exorbitant  an  offence,  which  imported  no  lefs  than  the  violation  of 
a  Wife  dedicated  to  the  Sun  their  God,  and  Father  of  their  Kings  •,  they  ordai- 
ned ,  that  with  the  Delinquent  his  Wife  and  Children,  Servants  and  Kindred, 
with  his  very  Neighbours  and  Herds  of  Catt'el,  fhould  without  any  remorfe,  com- 
paffion  or  lamentations  of  any  be  put  to  deaths  that  all  his  Fields  and  Farms 
lhould  be  laid  defolate,  and  covered  with  heaps  of  ftones,  that  lb  no  Cattel  might 
ever  feed  more  thereon,  or  ever  be  more  trod  with  humane  feet,  which  had  pro- 
duced or  maintained  a  wretch  fo  vile  and  impious  as  this  accurfed  tranfgrefTour. 

This  was  the  Law,  but  it  was  never  put  into  execution,  becaufe  none  ever  did 
tranfgrefs  againft  it :  For  as  the  Indians  of  Peru  ( as  we  have  faid  before )  were 
great  obfervers  of  their  Law,  and  efpecially  devoted  to  that  part  which  refpeded 
their  Religion,  and  the  awe  and  reverence  due  to  their  Princes ,  {o  they  were 
very  fevere  in  execution  of  thofe  punilhments  which  the  Law  prefcribed,  adhe- 

Book  IV.  Royal  Commentaries.    •  I05 

ring  to  the  very  rigour  of  the  letter  without  more  remorfe  or  companion,  than 
if  they  had  deftroyed  a  fwarm  of  Wafps,  or  drowned  a  litter  of  Whelps  •,  for 
the  Incus  defigning  their  Laws  for  the  Rules  of  Humane  life,  would  never  fuffer 
them  to  be  fruftrated  or  eluded  by  the  boldnefs  of  any  that  attempted  to  break 

G  H  A  P.    IV. 

That  there  were  many  other  Houfes  of  thefe  Seleft  Virgins. 
The  [everity  of  the  Law  before-mentioned,  is  proved  by 

ALL  that  we  have  faid  before  had  relation  to  the  Houfe  of  thofe  Virgins 
at  Cozco,  who  were  dedicated  to  the  Sun :  But  befides  this,  there  were  fe- 
veral  other  Houfes  for  Women  of  the  fame  profeffion  in  divers  of  the  principal 
Provinces,  which  the  Ma  out  of  his  bounty  and  favour  commanded  to  be  built 
and  endowed  5  but  into  thefe,  Maids  of  all  conditions  and  qualities  had  admiftlon, 
as  well  thofe  whofe  bloud  was  tainted  with  common  mixture,  as  thofe  who  were 
of  the  pure  and  limpid  ftreams  of  Royal  Bloud.  The  Daughters  alfo  of  Caracas, 
as  a  mark  of  favour,  were  fometimes  admitted  here  5  fome  Maids  alfo  of  exact 
beauty,  and  rare  features,  though  of  the  common  race,  were  fometimes  alfo  re- 
ceived in,  the  which  both  their  Fathers  and  themfelves  efteemed  for  an  extraordi- 
nary favour  5  but  then  they  were  not  admitted  under  the  notion  of  Wives,  or 
Concubines,  to  the  Sun,  but  of  the  Ma  onely.  Howfoever,  they  referved  them^ 
felves  with  the  fame  retirement  and  care  as  thofe  of  the  Sun  •,  and  were  attended 
with  young  Maidens  for  their  Servants,  and  maintained  at  the  charge  of  the  Ma  t 
Their  employment  alfo  was  the  fame  with  thofe  zt  Cozco,  being  to  Spin  and 
Weave,  and  make  Garments  for  the  Ma,  which  they  performed  in  great  abun- 
dance, and  in  the  fame  manner  as  we  have  related  of  the  others :  But  howfoe- 
ver, thofe  Veftments  were  not  efteemed  fo  facred,  as  to  be  onely  appropriated  to 
the  Perfonof  the  Ma,  but  were  fuch  as  the  Ma  beftowed  on  his  great  Lords  and 
Captains,  and  other  Subjects,  whenfoever  he  was  pleafed  to  honour  them  with 
fome  fignal  note,  or  mark  of  his  favour. 

Thefe  alfo  had  their  Mamacmas,  or  Matrons  to  overfee  them,  as  thofe  had 
which  lived  at  Cozco,  and  were  governed  by  the  fame  rules ,  excepting  that  thofe 
who  lived  at  Cozco  were  all  of  the  true  Royal  Bloud,  and  obliged  to  a  perpetual 
Cloifter  and  Virginity  5  but  thefe  were  Maids  of  all  forts  and  conditions,  pro- 
vided :  that  they  were  beautifull,  being  not  defigried  for  Wives  of  the  Sun;  but 
Concubines  to  the  Ma. 

The  fame  rigour  of  Law  was  practifed  againft  thofe  who  debauched  and  de- 
filed the  Women  of  the  Ma,  as  againft  thofe  who  became  Adulterers  with  the 
Virgins  efpbiifed  to  the  Sun  5  for  the  crime  being  the  fame,  required  the  fame  pu- 
nifhment.  •, .  but  as  there  was  never  any  fuch  offence  committed,  fo  there  was  ne- 
ver any  fuch  feverity  executed  •,  but  to  confirm  that  there  was  fuch  a  Law,  we 
have  the  authority  of  Auguflin  de  Car  ate,  who  in  the  feventh  Chapter  of  his  fe- 
cond  Book ,  difcourfing  of  the  caufes  of  the  violent  Death  of  Atahualpa ,  hath 
thefe  very  words,  which  I  have  copied  out  Verbatim,  being  very  much  to  our  pur- 

pofe.  And  as  (  faith  he  )  all  the  Allegations  which  were  made  hereupon  were  all  pronoun- 
ced by  the  Tongue  of  the  fame  Filipillo,  he  interpreted  nothing  but  what  made  to  his  own 
purpofe.  what  might  be  the  caufe  which  moved  him  hereunto,  can  never  be  certainly  de- 
termined ;  though  it  muft  be  one  of  thefe  two  things,  either  that  this  Indian  entertained 
private  Amours  with  one  of  the  Wives  of  Atabaliba,  and  expetled  by  his  death  to  enjoy  her 


104  Royal  Commentaries.  Book  IV. 

frith  more  fecurity  ;  which  being  come  to  the  knowledge  of  Atabaliba,  he  complained 'there* 
ef  to  the  Govemour,  faying,  That  he  was  more  fenfible  of  that  misfortune,  than  he  was  of 
his  imprifonment ;  and  that  no  mifery,  though  accompanied  with  Death,  could  touch  him  fo 
nearly  as  this  ;  for  that  a  common  Indian  of  bafe  extraction,  fhould  efteem  him  nt  fo  mean 
a  rate,  as  to  make  him  the  fubjetl  of  fo  high  an  affront,  in  defpight  of  that  Law  of  their 
Countrey,  which  affigned  no  lefs  a  punifhment  for  it,  than  that  fuch  ojfendour  fhould  be  burnt 
dive ,  with  his  Wives ,  fathers,  Children,  Brothers ,  and  all  the  rejl  of  his  Kindred, 
nay  the  very  Flocks  and  Herds  of  fuch  an  Adulterer  were  to  be  defiroyed,  his  Lands  laid 
defolate,  and  fowed  trith  Salt,  his  Trees  eradicated  from  the  very  Roots,  his  Houfes  demoli- 
fhed,  with  many  other  infliUions  of  the  like  nature.     Thus  far  are  the  Words  of  Auguftin 

de  Car ate,  which  ferve  to  confirm  what  I  have  wrote  concerning  this  matter,  and 
indeed  I  was  pleafed  to  have  my  words  avduched  by  the  teftimony  of  this  Spanifh 
Cavalier :  For  though  other  Hiftorians  mention  this  Law,  yet  they  onely  fay,  that 
it  was  with  the  Death  of  the  Offendour,  omitting  that  of  his  Wife,  and  Father, 
and  Relations,  and  all  the  other  Solemnities  of  this  puniihment ;  whereby  we 
may  underftand  how  grievous  that  offence  was  efteemed  5  and  how  deeply  that 
poor  Inc*  Atahualpa  refented  it,  when  in  the  Agony  of  his  Heart,  he  laid,  That 
he  felt  it  more  than  his  Imprifonment  %  and  all  other  infelicities,  though  atten- 
ded with  Death  it  felf. 

Thofe  Women  who  had  the  honour  to  be  extracted  from  thefe  Houfes  for 
Concubines  to  the  King,  were  made  uncapable  of  ever  returning  thither  again, 
but  remained  in  the  Court  as  Ladies  and  Attendants  on  the  Queen,  untill  fuch 
time  as  they  were  difrr;il1ed,  and  licence  given  them  to  return  into  their  own 
Countries ;  \Vhere  for  ever  afterwards  they  were  provided  with  Houfes  and  Re- 
venue agreeable  to  their  Quality,  and  to  the  Dignity  and  Honour  they  had  acqui- 
red by  having  been  Miftrefles  to  the  Inca.  Thole  who  could  not  attain  to  this 
Honour,  were  obliged  to  remain  in  their  Cloifter  untill  they  Were  ancient,  and 
then  had  liberty  either  to  continue  till  the  time  of  their  Death ,  or  to  return  to 
their  own  Countrey,  where  they  were  treated  wkh  foch  refpeft  as  was  due  10  the 
profeflion  they  had  made. 


C  H  A  P.     V. 

Of  the  Quality  and  Ornament  of  thefe  SeleR  Virgins,  and 
that  they  were  not  to  be  given  unto  any  perfon  whatfoever 
in  Marriage. 

THofe  Virgins  which  were  dedicated  or  defigned  for  the  prefent  Kjfit  had  the 
Tide  after  his  Death  of  Mothers  to  the  Succeflbur,  with  the  Addition  alio 
of  Mamacmtt,  which  was  a  Name  properly  belonging  to  their  Office,  which  ob- 
liged them  to  teach  and  overfee  the  young  Novices,  who  were  admitted  for  Con- 
cubines of  the  New  bica,  and  treated  by  them  as  their  Children  and  Daughters- 
in-law.  Every  one  of  thefe  Convents  had  its  Governour  or  Superiour,  who  was 
an  Ma,  and  whofe  bufinefs  it  was  to  provide  all  Neceflaries  for  the  ufe  of  thefe 
Wives  of  the  Inca;  for  though  in  reality  they  were  but  Concubines,  yet  in  re- 
flect and  courtefie  they  gave  them  the  Honourable  title  of  Wives.  In  every  one 
of  thefe  Houfes  belonging  to  thefe  Maidens,  feparated  for  the  ufe  of  the  Inca  %  all 
their  Utenfils  and  Services  of  the  Houfe  were  made  of  Gold  and  Silver,  as  thofe 
were  which  belonged  to  the  Wives  of  the  Sun,  and  to  die  famous  Temple,  and 
(  as  we  fhall  hereafter  declare )  to  the  Royal  Palaces  •,  for  indeed  all  the  Gold  and 
Silver,  and  pretious  Stones  which  were  found  and  amafled  in  that  great  Empire, 
were,  for  the  moft  part,  employed  to  no  other  ufe,  than  to  the  Service  and  Adorn- 

Book  IV.  Royal  Commentaries.  105 

merit  of  the  Temples  of  the  Sun,  which  were  very  numerous,  and  of  the  Cloi- 
fters  of  thofe  Virgins,  which  were  equally  considerable,  and  to  embellitli  the  Royal 
Palaces  with  agreeable  pomp  and  magnificence  $  the  quantity  continued  in  the 
Services  of  Curacas,  and  great  Men  was  little,  and  that  chiefly  in  their  Cups,  or 
drinking  Veflels,  which  was  alio  limited  and  moderated  according  to  fuch  a  de- 
gree of  Weight  and  Number  as  the  Inca  was  pleafed  to  allow  them  •■,  there  was 
alfo  fome  fmall  matter  licenfed  for  their  Garments  and  Cloathing,  when  the  grand 
Feftivals  were  celebrated. 

It  is  a  great  errour  and  miftake  of  thofe  who  report,  that  any  of  thefe  feparated 
Virgins  might  lawfully  be  given  for  Wives  to  the  great  Commanders  and  Cap- 
tains by  any  favour  or  difpenfation  of  the  Inca ;  for  being  once  dedicated  and 
confecrated  for  Wives  of  the  Inca,  and  admitted  to  that  profeflion,  they  were 
ever  after  rendred  uncapable  of  fo  low  a  condefcenfion  as  to  own  any  other  Hus- 
band •,  for  that  were  to  prophane  that  Sacred  Character  whereby  they  were  de- 
dicated to  the  Inca,  and  an  injury  to  the  Woman,  who  thereby  would  be  forced 
to  renounce  all  the  grandeur  and  privileges  (he  enjoyed,  under  the  Reverend  Title 
of  one  Married  to  the  Inca,  that  (he  might  receive  the  lefs  honourable  condition 
of  a  private  perfon.  And  fince  it  was  a  fundamental  Law  amongft  them,  That 
wne  was  to  be  injured,  much  lets  ought  any  diminution  to  be  offered  to  their  Kings, 
who,  as  we  have  faid,  were  honoured  and  adored  by  them  under  the  Notion 
of  Gods. 

CHAP.    VI. 

What  Women  thofe  were  whom  the  Inca  prefented  and  be- 
flowed  in  Marriage. 

TH  E  truth  is,  there  were  fome  Women,  of  whom  the  Ma  made  Prefents 
to  fuch  Curacas  and  Captains,  who  by  their  Services  had  merited  rewards 
from  him  •,  but  then  thefe  were  but  the  Daughters  of  other  Curacy ,  which 
the  Inca  took  from  them  to  beftow  in  Marriage  upon  thofe  who  had  deferved  well 
from  him,  which  feemed  a  favour  to  them  both  •,  unto  the  one  that  the  Inca  would 
vouchfafe  to  receive  and  prefer  his  Daughter ,  and  to  the  other,  that  he  was  plea- 
fed  to  beftow  her  on  him  with  his  own  hand,  being  for  that  reafon  efteemed  pre- 
tious  •,  for  not  fo  much  the  gift,  as  the  Donor  being  regarded,  rendred  the  leaft 
prefent  from  the  Inca's  hand  equal  to  the  higheft  treafure,  as  if  it  had  fomething 
of  Divinity  conferred  with  it.  Sometimes,  though  but  feldom,  the  Incas  pre- 
ferred their  natural  Daughters  of  the  Royal  Bloud  to  the  Curacas,  and  Gover- 
nors of  Provinces  for  Wives,  as  Signals  of  his  favour,  and  as  engagements  to 
them  to  continue  in  their  Loyalty ;  of  which  fort  the  Inca  having  many  to  beftow 
abroad,  had  no  neceflity  to  have  recourfe  to  thofe  for  a  fupply,  who  were  entred 
in  the  Sacred  and  Royal  Foundations  •,  for  that  would  have  been  a  diminution 
to  their  exalted  Degree,  a  violation  to  their  Religion,  and  an  impiety  to  mix  di- 
vine race  with  prophane  Bloud. 

e  h  a  p. 

106  Royal  Commentariet.  Book  IV. 

CHAP.    VII. 

Of  other  Women,  who  conferred  their  Virginity,  and  of  Widows. 

BEfides  thefe  Virgins,  who  lived  Reclufes  in  Cloifters,  under  the  Vow  of  per- 
petual Chaftity,  there  were  many  other  Women  of  Royal  Bloud,  who  lived 
in  retirement,  and  vowed  to  conferve  their  Virginity,  though  with  liberty  to  go 
abroad,  and  vifit  their  neareft  Relations,  and  affift  the  lick,  and  Women  in  their 
Travels,  and  to  be  prefent  at  the  Ceremony  of  (having,  when  they  gave  a  Name 
to  their  firft-bom.  Thefe  Women  were  held  in  great  Efteem  and  Veneration, 
for  their  Chaftity,  and  purity  of  their  Lives  ,  giving  them  by  way  of  Excellency^ 
or  of  fome  Vertue  Divine,  the  Title  of  0«7»,  which  fignifies  fomething  of  fuper- 
eminentSan&ity*  and  this  their  Chaftity  was  not  pretended,  or  feigned,  but 
true  and  reaU  for  if  any  falfity  or  hypocrifie  were  difcovered  in  it,  they  burnt 
them  alive,  or  threw  them  to  the  Lions  to  be  devoured.  I  remember  that  I  knew 
one  of  thefe  that  was  very  ancient,  and  had  never  been  married,  which  they  cal- 
led Occlo-y  fometimes  (lie  vifited  my  Mother,  and,  as  I  have  heard,  (he  was  her 
Aunt  by  the  Grandfather-,  I  can  fay,  I  am  a  witnefc  of  the  great  refpeft  they  bore 
towards  her,  and  efpecially  my  Mother,  who  for  her  Relation,  Years  and  Vertue, 
behaved  her  felf  towards  her  with  all  imaginable  Reverence  and  Veneration. 

Nor  muft  we  here  omit  the  Modefty  and  Vertue  of  Widows  in  general,  who 
for  the  firft  Year  of  their  Widowhood  kept  themfelves  retired,  and  free  from  all 
converfation,  there  being  very  few  of  thofe,  who  had  not  Children,  that  married 
again,  much  left  thofe  who  were  provided  with  them,  did  ever  return  to  a  fecond 
Marriage,  but  lived  with  Continence  and  Chaftity  -,  for  which  reafon  the  Laws 
were  favourable  towards  them,  commanding  Labourers  to  plow  and  cultivate 
their  Lands  before  thofe  of  the  Curacas,  with  many  other  privileges,  which  the 
favour  of  the  Ima  indulged  to  them.  The  truth  is,  it  was  a  difparagement  for  a 
Man,  who  was  not  a  Widower  himfelf,  to  marry  with  a  Widow ,  for  as  they 
faid,  he  loft  I  know  not  what  quality  and  repute  by  fuch  a  condefcenfibn.  And 
this  is  what  is  moft  obfervable  in  reference  to  Virgins,  and  Widows,  and  modeft 


Of  their  Marriages  in  general,  and  how  their  Houfes  were 

IT  will  now  be  proper  in  this  place  for  us  to  treat  of  their  Marriages,  and  how 
they  were  joined  together  in  the  Kingdoms  and  Provinces  fubje&ed  to  the 
Iwa :  In  order  hereunto  it  is  to  be  noted,  that  every  year,  or  every  two  years,  the 
King  commanded  his  Officers  to  take  an  account  of  fuch  young  Men  and  Maidens 
of  his  Lineage,  as  were  marriageable,  within  the  City  of  Coz,c o,  that  fo  they  might  be 
matched  together-,  the  Maidens  were  to  be  of  eighteen  to  twenty  years  of  age,  and 
the  young  Men  from  twenty  to  twenty  four,  and  upwards  -,  under  which  age  they 
were  not  efteemed  to  be  of  years  of  confent,  for  that  it  was  neceflary  they  (hould 
be  of  a  ripe  age  and  judgment  to  govern  their  Families,  which  could  not  be  done  by 


Book  IV.  Royal  Commentaries.  107 

Children  in  their  minority.  At  the  Ceremonies  of  Matrimony  the  Inca  flood  be- 
tween the  two  Perfons,  and  carting  his  Eyes  upon  them  both,  he  called  the  Man 
by  his  Name,  and  then  the  Woman,  and  taking  their  hands  into  his,  joined  them 
together,  which  being  the  bond  of  Matrimony ,  the  Fun&ion  was  performed  ; 
and  being  by  the  Inca  consigned  to  their  Parents,  they  went  home  to  the  Houfe  of 
the  Bridegroom's  Father,  where  the  Wedding  was  kept  for  four  or  fix  days  with 
great  rejoycing :  This  was  the  manner  and  form  of  their  legal  Marriages,  which 
for  the  great  Favour  and  Honour  the  Jmk  had  performed  in  this  Function,  were 
called  in  their  Language,  the  Incan  Couple.  The  King  having  in  this  manner 
matched  thofe  of  his  own  Lineage,  then  the  next  day  following  the  Officers  for 
this  Employment  joined  the  Neighbourhood  of  the  City,  with  reipec-t  to  that  Di- 
vision, which  'we  have  mentioned  at  the  beginning  of  this  Hiftory,  of  the  Upper 
and  the  Lower  Cozxo. 

The  Houfes  which  were  appointed  for  the  Habitation  of  the  new  married 
Couples,  who  were  Incas,  (concerning  whom  we  treat  at  prefent)  were  prepared 
by  the  Indians  of  thofe  Provinces,  whofe  charge  it  was,  according  to  fuch  provi- 
fion  as  was  made  in  that  cafe.  All  the  Furniture  and  Utenfils  of  the  Houfes  were 
provided  at  the  charge  of  the  Parents;  every  one  of  their  Kindred  giving  them 
fomething  towards  Houfe-keeping,  which  was  all  the  Ceremony  or  Sacrifice  per- 
formed at  that  Solemnity  ■■,  and  though  many  Spanijh  Hiftorians  report  divers,other 
barbarous  Cuftoms  in  ufe  at  Marriages,  it  is  for  want  of  a  diftindl  knowledge  of 
the  Rites  of  one  Province  from  another-,  for  in  thofe  Provinces  indeed  which 
were  remote  from  Cozce,  and  where  the  Seigniority  and  Rule  of  the  Incas  had  not 
as  yet  arrived,  there  may  have  been  many  abfurd  and  impious  Ceremonies  in  u(e,  — 
which  fince  have  been  corrected,  and  aboliihed  by  the  more  wife  and  refined  Go- 
vernment of  the  Incas. 

But  as  to  the  true  Politicks  of  the  Incas,  they  obferved  no  other  Form  of  Marri- 
age than  this  before  recited,  according  to  which  the  Curacas  in  their  Provinces, 
and  the  Governours  in  their  refpe&ive  Divifions  conformed  their  difcipline,  and 
as  Fathers  and  Lords  of  their  Countrey,  pra&ifed  it  in  the  lame  manner  as  did 
the  Inca.  And  though  the  Inca,  who  was  Governour ,  was  prefent  at  the  Mar- 
riages which  the  Cm-oca  folemnized ;  yet  it  was  not  to  interpofe,  or  diminifii  the 
Authority  of  the  Cm-oca  therein,  but  onely  to  approve  that  in  the  name  of  the 
King  which  the  Curaca  had  performed  by  virtue  of  the  power  he  exercifed  over 
his  own  Vaflals.  When  the  Commonalty,  or  ordinary  fort  married,  the  Com- 
munity of  the  People  were  obliged  to  build,  and  provide  them  Houfes,  and  the 
Parents  to  furnilh  them.  It  was  not  lawfull  for  any  to  marry  out  of  his  own  Pro- 
vince, or  People  5  but,  as  the  Tribes  of  Ifrael,  they  were  obliged  to  match  within 
their  own  Lineage  and  Nation  5  and  excepting  onely  Sifters,  they  joined  promif- 
cuoufly  together,  like  Sheep  of  the  fame  flock;  fo  that  the  People  of  a  Province 
were  not  allied  onely  by  Nation,  but  by  Kindred  and  Bloud.  By  which  it  ap- 
pears, that  it  was  not  lawfull  for  any  to  change  his  Countrey  or  Habitation ,  or 
pafs  the  limits  of  his  Divifion,  or  Decurion,  but  to  keep  himfelf  clofe  to  his  Peo- 
ple and  Families-,  for  in  regard  the  Afiemblies  within  the  Community  were  obli- 
ged to  build  the  Houfes  of  the  new  married,  it  was  their  own  duty  to  conferve 
them  in  Repair,  and  not  to  wander  without  the  Barrier,  and  Confines  of  their 


io8  Royal  Commentaries.  Book  IV. 

C  H  A  P.    IX. 

That  the  Prince,  who  was  Heir  apparent,  was  to  marry  his 
own  Sifter,  and  the  reasons  which  they  gave  for  it. 

HAving  now  declared  the  manner  in  general,  and  the  way  how  the  common 
Indians  married  •-,  we  (hall  in  the  next  place  proceed  to  treat  of  the  Marriage 
of  the  Prince,  who  was  Heir  apparent.  In  explanation  of  which  it  is  to  be  noted, 
that  it  was  die  moft  ancient  Cuftome,  and  fundamental  Law  of  thofe  Kings,  that 
the  Prince,  who  was  Heir,  ihould  marry  with  her  that  was  his  own  Sifter  by  Fa- 
ther and  Mother,  and  (he  onely  was  capable  of  being  his  Legitimate  Wife,  whom 
they  called  Ctpa,  which  is  as  much  as  Queen,  or  Emprefs-,  and  the  Eldeft  Son  of 
thefe  two  was  allowed  for  the  true  and  lawfull  Heir  of  the  Kingdom. 

The  Original  of  this  Law  and  Cuftome  was  derived  from  the  firft  Inca,  ALmco 
Capac,  and  his  Wife,  Mama  Oak  Huaco,  who  feigning  themfelves  to  be  the  Chil- 
dren and  defended  from  the  Sun,  and  to  be  Brother  and  Sifter,  it  was  therefore 
concluded  by  all  the  Indians,  (who  perfectly  believed  this  Story)  that  by  the  exam- 
ple of  thefe  two,  the  fame  Rule  was  to  be  obferved  in  the  fuccefiion  of  all  future 
Ages  5  and  this  they  confirmed  by  another  Example  of  the  Sun  and  Moon  them- 
felves', who  being  Brother  and  Sifter,  were  joined  in  Marriage ;  and  therefore  this 
ierved  for  an  undeniable  Authority  and  Argument  to  prove  the"  Legality  of  fuch  a 
Marriage,  by  an  inftance  fo  convincing,  as  that  of  thefe  Deities:  Yet  for  wane 
of  fuch  Iitue  female,  the  Prince  might  then  marry  with  the  neareft  of  Kindred, 
fuch  as  his  Coufin-German,  or  Aunt,  who,  for  want  of  Heirs  male,  were  capa- 
ble of  inheriting  the  Crown,  according  to  the  Cuftome  in  Spain. 

For  want  of  Heirs  male  by  the  firft  Sifter,  the  Prince  might  marry  with  the 
fecond,  or  third,  and  fo  on,  untill  he  met  with  one  that  produced  fuch  ifliie :  and 
this  Rite  was  punctually  obferved,  and  maintained  to  be  legal,  from  the  example 
of  the  Sun  and  Moon,  and  of  the  firft  Inca  and  his  Sifter ,  and  from  that  Rule 
which  enjoined  them  to  keep  the  Streams  of  Royal  Bloud  pure  and  unmixed,  left 
they  mould  incur  the  impiety  of  mixing  Divine  Bloud  with  Humane  Race.  And 
becaufe  the  right  of  this  Inheritance  came  as  well  by  the  Mother  as  the  Father, 
the  fame  could  not  be  conferved,  unlefs  they  both  concurred  to  make  an  Heir 
with  an  undoubted  Title.  Hereunto  they  added  farther,  that  the  Majefty  of  the 
Queen  could  not  be  communicated  to  any  other ,  unto  whom  it  did  not  apper- 
tain by  Nature  ^  for  that  her  Conjunction  and  Union  with  the  King  could  not 
render  her  capable  of  fuch  a  Chara&er,  which  was  to  be  worfhipped  and  adored 
in  the  place  of  a  Deity,  for  that  were  to  commit  Idolatry,  by  giving  Divine 
Worfliip  to  a  Humane  Creature. 

Befides  the  lawfull  Queen  thofe  Kings  might  have  many  Concubines,  both  of 
their  own  Kindred,  to  the  fourth  Degree,  and  alfo  of  Strangers-,  but  the  Children 
by  them  were  obferved  with  different  degrees  of  refpecl;  the  Sons  by  the  KmC- 
women  were  efteemed  legitimate,  having  no  mixture  of  common  Bloud,  which 
quality  was  ever  efteemed  with  high  Veneration,  when  thofe  by  Strangers  were 
accounted  Baftards  5  and  though  they  had  fome  refpeft  (hewn  them  above  that 
of  common  degree,  yet  it  was  not  with  fuch  exteriour  and  interiour  Devotion,  as 
to  thofe  of  purer  Bloud,  who  were  accounted  Gods,  when  thefe  were  onely  ho- 
noured as  Men.  So  that  the  King. had  three  forts  of  Children,  one  by  his  Sifter 
and  Wife,  who  were  legitimate,  and  capable  of  the  Succeflion-,  another  fort 
was  by  his  Kinfwomen  of  the  fame  Bloud  3  and  a  third  by  Strangers,  who  were 
reputed  Natural  and  Baftard-Sons. 


Book  IV.  Royal  Commentaries.  109 

CHAP.    X. 

Of  the  different  manners  of  inheriting  Eftates. 

FOR  want  of  Ifliie  male  by  the  legitimate  Wife,  the  Law  then  was,  that  the 
Eldeft  of  the  true  bloud  fhould  fucceed,  as  it  happened  in  the  cafe  olManco 
Inca  a,  Huafiar,  as  we  ihall  hereafter  make  appear  in  its  due  place,  for  in  no  wife 
it  would  be  permitted  that  a  Baftard  fhould  inherit  j  and  for  want  of  lawful!  Sons 
of  the  bloud,  the  Inheritance  fell  to  the  next  of  Kindred,  provided  he  were  truly 
defended  by  Father  and  Mother. 

By  reafon  of  this  Law  Atahualpa  deftroyed  the  whole  Race  of  the  true  and 
Royal  Bloud,  both  Men  and  Women,  (as  we  fhall  relate  in  its  due  place ; )  for  he 
being  a  Baftard,  and  therefore  uncapable  to  inherit,  made  way  to  his  ufurped 
Kingdom  by  the  death  of  the  lawfull  Heirs,  left  one  of  them  remaining  alive, 
lhould  recover  it  again  from  his  Power.  All  thole  of  the  Bloud  married  together, 
to  the  fourth  Degree,  that  fo  the  Generation  of  them  might  multiply  to  great 
numbers 5  onely  the  eldeft  Sifter  was  referved  for  the  King,  it  not  being  lawfull 
for  any  to  take  her  befides  himfelf.  The  eldeft  Son  always  inherited  the  Kingdom 
for  a  feries  of  twelve  Kings,  who  fucceeded  without  interruption,  untill  the  Spa- 
niards invaded  them. 

Howfoever  amongft  the  Caracas,  or  Lords  over  Vaffals,  a  different  Rule  and 
Cuftome  was  obferved  •,  for  in  fome  Provinces  the  Eldeft  Son  fucceeded,  in  others 
the  moft  beloved,  and  efteemed  for  his  Vertue,  and  Affability  was  the  qualifica- 
tion required,  of  which  the  People  being  Judges,  the  Government  feemed  rather 
Elective  than  Hereditary.  This  Law  was  a  curb  to  the  Sons  of  the  Caracas,  ve- 
{training them  from  Tyranny,  and  an  obligation  to  be  vertuous;  for  in  regard 
the  Difpofal  of  the  Inheritance  depended  on  the  pleafure  of  the  People,  the  Sons 
contended  in  kindnefs  towards  their  Subjects,  and  every  one  laboured  to  render 
himfelf,  by  his  Valour  and  Gentlenefs,  the  moft  beloved  and  acceptable  to  the 

Jn  fome  Provinces  the  Sons  inherited  according  to  their  Birth,  as  when  the  Fa- 
ther dyed,  the  Eldeft  Son  fucceeded,  then  the  fecond,  then  the  third,  and  fb  for- 
ward 3  and  when  all  the  Brothers  were  extinct,  the  Inheritance  fell  to  the  Eldeft 
Son  of  the  Eldeft  Brother,  and  fo  fucceflively  -,  Co  that  hence  appears  the  miftake 
of  3  certain  Spanijh  Hiftorian,  who  fays,  that  it  was  the  common  Cuftome  of  all 
Peru,  that  the  Brothers  of  the  King  fhould  gradually  fucceed  one  after  the  others 
and  that  all  of  them  being  dead,  then  the  Kingdom  afcended  again  to  the  Eldeft 
Son  of  the  eldeft  Brother,  which  Errour  proceeded  from  a  mifunderftanding  of 
the  true  difference  between  the  manner  of  inheriting  by  Incat-,  and  Caracas.    For 
though  the  Incas  did  reduce  and  fubdue  many  Provinces  to  their  Power,  yet  they 
did  not  alter  their  Cuftomes,  and  ancient  Laws,  unlefs  they  interfered  with  their 
Religion,  and  their  own  fupreme  and  abfolute  Jurifdiction  •,  but  rather  they  con- 
firmed many  of  thofe  Cuftoms  which  were  good  and  laudable-,  particularly  that 
whereby  the  moft  deferving  Son  was  chofen  to  the  Government ,  it  feeming  a 
fpur  and  incitement  to  Vertue,  to  have  Power  and  Grandeur  fet  up  for  the  Prize 
and  Reward  of  their  Merit:  the  which  appeared  fo  reafonable,  that  a  certain  Inca, 
King  defired  once  to  have  introduced  this  Cuftome  into  his  own  Family,  and  in 
defpight  of  their  own  fevere  Law  of  Primogeniture,  have  made  his  Sons  depend 
on  the  favour  and  air  of  the  Peoples  Suffrages,  as  we  lhall  difcourfe  in  its  due  place. 
There  is  a  People  about  fourty  Leagues  to  the  Eaftward  of  Cozco,  which  I  have 
been  amongft,  of  the  Nation  of  guechaa,  fome  call  them  Sutcunca,  where  a  par- 
ticular inftance  happened,  relating  to  the  different  manner  of  inheriting  in  that 
Countrey.    The  Cttraca.  of  that  People,  called  Bon  Garcia,  finding  himfelf  at  the 
point  of  death,  called  for  his  four  Sons,  who  were  Men  grown,  with  the  Nobles 
of  his  Province,  and  admonifhed  them  by  way  of  his  laft  Words  and  Teftament; 



no  Royal  Commentaries.  Book  IV. 

that  they  mould  obferve  and  keep  that  Law  of  Jefus  Chrift  which  they  had  lately 
received,  and  for  ever  praife  and  thank  God  for  fending  them  fo  ineftimable  a  be- 
nefit and  honour ,  and  ferve  the  Spaniards  for  having  been  the  means  and  inftru- 
ments  of  fuch  Divine  Revelations  •?  and  that  they  mould  ferve  and  obey  their 
Mafter  with  Angular  Affe&ion,  to  whofe  lot  and  fortune  it  mould  fall  to  be  their 
Lord  and  Governour-,  laftly,  he  told  them,  that  fince  it  was  theCuftome  of  their 
Countrey  to  ele<5t  the  moft  vertuous  unto  their  Government,  he  charged  them  to 
make  choice  of  that  Perfon  amongft  his  Sons,  whom  they  efteemed  the  moft  de- 
ferving-,  and  that  in  cafe  none  of  them  appeared  worthy  of  their  paternal  Succef- 
lion  and  Honour ,  that  then,  patting  them  by,  they  mould  chufe  fuch  a  Perfon 
from  amongft  themfelves,  whom  they  reputed  of  greateft  Honour  and  Worthi- 
nefst,  for  that  fince  nothing  was  fo  dear  to  him  as  the  common  Good,  and  Benefit 
of  his  People,  he  defired  not  the  promotion  of  Iris  Children  farther  than  as  it 
tended  to  that  end  and  defign:  All  which  a  Prieft,  who  had  been  his  Confef- 
four ,  reported  as  a  remarkable  Teftament  and  Paffage  in  thofe  barbarous  parts. 

CHAP.     XI. 

Of  their  Ceremonies  when  they  weaned,  and  Jbaved,  and 
gave  Names  to  their  Children. 

THE  Incas,  when  they  weaned  their  Eldeft  Sons,  they  made  great  Feafts  and 
rejoycing,  which  they  did  not  obfert e  for  their  Daughters,  or  fecond  or 
third  Sons,  at  leaft  not  with  that  folemnity ;  for  the  order  of  Primogeniture  of 
Males  was  in  high  Efteem  with  the  Incas ,  and  by  their  Example  with  all  their 

They  weaned  them  at  two  years  of  age,  and  upwards,  and  then  dipt  off  the 
Hair  of  their  Heads,  and  with  that  gave  them  their  Names:  At  which  cere- 
mony the  Kindred  aflembled,  and  he  that  was  to  impofe  the  Name,  fhore  offthe 
firft  lock  of  the  Infant's  Hair.  Their  Sciffers  were  made  of  a  Flint,  for  as  yet  the 
Indians  were  not  arrived  to  a  better  Invention  •,  after  the  God-father  had  (nipped 
his  lock,  the  reft  of  the  Kindred  did  the  like,  one  after  the  other,  according  to 
their  Age  and  Quality  ■-,  and  when  the  Infant  was  quite  (horn,  then  the  Name  was 
given,  with  the  Preients  which  they  brought ;  for  fome  gave  him  Garments,  and 
clothing,  others  beftowed  Cattle ,  others  Arms  of  divers  Faftuons ,  others  Cups 
of  Gold  and  Silver  to  drink  in :  the  which  was  performed  onely  towards  the 
Princes  of  the  Royal  Bloud-,  for  that  the  Commonalty  were  not  permitted  this 
Honour,  unlefs  by  particular  Privilege  or  Difpenfation. 

After  this  Ceremony  was  ended,  then  came  in  their  drink ,  for  a  dry  Feaft 
was  accounted  dull,  and  with  Singing,  and  Dancing,  they  paffed  the  whole 
Day ,  untill  Night  parted  them  •,  which  Jollity  being  the  next  day  renewed , 
continued  for  three  or  four  days ,  according  to  the  quality  of  the  Parents  j  the 
like  Ceremony  was  obferved,  when  the  locks  of  the  young  Prince,  and  Heir  ap- 
parent, were  dipt,  at  which  the  High  Prieft  of  the  Sun  affifted,  and  was  the  firft 
to  cut  his  Hair  -7  moreover  at  this  folemnity  the  Curacas  of  the  whole  Kingdom, 
either  in  Perfon,  or  by  their  Deputies  appeared,  and  were  aflifting  at  this  Feftival, 
which  continued  for  the  fpace  of  at  leaft  twenty  days,  offering  their  Prefents  of 
Gold,  and  Silver,  and  pretious  ftones,  and  what  elfe  was  curious  and  rare,  in  their 
refpe&ive  Provinces. 

In  refemblance  hereof  (becaufe  it  is  natural  for  People  to  imitate  their  Prince) 
the  Curacas,  and  generally  all  the  Nations  of  iV#  followed  this  Example,  in  fome 
proportion  agreeable  to  their  Quality  and  Ability  •-,  and  this  was  accounted  one  of 
their  moft  jolly  and  merry  meetings. 


Book  IV.  Royal  Commentaries.  1 1 1 

CHAP.     XII. 

That  they  educated  their  Children  without  any  tender- 

AS  well  the  huat,  as. the  Commonalty,  both  rich  and  poor,  bred  up  their 
Children  with  the  leaft  of  tendernefs  and  delicacy  that  was  pofllble:  for 
fo  foon  as  an  Infant  was  born,  they  warned  it  in  cold  water,  before  they  fwathed  it 
in  its  Mantles  5  and  then  every  morning  they  bathed  it  in  cold  water ,  and  fome- 
times  expofed  it  to  the  dew  of  the  night  •■,  perhaps  the  Mother  would  fometimes 
out  of  tendernefs  fpirt  the  water  out  of  her  mouth  on  the  Child,  and  fo  wafh  it  5 
but  generally  they  had  an  opinion,  that  cold  and  exercife  did  corroborate  and 
ftrengthen  the  Body  and  Limbs:  their  Armes  they  kept  fwathed,  and  bound 
down  for  three  months,  upon  fuppofition,  that  to  loofe  them  fooner,  would  wea- 
ken them ;  they  kept  them  always  in  their  Cradles,  which  was  a  pitifull  kind  of 
a  frame,  fet  on  four  legs,  one  of  which  was  ihorter  than  the  reft,  for  convenience 
of  rocking  $  the  Bed  was  made  of  a  fort  of  courfe  knitting,  which  was  fomethkig 
more  foft  than  the  bare  boards,  and  with  a  ftring  of  this  knitting  they  bound  up 
the  Child  on  one  fide,  and  the  other,  to  keep  it  from  falling  out. 

When  they  gave  them  fuck  they  never  took  them  into  their  Lap  or  Armes, 
for  if  they  had  ufed  them  in  that  manner,  they  believed  that  they  would  never 
leave  crying,  and  would  always  expect  to  be  in  Armes,  and  not  lie  quiet  in 
their  Cradles;  and  therefore  the  Mother  would  lean  over  the  Child,  and  reach  it 
the  Breaft,  which  they  did  three  times  a  day,  that  is,  at  morning,  noon  and  night, 
and  unlefs  it  were  at  thofe  times,  they  never  gave  it  fuck-,  for  they  faid,  that  not 
accuftoming  it  to  fet  hours,  would  caufe  it  to  expecl:  fuckling  the  whole  day,,  and 
be  never  quiet,  but  when  the  Breaft  was  at  the  Mouth;  which  caufes  frequent 
vomits  and  pewkings,  and  made  them,  when  they  were  grown  Men,  to  be  glut- 
tons, and  drunkards-,  for  we  fee,  faid  they,  in  other  Creatures,  that  they  admini- 
fter  their  Dugs  and  Nipples  to  their  Young  at  certain  hours  and  feaibns.  The 
Mother  always  nurfed  her  own  Child,  for  though  lhe  were  a  Lady  of  the  higheft 
degree,  ftie  would  never  fuffer  her  Infant  to  be  nourished  with  the  milk  of  another, 
unlefs  in  the  cafe  of  ficknefs ,  or  fome  other  infirmity  3  and  during  the  time  of 
their  nurfing,  they  abftained  from  the  Bed  of  their  Husbands,  as  that  which  would 
curdle  their  milk,  and  make  the  Child  a  Changeling.  Such  as  were  thus  transferred 

jreterperfec-l  tenfe, 
w  its  Parents;  and 
le  other  with  that 

to  ftranger  Nurfe,  were  called  Ayufia,  which  is  a  participle  of  the 
and  is  as  much  as  to  fay,  one  denied,  or  renounced,  or  changed 
by  way  of  Metaphor  the  younger  fort  would  reproach  one 
word,  intimating  that  his  Miftrefs  fhevv'd  more  favour  to  his  Rival  than  to  him- 
felf;  to  utter  that  word  to  a  married  man  were  a  high  affront,  being  one  of  thofe 
five  words  that  are  fcandalous,  and  will  bear  an  A&ion.  I  knew  once  a  Pa/la,  or 
Lady  of  the  Bloud  Royal,  who  was  forced  to  give  her  Daughter  to  be  fuckled  by 
another-,  the  faithlefs  Nurfe  proving  with  Child,  her  Fofter-child  fell  into  aCon- 
fumption  and  Convulfions,  and  became  nothing  but  Skin  and  Bones  5  the  Mother 
finding  her  Daughter  in  this  manner  made  Ayufia,  at  the  end  of  eight  months  after, 
when  lhe  had  almoft  dried  up  her  milk,  (he  reftored  her  Infant  to  her  own  natural 
Breafts,  which  fetched  down  her  milk  again,  and  applying  an  Unguent  of  Herbs 
to  the  Shoulders,  the  Infant  recovered,  which  was  before  given  over,  as  in  a  de- 
fperate  condition-,  fuch  is  the  virtue  of  the  Mother's  Milk,  that  there  is  nothing 
more  medicinal,  and  nothing  more  reftorative  than  that  natural  ftiftenance. 

If  the  Mother  had  a  fufficient  ftock  of  Milk,  the  Child  never  received  any  other 
nonriihment  than  that,  untill  the  time  it  was  weaned  -,  for  they  were  of  opinion, 
that  all  other  forts  of  food  created  nothing  but  crudities  and  indigeftions.  When 
it  was  time  to  take  it  out  of  the  Cradle,  they  made  a  little  pit  for  it  in  the  floor, 
which  reached  to  the  Breaft,  in  which  they  put  it,  with  fome  old  clouts  to  make 


H2  Royal  Commentaries.  Book  IV. 

it  foft,  to  which  the  Child  being  inured ,  did  not  trouble  the  Mother's  Armes, 
and  having  fome  few  play- things  thrown  before  it,  it  pleafed  and  contented  it 
felf  without  the  lead:  difturbance  •,  and  fo  unwilling  were  they  to  accuftome  it  to 
the  Lap,  that  though  it  were  a  Child  of  the  greatefl:  Cmaca  of  the  Kingdom,  it 
was  not  treated  ocherwtfe-,  and  that  when  it  was  grown  fo  big  as  to  crawl  about, 
they  would  ufe  it  to  fuck  upon  its  knees  at  one  Breaft,  and  then  teach  it  to  creep 
about  to  the  other,  but  would  never  take  it  into  the  Armes.  The  Woman  in 
Child-bed  was  treated  yet  more  hardily  than  was  the  Child  •,  for  fo  foon  as  fhe  had 
brought  forth,  (he  went  to  the  next  ftream,  or  to  fome  cold  water  in  the  Houfe, 
where  (lie  wafhed  her  felf  and  her  Infant,  and  afterwards  applied  her  felf  to  her 
domeftick  Affairs,  without  any  concernment  whatfoever:  They  had  no  ufe  of 
Midwives,  or  others,  at  their  Labours,  and  if  any  did  affift,  me  was  rather  a 
Witch ,  or  Enchantrefs„  than  a  Midwife.  And  this  was  all  the  cuftome  and 
manner  in  Pern,  which  was  equally  pra&ifed  by  the  Rich  and  Poor,  Nobility 
and  Commonalty,  both  at  the  Birth  of  their  Children,  and  breeding  them  up  af- 


Of  the  Husmfery  of  the  ?7iarried  Women, 

TH  E  married  Women  always  employed  themfelves  at  home  in  fpinning  and 
weaving  Woo'  m  the  coid  Countries,  and  of  Cottons  in  the  hot,  every 
one  fpinning  and  making  Cloaths  for  themfelves,  their  Husbands,  and  Children ; 
fowing  was  the  leaft  of  their  work,  either  for  Men  or  Women,  for  their  thread 
was  Bad,  and  their  needles  worfe  •-,  notwithftanding  whatfoever  they  wove,  whe- 
ther Wool,  or  Cotton ,  all  was  fpun ,  and  twined  into  threads-  Ail  their  Cloth 
was  made  of  four  threads,  and  not  woven  wider  or  longer,  than  juft  as  much  as 
was  fufficient  to  make  a  Mantle,  Shirt,  orWaftcoar?  their  Veftments  were  not 
cut  out,  or  fhaped,  but  all  of  a  piece,  after  the  manner  that  they  came  from  the 
Loom  ■-,  for  before  they  began  to  weave  them ,  they  defigned  the  proportion  of 
length  and  breadth,  which  they  intended  to  give  them  •,  fo  that  they  nad  need 
neither  of  Taylors,  Hofiers,  nor  Shomakers,  for  they  had  no  need  of  thofe  things 
which  we  make  neceffaries ,  and  their  Women  took  care  of  their  Houfes  and 
Clothing,  onely  the  Men  were  to  provide  the  Hofe,  or  Stockings,  and  Arms? 
and  though  the  Incat  of  the  Royal  Bloud,  and  fuch  as  were  Caracas,  and  rich 
Men,  had  Servants  to  perform  all  thefe  works  for  them  •,  yet  fometimes  for  di- 
vertifement ,  and  in  complyance  with  the  Profeffion  which  their  Law  enjoyned 
them,  they  fometimes  did  not  difdain  to  work  themfelves ,  and  make  a  pair  of 
Breeches,  or  Stockins ,  or  an  Arrow ,  or  fome  other  fort  of  Arms  •,  but  as  to  the 
Labours  of  the  field  both  Men  and  Women,  did  jointly  concur  in  their  afMence 
one  of  the  other. 

In  fome  Provinces  far  diftant  from  Cozco,  where  the  Lands  were  ill  manured, 
there  the  Women  laboured  in  the  Field,  and  the  Men  remained  at  home  to  fpin 
and  weave  •-,  but  my  Difcourfe  is  here  of  thofe  Countries  onely  to  which  the 
Power  and  Jurifdi&ion  of  the  Tneat  did  extend,  for  other  parts  were  fo  barbarous, 
and  void  of  all  humanity,  that  it  were  not  worth  our  time  or  labour  to  give  an 
account  of  their  Cuftoms  or  Manners.  The  Indian  Women  were  fo  addicted  to-' 
fpinning ,  and  fo  unwilling  to  lofe  time  from  their  Labour  and  Work ,  that  as 
they  walked  from  the  Villages  to  the  City,  and  fo  in  their  return  home,  and  alfo 
in  their  Vifits,  and  Converfation  together,  they  ftill  made  ufe  of  their  Spindle 
and  Reel  •,  for  this  was  the  conftant  employment  of  the  common  People  •-,  but  the 
Pallas ,  or  Ladies ,  who  were  of  the  Royal  Bloud ,  whenfoever  they  made  their 
Vifits,  they  made  their  Serving-Maids  carry  their  Spindles  and  work  with  them, 


Book  IV.  Royal  Commentaries.  113 

and  during  their  Vifics,  not  to  loofe  time,  or  be  idle,  they  fpun  and  worked  as 
they  difcourfed-,  their  Spindles  were  made  of  Canes,  as  we  in  Spain  have  them  of 
Iron,  they  were  crooked,  but  not  hollow  at  the  point,  as  ours  are :  with  their 
thread  they  made  a  kind  of  Filleting,  which  they  wound  in  upon  their  Spindles, 
twilling  it  with  the  fingers  of  their  left  hand-,  their  DiftafF  they  carried  in  their 
left  hand,  and  not  at  their  girdle;  being  about  a  quarter  of  a  yard  long,  and  held 
between  two  of  their  Fingers,  and  then  with  both  hands  they  formed  the  finenefs 
of  their  thread,  and  cleared  it  of  foulnefs,  but  did  not  wet  it  at  their  mouths,  be- 
caufe  in  my  time  they  fpun  nothing  there  befides  Wool  and  Cottons;  nor  do  they 
make  any  great  riddance  of  their  work,  becaufe  their  Inftruments  and  Tools  are 
bad,  as  we  have  already  declared. 

CHAP.    XIV. 

How  the  Women  made  their  Vifits  j    how  they  worked  5    and 
that  common  Whores  were  permitted  amongft  them. 

WHen  any  Woman,  that  was  not  a  Pa/la,  though  (he  were  the  Wife  of  a 
Curaca,  who  is  a  Lord  that  hath  command  over  his  Subjects,  came  to 
make  a  Vifit  to  a  Palla,  who  was  a  Lady  of  the  Bloud  Royal ;  fo  foon  as  the  firft 
Salutations  and  Complements  were  ended,  fhe  prefently  asked  whether  (he  had 
any  Work  for  her,  or  Service  to  command  her;  for  me  carrying  not  her  Work 
with  her,  did  feem  to  intimate,  that  (he  pretended  not  to  fo  much  familiarity  as 
to  come  onely  for  Converfe,  but  as  an  inferiour,  to  demand  wherein  (he  might 
be  efteemed  ufefull  in  her  fervice.  The  Palla,  to  make  a  courteous  return  to  this 
humble  proffer,  would  ufually  give  her  fome  of  the  fame  work  which  (lie,  or  one 
of  her  Daughters  was  then  working ;  for  to  have  put  any  thing  elfe  into  her  hand, 
which  her  Maids  were  doing,  would  have  equalled  her  Vifitant  with  them,  which 
in  this  manner  was  a  Complement,  and  a  courteous  preferring  her  to  fome  degree 
of  equality  with  her  felf  and  her  Daughters.  Such  was  the  courtefie  and  obliging 
carriage  of  one  to  the  other-,  for  it  was  the  defign  and  fafliion  in  that  (tare,  for 
the  Superiours  to  carry  themfelves  with  an  affable  and  winning  behaviour  to- 
wards their  inferiours,  and  for  them  with  all  Modefty  and  Obfervance  to  honour 
and  refpeft  their  fuperiour  Magiftrates  and  Rulers  -,  which  was  the  common  pra- 
ctice of  all,  even  from  the  Ma,  who  was  King,  to  the  meaneft  Peafant,  or  Shep- 
herd, whom  they  called  Llamamichec. 

The  Spanijh  Women,  which  came  afterwards  to  live  at  Cozco,  imitated  this  cu- 
ftome,  after  the  manner  of  the  Indian  Women,  carrying  always  their  Work  with 
them,  whenfoever  they  came  to  make  their  Vifits ;  and  this  faihion  was  in  ufe 
amongft  them  to  their  great  commendation,  untill  fuch  time  as  Frantifio  Hernan- 
dez began  his  Civil  War,  which  as  it  introduced  nothing  but  Tyranny  and  Cru- 
elty, fo  it  aboliihed  this  laudable  cuftome,  and  difcountenanced  all  vertuous  and 
innocent  practices.  I  forgot  to  mention  the  great  care  they  had  in  mending  their 
Clothes,  in  cafe  they  were  broken  by  any  accident,  as  torn  by  a  Nail,  or  burnt 
with  a  coal  of  fire,  for  then  they  prefently  derned  it  up  again  with  their  needle 
made  of  a  Thorn,  and  with  thread  of  the  fame  colour ;  and  bringing  it  again  to 
the  Loom,  they  lb  neatly  wove  in  the  Thread,  that  it  could  not  be  feen  where 
the  rent  was  made  -,  and  in  this  matter  they  thought  they  had  more  wit  than  the 
Spaniards,  and  would  laugh  at  the  patches  they  laid  on  their  Clothes:  The  truth 
is,  the  Web  which  the  Indians  wove,  was  different  to  the  fabrick  of  Cloth  which 
the  Spaniards  made,  and  would  not  bear  the  fame  fort  of  mending.  It  is  alio  ob- 
feryable,  that  the  Fire-hearths  which  the  Indians  ufed  to  drefs  their  meat  in,  were 
a  kind  of  Ovens,  made  of  clay,  bigger  or  lefs,  according  to  the  Wealth  or  Eftate 

a  of 

H4  Royal  Commentaries.  Book  IV. 

of  the  Matter :  the  Fire  vented  it  felf  at  the  mouth  of  thefe  Ovens,  and  on  the 
top  was  a  place  for  two  or  three  Dimes,  in  which  they  kt  them  to  ftew  5  and  was 
fo  very  a  great  convenience  for  their  Cookery,  both  in  dreffing  their  Meat  weli, 
and  faving  their  Wood  3  that  it  feemed  the  moft  ingenious  of  all  their  contri- 
vances -,  and  therefore  it  was  .ftrange,  that  the  Spaniards,  when  they  came  in  a- 
mongft  them,  ihould  defpife  and  deftroy  this  invention. 

To  avoid  greater  evils,  the  /«/  thought  fit  to  permit  common  Whores  to 
live  amongft  them  •-,  but  then  they  were  not  to  remain  in  the  City,  but  in  little 
Huts  without  in  the  Fields,  feparate  from  all  fociety  that  fo  by  their  converfation 
they  might  not  have  opportunity  to  corrupt  other  Women :  the  Name  they  gave 
them  was  Pampaymna,  which  fignifies  both  their  profeffion  and  place  of  refidence; 
Pampa  is  a  Countrey  or  open  place  5  and  Runa  properly  is  a  Perfon,  either  Man  or 
Woman  5  fo  that  thefe  two  words  in  compofition,  are  as  much  as  one  who  lives 
alone  in  the  Field  5  and  as  we  fay,  a  Hedge- whore  j  and  that  as  the  Fields  are 
open,  fo  is  her  Body,  and  embraces  to  receive  any  one  who  hath  an  appetite  to 
come  to  her.  The  Men  treated  thefe  Women  with  all  fort  of  contempt  and  fcorn ; 
and  the  Women  were  not  fo  much  as  to  name  them,  under  penalty  of  incurring' 
the  fame  title  and  cenfure  5  and  of  having  their  Heads  pubUckly  ihorn ,  of  be- 
ing ftigmatized  for  infamous,  and  divorc'd  from  their  Husbands :  they  never  called 
them  by  other  name,  than  that  of  Pampaymna,  which  is  as  much  as  Common 

CHAP.    XV. 

The  Inca  Roca,  the  fixtb  King,  fubdues  many  Nations, 
and,  amongfl  others,  the  People  of  Chancas  and  Hanco- 

TH  E  Father  being  dead,  his  Son  Inca  Roca  (  whofe  Name,  as  Bias  Valera  fays, 
fignifies  prudent  and  confederate )  took  upon  him  the  Government,  bind- 
ing his  Head  with  the  coloured  Wreath  ;  and  having  accomplilhed  the  Solemni- 
ties of  his  Father's  Funeral,  he  made  a  progrefs  into  all  parts  of  his  Dominions, 
to  vifit,  and  fettle,  and  order  what  was  there  amifs 5  in  which  Journey  he  pafled 
the  three  firft  years  of  Tiis  Reign :  And  then  determining  to  proceed  farther  in  his 
Conquefts,  he  ordered  fufficient  force  to  be  levied,  and  therewith  pafled  on  the 
fide  of  Chinchafuyu,  which  lyes  Northerly  from  Cozco.  He  commanded  alfo  that 
a  Bridge  (hould  be  made  over  the  River  Apurimac,  which  is  in  the  great  Road  from 
the  City  of  Cozco  to  the  King's  Town ;  for  that  he  being  now  King,  it  feemed 
too  low  and  mean  for  him  to  tranfport  his  Army  over  the  River  on  Floats,  as  he 
had  done  when  he  was  Prince  •,  being  more  Great  and  Royal  to  ereft  the  fix'd 
convenience  of  a  Bridge,  which  for  better  uniting  a  correfpondence  with  the  Pro- 
vinces lately  conquered,  was  now  become  almoft  neceflary. 

The  Bridge  being  finifhed,  he  departed  from  Cozco  with  an  Army  of  twenty 
thoufand  Men,  under  the  Command  of  four  Major-Generals ,  ordering  his  Men 
to  March  three  a-breaft  over  this  Bridge  5  which  being  a  new  device,  and  not  be- 
fore pra&ifed ,  was  Recorded  to  the  Honour  of  his  Memory.  Thence  he  procee- 
ded to  the  Vale  of  Amancay,  or  the  Cowflip >  Vally,  becaufe  of  the  great  quanti- 
ties of  them  which  grow  in  thole  parts  ■■>  this  Flower  is  in  the  faihion  of  a  Bell, 
and  in  that  Countrey  are  of  a  greenilh  colour,  fmooth,  without  Leaves  5  and  for 
their  fimilitude  with  the  Cowflip,  the  Spaniards  gave  them  that  name.  From  A- 
mancay  he  took  to  the  right  hand,  towards  the  Mountain  Cordillera,  which  over- 
tops the  fnowy  defart,  and  between  that  and  the  great  Road  he  met  fome  few 


Book  IV.  Royal  Commentaries.  n« 

people,  whom  he  reduced  under  his  Dominion ,  the  which  were  called  Tacmara, 
and  guinnmlU  5  then  lie  came  to  Cochacafa,  where  he  made  feme  fray  and  aboad ; 
and  from  thence  he  proceeded  to  Curampa ,  and,  without  difficulty,  fubdued  that 
people,  becaufe  they  were  few  in  number  -,  from  Curampa  he  came  to  the  Pro- 
vince called  Antahuaylla,  which  is  inhabited  on  both  fides  of  the  way  for  the  fpace 
of  fixteen  or  feventeen  Leagues ,  by  a  people  both  rich  and  warlike  1  This  Na- 
tion is  called  Chavca,  boafting  thenafelves  to  be  defcended  from  one  Leon,  whom 
they  efteemed  and  adored  for  a  God  ■-,  and  at  their  great  Feftivals,  both  before 
and  after  they  were  fubdued  by  the  Incas,  they  carried  twenty  four  Pi&ures  in 
Proceflion,  painted  after  the  manner  of  Henuks,  with  a  Lion's  skin,  and  a  Man's 
head  :  I  remember  I  faw  thefe  Pi&ures  once  brought  forth  on  Corpus  Chrifti  day, 
or  the  Feaft  of  the  Holy  Sacrament.  Under  this  denomination  of  Chanca  many  o- 
ther  Nations  were  comprehended,  as  Hanco  hualla,  Vtmfulla,  Vramarca,  Yilka  and 
others  •,  all  of  which  make  their  boafts  of  being  defcended  from  different  Origi- 
nals ;  fome  from  this  Fountain,  others  from  that  Lake  -,  every  Nation  efteeming 
that  for  their  God,  and  thereunto  offering  Sacrifice,  from  whence  they  owned 
and  derived  their  Pedigree  ■-,  the  Anceftours'of  thefe  people  were  faid  to  be  come 
from  far,  and  to  have  conquered  many  Provinces  in  their  paflage  untill  they  arri- 
ved at  the  Countrey  of  Antahuaylla ;  the  which  they  fubdued  by  force  of  Arms, 
and  expelled  the  ancient  Inhabitants  of  it-,  and  afterwards  gaining  much  Land 
from  the  £>uecbuas,  they  drove  them  up ,  and  ffraitned  them  in  their  Quarters , 
made  them  pay  a  Tribute,  which  they  exacted  with  the  higheft  Tyranny,  befides 
many  other  famous  Atchievements ,  of  which  their  port erity  did  greatly  glory. 
Of  all  which  the  Jnca  Roca  being  well  informed,  he  thought  them  worthy  of  his 
Conqueft  •,  fb  that  fo  foon  as  he  arrived  on  the  Confines  of  .Antahuaylla,  he  dif- 
patched  his  ufual  Summons  to  the  Chancas,  requiring  them  to  fubmit  to  the  Off- 
fpring  of  the  Sun,  or  otherwife  prepare  themfelves  for  battel.  Thefe  people  af- 
fembling  together  to  confider  of  thefe  Summons,  were  divided  into  two  feveral 
Parties  and  Opinions.  Some  maintained  that  they  ought  not  to  refufe  to  receive 
the  Inca  for  their  Lord,  who  was  defcended  from  the  Sun ;  others  who  boafted  of 
their  Lineage  from  Leon,  were  of  a  contrary  perfuafion ,  for  being  Allied  to  Leon, 
and  Mailers  of  many  .Countries  and  People,  judged  it  a  difparagement  to  be 
fubjected  to  any  other,  or  to  be  cheated  with  a  fabulous  pretence  of  the  Sun  and 
his  Family  •-,  and  that  it  was  more  agreeable  to  the  Banners  which  they  carried, 
and  :he  ancient  Honours  which  they  had  acquired  by  the  Conqueft  of  fo  many 
Nations,  rather  to  fubdue  others,  than  tamely  t;o  fubmit  to  an  unknown  Matter  •■> 
and  forgetting  all  their  ancient  bravery,  poorly  and  bafely  to  yield  themfelves  at 
the  firft  Summons  without  fo  much  as  an  appearance  in  the  Field,  or  difplaying 
their  Banners  would  argue  the  higheft  piece  of  degeneracy  and  cowardife  of  mind 
in  the  World. 

In  this  ambiguity  of  mind  and  irrefolution,  fometimes  inclining  to  a  furren- 
der,  and  then  again  to  adventure  a  battel,  the  Chancas  perfifted  many  days  •■,  of 
which  the  Inca  having  intelligence,  determined  to  enter  their  Countrey,  and  af- 
fright them  with  the  advance  of  his  Army  $  for  that  perhaps  to  a  people  of  their 
difpofition,  who  availed  themfelves  much  upon  their  ancient  Prowefs  and  Victo- 
ries ;  indulgence  and  gentlenefs  would  be  argued  as  a  point  of  fear  and  cowardife, 
and  that  therefore  to  attempt  them  briskly  was  the  onely  way  to  ftrike  a  terrour 
in  them,  and  aftonifh  them  with  the  fear  of  a  cruel  War,  and  a  fevere  Punilhmenc 
as  an  effect  thereof  •,  in  purfuance  of  this  refolution,  he  ordered  his  Major-Gene- 
rals  to  invade  the  Countrey  of  Antahuaya  •,  and  immediately  upon  their  entry  to 
fend  their  Summons  to  the  Chancas ,  telling  them  plainly,  that  they  muft  either 
receive  the  Inca  for  their  Lord,  or  elfe  muft  prepare  to  offer  their  lives  a  facrifice 
to  his  Sword  ;  for  that  their  contumacy  and  rebellion  was  fuch  as  was  not  longer 
tolerable,  and  that  their  delays  and  impertinencies  had  already  wearied  his  patience. 
The  Chamas  obferving  this  refolution  of  the  Inca ,  and  that  the  Quechuas,  and  o- 
ther  Nations,  whom  in  former  times  they  had  injured  and  provoked,  judged  ic 
convenient  to  temporize ,  and  with  a  feigned  fubmiffion  to  accept  the  conditions 
of  Surrender,  being  moved  thereunto  out  of  fear  of  his  force,  and  of  that  re- 
venge which  their  Enemies  might  by  this  opportunity  take  upon  them,  rather 
than  out  of  any  affe&ion  or  efteem  they  had  to  his  Laws  and  Ordinances,  as  will 
be  proved  hereafter  in  the  procefs  of  this  Hiftory. 

Q.J  The 

!  5  Royal  Commentaries.  Book  IV. 

The  Inca  leaving  his  Officers  to  receive  their  fubmiffion ,  proceeded  forward 
in  hisConquefts  to  another  Province  called  Vramarca,  which  alfo  is  furnamed 
Chama,  and  is  a  fmall  Coontrey,  but  very  populous,  and  inhabited  by  fuch  a 
hardy  and  war-like  Nation  %  that  had  their  Numbers  been  equal  to  their  Courage, 
they  had  been  capable  to  have  made  a  ftout  and  considerable  refiftance 3  for  that 
the  people  on  this  fide  were  not  fo  eafie,  and  fimple,  and  fond  of  the  lncas,  and 
their  Government,  as  were  thofe  of  Comfnyu  and  Collafnyu  3  howfoever,  to  be 
fhort,  thofe  of  Vramarca  fubmitted,  but  with  much  relu&ancy,  and  againft  their 
inclinations.  Thence  the  Inca  marched  forwards  to  the  people  called  Hancohua/lo 
and  Vlllca,  named  by  the  Spaniards  Vlkas,  who  with  the  fame  unwillingnefs  yiel- 
ded to  the  power  of  the  I»ca  3  for  that  thefe  people,  being  all  Chancas,  were  Lords 
themfelves  of  divers  Provinces,  which  by  force  of  Arms  they  had  fubdued,  and 
did  daily  enlarge  their  Dominions  3  with  which  their  ambition  and  covetoufnefs 
increafing,  they  could  not,  without  difficulty,  forego  their  Usurpations  and  Ty- 
ranny over  others,  to  yield  themfelves  to  the  fame  conditions  1  the  which  re- 
fraclary  humour  of  theirs  the  Inca  Roca  obferving,  reproved  in  them  with  fevere 
reprehenfion  5  and  though  they  received  his  Admonitions  with  Mortification  and 
Anger,  yet  they  durft  not  openly  own  and  difcover  their  diflike.  In  both  thefe 
Provinces  their  cuftome  was  to  Sacrifice  Children  to  their  Gods  at  their  principal 
Feafts  •,  of  which  the  Inca  being  informed,  he  made  a  difcourfe  to  them  of  the  in- 
humanity and  unreafonablenefs  of  fuch  a  cuftome ,  and  that  for  the  future  they 
fhould  Adore  the  Sun  for  their  God ,  and  receive  the  Statutes  and  Ordinances 
which  he  had  given  them ;  declaring  to  them  by  his  own  mouth,  that  he  would 
exaft  the  life  of  every  Child  at  their  hands,  whom  they  fhould  in  that  manner 
attempt  to  deftroy  3  and  that  in  punifhment  for  the  offence,  he  would  deftroy 
and  root  out  their  whole  Nation,  and  give  their  Countrey  to  be  inhabited  by  a 
better  fort  of  people,  of  more  bowels  and  compaffion,  who  fhould  love  and  che- 
rifh  their  own  bloud,  as  nature  required  them.  Nothing  could  come  more  dole- 
full  and  fad,  than  this  news  to  the  Ears  of  thefe  people,  who  were  perfuaded  by 
the  Devils,  whom  they  worfhipped  for  their  Gods,  that  this  Sacrifice  of  tender 
Infants  was  moft  acceptable  of  any  to  the  Infernal  Powers. 

From  Villca  he  took  the  way  on  the  left  hand,  and  marched  Weftward,  to- 
wards the  Sea-coaft,  and  entred  one  of  thofe  two  Provinces,  which  are  both  fty- 
led  by  the  name  of  Sulla,  though  for  diffin&ion  fake  one  of  them  is  called  Vtum- 
fulla :  thefe  two  Provinces  comprehend  under  them  many  Nations  of  different 
Names ,  fbme  of  them  being  full  of  people,  others  having  but  few.  And  in  the 
Hiftories  of  thefe  matters,  to  avoid  tedious  difcourfes,  they  report,  that  the  Num- 
ber of  them  might  be  of  about  forty  thoufand  Families  5  in  the  fubduing  of 
which,  the  lnca  is  faid  to  have  fpent  much  time,  and  fome  report  three  years  5 
which  were  chiefly  taken  up  in  the  perfuafions  and  gentle  Arts  which  the  Inca. 
ufed  for  reducing  of  that  people,  being  more  defirous  to  conquer  them  by  kind- 
nefs,  than  the  feverity  of  Arms.  For  thofe  Indian  confiding  much  in  their  own 
Numbers,  and  Art  of  War,  did  often  incline  to  a  breach,  and  a  defence  of  them- 
felves ;  but  that  the  moderation  of  the  Inca,  and  his  prudent  conduct  of  affairs 
was  fuch,  that  with  time  he  reduced  them  to  his  fervice,  and  a  willingnefs  to  re- 
ceive his  Laws,  and  fuch  Governours  and  Minifters  as  he  was  pleafed  to  consti- 
tute over  them  3  and  then  afterwards  with  this  fuccefs  and  victory  he  returned  to 
Cozco.  In  thefe  two  Provinces  of  Sulla  and  VtumMla,  there  were  about  thirty 
two  years  paft,  fome  very  rich  Mines  difcovered  of  Silver,  and  Quick-filver  3  the 
latter  of  which  is  very  ufefull  in  Melting  the  Silver  Ore. 


Book  IV.  Royal  Commentaries:  117 

CHAP.    XVI. 

Of  the  Prince  Yahuarhuacac,  and  the  Interpretation  of  bis 

THE  King  JncA  Roc  a  having  paffed  fome  Years  in  the  quiet  pofleflion  and  go- 
vernment of  his  Kingdoms,  thought  it  fit  to  employ  his  Son  and  Heir,  na- 
med Tahnarhuacac,  in  the  entire  Conqueft  of  Antifuyu,  which  lyes  to  the  Eaft  of 
Cozco,  and  not  far  from  the  City ;  for  on  that  fide  no  great  advance  had  been 
made  fince  the  time  of  the  firft  Inca^  Manco  Capac,  who  had  not  proceeded  far- 
ther than  the  River  Paucanampu. 

But  before  we  proceed  farther  in  the  Relation  of  this  Story,  it  would  be  requi- 
fite  to  explain  the  fignification  of  this  long  name  otTahmr-huacac,  and  the  reafon 
which  they  had  to  give  it  to  the  Prince.  It  is  a  Tale  amongft  die  Indians,  that 
when  he  was  a  Child  of  three  or  four  years  old,  his  Tears  were  bloud ,  perhaps 
it  was  becaufe  he  had  fome  difeafe  in  his  Eyes,  and  that  the  bloud,  when  he  cried, 
might  fall  from  thence  with  his  tears :  But  it  is  a  general  belief  amongft  them,  that 
fo  foon  as  he  came  crying  into  the  World,  his  Tears  were  bloud  :  It  might  like- 
wife  perhaps  be,  that  he  brought  fomething  of  the  Matritial  bloud  with  him  on 
his  Eyes,  which  the  fuperftitious  Indians  were  ready  to  interpret  for  Tears  •,  but  be 
the  caufe  what  it  will,  they  would  not  be  perfuaded  out  of  this  belief  ^  and  on 
this  fuppofition  founded  many  of  their  Witcheries  and  Prognoftications,  foretel- 
ling the  anger  and  difpleafure  of  his  Father  the  Sun  againft  him ,  and  that  there- 
fore he  would  be  unfortunate  and  accurfed.  The  derivation  therefore  of  his 
Name,  is  evident  from  Yahnar,  to  weep,  and  Huacac.  This  manner  of  Weeping 
muft  have  been  when  he  was  a  Child,  and  not  at  Man's  eftate  •■,  for  then  he  was 
neither  overcome  nor  taken  Prifoner,  as  fome  will  have  it  5  for  none  of  the  Mas 
was  ever  fo  unfortunate,  untill  the  time  of  the  wretched  Huafcar,  whom  the  Tray- 
tor  Atahualpa  his  Baftard-brother  took  Prifoner,  as  we  fhall  relate  in  its  due  place, 
if  God  Almighty  gives  us  life  and  power  to  arrive  fo  far  in  this  our  Hiftory.  Nor 
was  he  ftoln  away  when  he  was  an  Infant ,  as  fome  Writers  will  have  it  5  for  it  is 
not  probable,  that  when  Indians  conceived  generally  fuch  awe  and  veneration  for 
their  Incas  and  the  Royal  Bloud ,  that  any  perfon  fliould  be  found  fo  profligate, 
and  daring  as  to  fteal  the  Prince  and  Heir  to  the  Empire  •-,  nor  is  it  probable,  that 
the  Tutors  and  Servants  (hould  be  (0  remifs  in  their  care  and  charge  •-,  for  fuch  was 
the  reverence  that  the  Indians  bore  towards  their  Incas,  that  the  very  imagination 
of  fuch  an  attempt  would  have  terrified  them  to  that  degree,  that  they  would 
have  believed  the  very  thought  would  have  procured  the  vengeance  of  Heaven, 
and  caufed  the  Earth  to  have  opened  and  fwallowed  both  them  and  their  whole 
Families :  For,  as  we  have  formerly  faid,  they  Worfhipped  the  Sun  for  their 
God,  and  for  his  fake  the  Incas,  whom  they  accounted  Children  defcended  from 
him,  were  adored  with  the  fame  divine  Honours. 

_  Thefe  Tears  of  bloud  which  the  Indians  interpreted  to  be  ominous,  and  to  be 
fore-runners  of  fome  difmal  fate ,  put  me  in  mind  of  another  fuperftitious  fancy 
of  theirs,  which  they  gathered  from  the  motion  and  twinkling  of  the  eyes  •,  for 
it  was  a  common  opinion  both  of  the  Incas  and  his  Subjects,  that  the  Eyes  did 
Prognofticate  by  their  motion  and  twinkling  either  good  or  bad  fortune  •,  for  it 
was  accounted  good  luck  when  the  upper  eye-lid  of  the  left  eye  twinkled ,  for 
they  faid,  that  it  forefaw  matters  of  contentment  and  fatisfa&ion  •,  but  much 
more  when  the  right  eye-lid  fparkled  and  twinkled ,  that  was  a  moft  excellent 
fign  of  all  happinels  and  profperity,  peace  and  plenty  imaginable :  And  to  the 
contrary ,  when  the  lower  Curtain  of  the  right  eye  trembled ,  it  betokened 
weeping  and  tears  for  fome  fad  and  unfortunate  accident  •■>  but  if  the  lower  part 


n8  Royal  Commentaries.  Book  IV. 

of  the  left  eye  moved ,  it  foretold  nothing  but  woe  and  forrovv,  and  fuch  mife- 
ries  as  would  produce  nothing  but  grief,  and  abundance  of  tears :  And  fuch  con- 
fidence and  belief  did  they  put  in  thefe  fymptoms,  that  in  cafe  the  lower  eye- 
lafhes  did  but  fo  much  as  tremble,  they  immediately  put  themfelves  into  moft 
violent  paflions  of  fear  and  weeping  •,  and  in  apprehenfion  of  what  they  feared, 
they  made  themfelves  more  miferable,  than  if  all  the  misfortunes  of  the  World 
had  already  fallen  upon  them :  And  then  for  the  onely  remedy  of  the  enfuing 
evils,  they  entertained  another  fuperftition  more  ridiculous  than  the  former: 
they  would  take  the  point  of  a  Straw,  and  wetting  it  with  Spittle,  they  would 
flick  it  beneadi  their  eye  •,  and  would  then  fay,  comforting  themfelves,  that  that 
blefied  Straw  which  crofled  their  under  eye-lid  would  itanch  the  tears  which 
were  to  flow  from  their  eyes,  and  prevent  the  Evils  which  the  tremblings  did 
Prognofticate :  The  like  conjectures  almoft  they  made  from  a  buzzing,  or  finging 
in  their  Ears,  which  I  forbear  to  enlarge  upon,  becaufe  it  was  not  fo  remarkable 
and  certain  as  that  of  the  Eyes  ■-,  and  both  one  and  the  other  I  can  teftifie,  becaufe 
I  have  feen  and  heard  their  Lamentations  on  thofe  occafions. 

The  King  Ima  Roca  ( as  we  have  faid)  refolving  to  fend  his  Son  to  conquer 
Antifuju,  ordered  an  Army  of  fifteen  thoufand  Souldiers  to  be  raifed,  under  the 
Command  of  three  Major-Generals,  whom  he  joined  with  him  for  Companions 
and  Counfellours.  The  Prince  being  well  inftructed  in  all  matters,  proceeded 
widi  good  fuccels  as  far  as  the  River  Paucartampu,znc\  thence  marched  forwards  to 
Challapampa,  where  he  reduced  thofe  few  poor  Indians  which  he  found  in  thofe 
Quarters ,  thence  he  pafled  to  Pillwpata,  where  he  planted  four  Colonies  with  a 
fort  of  wandring  and  vagabond  people.  From  Pillcupata  he  travelled  to  Havifia 
and  Tuna,  where  the  firft  Subjects  o&Chac-ras  de  Cue  a  fubmitted  to  the  Dominion 
of  the  Incas,  and  where  great  quantities  of  that  Herb  called  Cuca  grows :  the  In- 
heritance of  Havifia  was  afterwards  given  to  my  Lord  and  Father  Garp/affo  de 
Vega,  and  he  was  pleafed  to  beftow  thatEftate  upon  me  for  my  life,  but  I  renoun- 
ced, and  left  it  upon  my  going  into  Spain.  The  paflage  into  thefe  Vallies  where 
the  Cuca  grows ,  is  over  that  high  Mountain  called  Canac-hmy,  defcending  five 
Leagues  almoft  perpendicular,  which  makes  a  Man's  head  giddy  to  look  down  5 
how  much  more  labourfome  muft  it  be  to  afcend  and  defcend  thofe  ways  tur- 
ning and  winding  in  form  of  a  Serpent  ? 


Book  IV.  Royal  Commentaries.  119 


Of  the  Idols  which  the  Indians  of  Antis  worfhipped-,  and  of 
the  Conqueft  made  over  the  Charcas. 

IN  thofe  Provinces  oft.  Amis  they  commonly  worfhipped  Tygers  for  their  Gods, 
and  great  Serpents,  much  thicker  than  a  Mans  Thigh,  and  twenty  five,  or 
thirty  foot  in  length,  though  fome  others  might  be  lefs,  called  Amaru  -,  they  are  a 
certain  fort  of  a  fluggifh  Serpent,  which  are  not  venomous,  and,  as  they  fay,  were 
charmed  by  a  skUfull  Sorcerefs,  that  they  mould  doe  no  harm,  having  before  been 
dangerous,  and  very  poifonous.  The  Tiger  they  adored  for  his  nimblenefs  and 
bravery,  faying  that  Serpents  and  Tygers  were  the  true  and  natural  Inhabitants 
and  Lords  of  that  Countrey,  and  therefore  did  juftly  require  reverence  and  refpetf: 
from  Men,  who  were  but  Strangers  and  Aliens  in  it.  They  worfhipped  alfo  the 
Plant  Cuca,  OK  Coca,  as  the  Spaniards  call  it.  Thus  far  the  Prince  Tabuar-Huacac 
having  enlarged  his  Dominions,  being  almoft  thirty  Leagues  in  length,  and  in  a 
Countrey  ill  Inhabited,  he  found  himfelf  flopped  in  his  farther  progrefs,  by  the 
Mountains,  moorifh  Grounds  and  Bogs,  which  interrupted  him  in  his  paflage,  and 
which  confine  and  give  bounds  to  that  Province,  properly  named  Ami,  whence 
all  that  fide  takes  the  Denomination  otAntifuyu. 

The  Prince  having  finifhed  this  Conqueft,  returned  to  Cozco,  where  his  Father 
for  that  prefent,  thought  fit  to  repofe,  and  lay  afide  all  farther  defigns  of  new 
Enterprifes-,  for  on  the  fide  oiAnnfuyx,  which  is  to  the  Eaftward,  there  remained 
nothing  more  to  conquer-,  and  to  the  Weft  ward,  which  they  called  Cuntifuyu, 
there  was  nothing  more  to  be  reduced,  for  they  were  come  as  far  as  to  the  Paci- 
fick  Sea,  or  the  Sea  of  Zur,  fo  that  the  Empire,  from  Eaft  to  Weft,  extended 
at  leaft  an  hundred  Leagues  crofs  along  by  the  way  of  Cozco,  and  then  from  North 
to  South  it  reached  two  hundred  Leagues :  All  which  trad  of  Land  die  heat  la- 
boured to  manure,  and  cultivate,  and  adorn  with  Royal  Palaces,  Gardens,  Baths, 
and  places  of  Pleafure  for  divertifement  of  the  lnca ;  and  for  better  convenience 
of  the  Countrey,  they  erected  in  all  the  great  Roads  Magazines  and  Granaries* 
wherein  to  lodge  their  Ammunition,  Arms,  Corn,  Provifions,  and  Clothing  for 
the  common  Souldiery. 

Some  Years  being  palTed  in  this  manner  with  peace  and  quiet,  when  the  King 
Jnca  Roca  refolved  to  add  another  famous  Achievement  to  the  glory  of  his  Reign, 
that  fo  in  perfon  he  might  put  an  end  to  the  entire  Conqueft  of  thofe  great  Pro- 
vinces, which  were  called  Charcas,  the  beginning  of  which  was  commenced  in  the 
time  of  his  Father,  in  the  Divifion  of  ColLfuyu :  And  in  order  hereunto  he  com- 
manded thirty  thoufand  Men  to  be  levied,  which  was  an  Army  greater  than  any 
that  his  Anceftours  had  yet  brought  into  the  field  •,  to  command  this  Army  fix  Major 
Generals  were  appointed,  befides  other  inferiour  Officers  •-,  and  the  Prince  Tahmr- 
H*acac  was,  with  four  other  Mas  for  his  Counfellors,  ordained  to  remain  at  home 
for  government  of  the  Kingdom.  The  lnca  took  his  Journey  from  Cozxo  by  way  of 
the  great  Road  towards  Collafuyu,  and  in  his  march  all  the  forces  came  in  to  make 
up  his  Army:  And  being  come  to  the  Confines  of  thofe  Provinces  olchuncuri, 
Pucuna,  and  M*)urrmyn,  which  bordered  on  his  Kingdom ,  he  fent  his  fummons 
to  them,  acquainting  them,  that  he  was  come  to  reduce  thofe  Nations,  and  re- 
quire them  to  live  under  thofe  Laws  which  his  Father  the  Sun  had  ordained ; 
and  that  leaving  their  Idols  made  of  Stone  and  Wood,  they  fhould  worQiip  him 
onely  for  their  God  •,  and  that  forfaking  their  corrupt  Cuftoms ,  and  Manners, 
they  fhould  learn  and  follow  the  light  of  Nature,  and  the  Inftrudions  of  his  Wif- 
dom,  which  would  direft  them  in  ways  more  agreeable  to  humane  Life.  The 
Natives  of  thefe  Countries  received  the  meffage  with  great  anger,  and  the  young 
and  hot  Captains  betook  themlelves  to  their  Arms,  and  anfwered  with  fury  and 
rage ,  That  it  was  a  hard  cafe  for  them ,  that  they  muft  be  forced  to  renounce 
their  own  natural  Gods,  and  adore  a  ftranger,  and  a  God  unknown  to  them-, 


izo  Royal  Commentaries.  Book  IV. 

that  they  muft  reject  their  own  Laws  and  Cuftoms,  and  receive  new  ones  from 
the  Inca-.,  who  in  recompenfe  thereof  would  impofe  Tributes  and  Taxes,  and 
ferve  himfelf  of  their  labour  and  fervices,  as  of  Slaves  and  Vaffals-,  which  being 
conditions  not  to  be  endured  by  a  People  fo  free  as  they,  they  refolved  to  defend 
themfelves,  and  dye  in  the  Defence  of  their  Gods,  their  Countrey  and  their  Li- 


Of  the  Argument  and  Debate  which  the  Old  Men  held  on  this 
matter,  and  in  what  manner  they  received  the  local 

NOtwithftanding  this  huff  of  die  young  Souldiers,  the  more  ancient  and  con- 
federate amongft  them,  were  of  opinion,  that  they  mould  not  fo  foon 
break  forth  into  a  War,  but  firft  of  all  confider,  that  for  feveral  years  they  have 
had  a  neighbourhood  and  converfe  with  the  Subjects  of  the  Inca-,  and  that  they 
could  never  hear  otherwife  from  them,  but  that  their  Laws  were  good,  and  the 
Yoke  of  their  Government  gentle  and  eafie:  that  he  treated  his  People  rather  like 
his  Children,  than  his  Subjects  •-,  that  the  Lands  which  they  required ,  were  not 
thofe  which  the  Indians  had  in  their  pofleffion,  but  fuch  as  lay  wafte,  and  unma- 
nured  by  them  •,  and  that  he  required  no  other  Tribute  than  the  Fruit  and  Benefit 
which  thofe  Lands,  cultivated  at  his  own  coft  and  charge,  mould  produce,  and 
not  exact  any  thing  at  the  labour  and  coft  of  the  Indians,  to  whom  he  rather  gave 
than  diminilhed  from  their  Eftates-,  and  in  proof  and  evidence  hereof,  without 
other  argument ,  they  defired  them  to  enquire,  and  confider  ferioufly  without 
paffion,  how  much  the  Subjects  of  the  Imas  were  improved  in  their  Eftates,  and 
now  quiet,  civil  and  profperous  they  were  become,  fince  their  fubmiiTion  to  his 
Government^  how  all  their  Difcords,  Animofities,  and  Civil  Diflentions,  which 
in  former  times  had  miferably  torn  and  diffracted  them,  were  now  appeafed  ,  how 
Eftates  were  more  fecure,  and  more  protected^  from  Thieves,  their  Wives,  and 
Daughters  from  Rapes  and  Adulteries ;  and  in  fine,  how  quiet  and  well  eftablifhed 
was  the  publick  Welfare,  where  none  durft  offer  injury ,  nor  none  could  receive 
it  without  redrefs. 

That  they  ihould  farther  confider,  that  many  neighbouring  Provinces,  being 
well  fatisfied  and  allured  by  the  gentlenefs  and  happinefs  of  this  fervitude,  did  vo- 
luntarily, and  of  their  own  accords,  offer  themfelves,  and  beg  the  Protection  of 
the  inca  and  his  Laws.  And  fince  thefe  things  were  thus  apparent,  it  were  better 
to  fubmit  readily  and  without  conftraint,  than  defending  themfelves  for  the  pre- 
fent  from  that  which  they  know  they  muft  in  a  fhort  time  yield  unto ,  provoke 
the  Inca  to  that  degree  of  Anger  and  Dilpleafure,  as  might  divert  him  from  thofe 
good  Intentions  and  Favours  which  he  defigned  towards  them  •■,  and  that  therefore 
it  were  more  fafe  and  fecure,  both  for  their  Lives  and  Eftates,  their  Wives  and 
Children,  to  make  aVertue  of  Neceftity,  and  fubmit  with  a  voluntary  furrender: 
and  that  as  to  their  Gods,  which  the  Inca  impofed  upon  them ,  reafon  it  felf  in- 
ftructed,  and  taught  them,  that  the  Sun  more  vifibly  deferved  to  be  adored  and 
worihipped,  than  any  of  thofe  dumb  and  infenfible  Idols,  which  they  had  made 
and  formed  with  their  own  hands.  With  thefe  Arguments ,  and  others  of  the 
like  nature,  the  ancient  and  fage  Perfons  fo  far  prevailed,  that  took  off  the  mettle 
and  heat  of  the  young  Men,  fo  that  they  all  unanimoufly  went  to  receive  the  Inca-, 
the  young  Men  marched  with  Arms  in  their  hands,  and  the  old  with  their  Pre- 
fenrs  of  fuch  Fruits  as  their  Countrey  yielded,  faying,  That  the  Fruits  of  their 
Land  were  in  token  of  that  Livery  and  Seizin  which  they  were  to  give  unto  the 
Inca  thereof:  tire  young  men  profefled  that  their  Arms  were  to  ferve  the  Inca  in 


.Book  IV.  Royal  Commentaries.  121 

his  Wars,  and  to  be  employed  by  him  for  the  acquisition  of  new  Provinces. 
The  Inca  gratioufly  accepted  this  their  Submiflion  with  his  accuftomary  Good- 
nefs,  commanding,  that  in  teftimony  thereof,  the  Old  Men  mould  be  vefted 
with  the  better  fort  of  Garments,  in  token  of  greater  refpe&=,  and  that  the  com- 
mon People  mould  be  clothed  with  the  more  common  AppareH  and  that  he 
might  not  feem  wholly  to  flight  or  contemn  the  offer  which  the  Captains  and 
Souldiers  made  him  of  their  Arms ,  he  received  five  hundred  of  them  into  his 
Service,  not  by  choice,  but  by  lot,  left  the  preferring  of  one  before  the  other, 
ihould  feem  but  a  kind  of  a  neglect,  or  difcontent,  on  luch  as  were  refufed  •,  and 
to  fatisfie  the  reft,  he  advifed  them  to  return  to  their  homes ,  left  they  mould 
otherwife  leave  their  own  Countrey  naked  and  undefended ;  with  the  Veftments 
which  the  hca  gave  them,  and  his  Behaviour  towards  them,  both  the  young  and 
old  were  fo  well  pleafed  and  fatisfied,  that  with  loud  Acclamations  they  cryed 

OUt,  How  like  art  thou  to  a  Child  of  the  Sun !  how  worthy  art  thou  of  the  Title  of  a  King ! 
how  well  doth  the  Name  of  being  a  Friend  to  the  Poor  befit  thee !  for  no  fooner  had  -we  fub- 
mitted  to  be  thy  Subjetls,  before  thou  didfi  load  us  with  thy  Favours  and  Benefits.  May 
the  Bleffmgs  of  thy  Father  the  Sun  light  upon  thee,  and  all  the  Nations  of  the  four  quarters  of 
the  World  obey  and  fall  down  before  thee;  for  thou  art  truly  the  Capa  Inca,  who  deferves 
Riches,  and  abfolute  Power,  and  univerfal  Dominion.     With  thefe,  or  the  like  expref- 

fions  of  Honour,  the  Inca  Roca  being  faluted  by  his  new  Vaflals,  and  having  pro- 
vided and  eftablilhed  Minifters  and  Officers  to  inftruft  and  govern  them,  he  march- 
ed forwards  to  the  bordering  Provinces,  called  Mifqui,  Sacaca,  Machaca,  Caracara, 
and  others,  as  far  as  Chuquifaca,  which  is  now  called  the  City  of  Plate :  all  which 
were  comprehended  under  the  common  denomination  of  Charcot ,  though  they 
were  of  different  Nations  and  Languages,  and  were  all  as  eafily  reduced,  as  thofe 
before  mentioned,  In  this  expedition  he  enlarged  his  Empire  North  and  South, 
a  hundred  Leagues,  and  as  many  more  Eaft  and  Weft  ■■,  and  having  as  accuftoma- 
ry left  Officers  and  Minifters  to  teach  and  inftruct  them  in  matters  of  Religion, 
and  to  govern  them  by  Laws,  and  gather  his  Revenue,  he  returned  to  Cozco, 
where  he  disbanded  his  Army,  and  rewarded  the  Commanders  according  to  their 

Having  atchieved  thefe  great  matters,  he  feemed  now  to  defire  repofe,  and  at- 
tend onely  to  Peace,  and  the  quiet  Adminiftration  of  his  Government,  in  which 
he  fpent  the  remaining  years  of  his  Life,  we  cannot  fay  how  many,  but  at  length 
he  came  to  dye,  having  not  in  the  leaft  degenerated  from  the  Vertue  of  his  An- 
ceftours-,  but  rather  imitated  and  equalled  them  in  the  higheft  ftrain  of  their  glo- 
rious and  martial  Aftions,  and  in  Good-will  and  Beneficence  towards  his  People. 
He  founded  fome  Schools  where  the  Amautat  taught  thofe  Sciences  which  tney 
had  attained  ;  near  whereunto  he  built  himfelf  a  Houfe,  as  we  (hall  declare  in  its 
due  place,  inftituted  Laws,  and  uttered  grave  Sentences .-  And  becaufe  Bias  Va- 
lera  hath  made  particular  mention  of  fome  of  them,  we  mail  repeat  them  from 
him,  being  very  remarkable,  and  worthy  to  be  noted.  He  was  univerfally  be- 
wailed by  all  his  Subjects,  and  embalmed  according  to  the  cuftome  of  thofe  Kings. 
He  left  Tahuar-huacac,  his  Son  and  Heir  by  his  lawfull  Wife  and  Sifter  Mama 
Mtcay,  to  fucceed  him  in  the  Government  of  his  Dominions:  befides  whom  he 
left  others,  both  legitimate  and  baftard  Children. 


lii  Royal  Commentaries.  Book  IVl 

CHAP.    XIX. 

Of  fome  Laws  which  the  King,  Inca  Roca,  made  5  of  the 
Schools  which  he  founded  in  Cozco  ;  and  of  fome  of  his 
wife  Apophthegms,  or  Sayings. 


i  Las  Valera,  who  was  very  curious,  and  had  taken  great  pains  in  his  Enquiries 
>  touching  thefe  Incas,  faith,  "  That  this  King  reigned  almoft  fifty  Years, 
*  and  made  many  Laws,  amongft  which  thefe  following  are  the  moft  obferva- 
"  ble.  That  the  Children  of  the  common  People  ought  not  to  be  educated  in 
"  the  Liberal  Arts  and  Sciences ,  for  that  were  to  make  them  proud,  conceited 
"  and  ungovernable  5  but  that  the  Nobility  were  thofe  onely  to  whom  fuch  Li* 
<c  terature  did  appertain,  to  render  them  more  honourable,  and  capable  of  Offices 
"  in  the  Common-wealth.  That  Thieves,  Murtherers,  and  Adulterers,  and  In- 
"  cendiaries  (hould  be  hanged  without  Mercy,  That  Sons  Ihould  obey  and  ferve 
"  their  Fathers,  untill  they  came  to  the  age  of  twenty  five  Years,  and  that  after- 
"  wards  they  flionld  be  employed  in  matters  tending  to  'he  good  of  the  Com- 
"  mon-wealth.  It  is  reported  that  he  was  the  firtt  who  founded  Schools  in  Cozco, 
"  where  the  AmautM  were  the  Matters,  and  taught  fuch  Sciences  as  wee  fit  to 
"  improve  the  minds  of  Incas,  who  were  Princes,  and  of  the  chief  Nobility,  not 
"  that  they  did  inftruft  them  by  way  of  Letters,  for  as  yet  they  had  not  attained 
-  to  that  know  ledge,  but  onely  in  a  practical  manner,  and  by  daily  Difcourfes  : 
"  their  other  Lectures  were  of  Religion,  and  of  thofe  Reafons  and  Wifedom  on 
"  which  their  Laws  were  eftablifhed,.  and  of  the  Number  and  true  Expofition 
"  of  them-,  for  by  thefe  means  they  attained  to  the  Art  of  Government  and  mi- 
"  litary  Difcipline  •■,  they  diftinguilned  the  times  and  feafons  of  the  Year ,  and 
*■  what  the "  by  reading  in  their  *  Knots ,  they  learned  Hiftory,  and  the  Actions  of  paft 
^"bef Were'  "  a§es  5 1  y  improved  themfelves  alfo  in  the  elegance,  and  ornament  of  lpeaking, 
mentioned.  "  an^ t0°k  Rules  anc^  Meafures  for  the  management  of  their  domeftick  affairs. 
u  Thefe  Amamas ,  who  were  Philofophers,  and  in  high  efteem  amongft  them, 
"  taught  fomething  alfo  of  Poetry,  Mufick,  Philofophy  and  Aftrology,  of  all  which 
"  they  attained  to  fome  knowledge,  though  fupernciaj,  and  in  a  low  and  mean 
"  degree-  All  thefe  particulars  were  inftituted  in  manner  of  a  Law  by  this  lnca 
"  Roca.,  and  afterwards,  for  their  better  encouragement,  he  favoured  and  enlarged 
"  them  with  fair  Endowments-,  and  hereunto  Pachacutec,  to  whom  he  was  great 
"  Uncle,  added  many  other  Laws  and  Precepts.  The  Sayings  of  this  King  Inca 
<l  Roca  were  thefe .-  That  confidering  the  immenfe  Vaftnefs,  Beauty  and  Splen- 
"  dour  of  the  Heavens,  he  would  often  fay,  That  if  the  Heaven  be  fo  glorious,  which 

"■  is  the  Throne  and  Seat  of  the  PachacamaC,  (who  is  the  great  God)  how  much  more 
u  powerfull,  glittering  and  refplendent  muff  his  Perfon  and  Afajefly  be,  who  was  the  Maker 
"  and  Creatour  of  them  all.  Other  fayings  of  his  were  thefe :  If  I  were  to  adore  any 
"  of  thefe  terreftial  things,  it  Jhould  certainly  be  a  wife  and  difcreet  Man,  whofe  Excellen- 
a  cies  furpafs  all  earthly  Creatures,  when  an  Infant  is  born,  he  grows  up,  and  then  he 
"  dies.  He  that yefierday  had  a  beginning,  to  day  arrives  at  his  end.  He  that  cannot  make 
u  himfelf  immortal,  nor  recover  that  Life  which  Death  hath  deprived  him  of,  is  not  worthy 

"  of  adoration.    Thus  far  is  the  report  which  Bias  Valera  hath  given  us. 



Book  IV.  Royal  Commentaries.  iz? 

CHAP.    XX. 

Of  the  Inca,  Yahuar-huacac,  who  was  the  feve?ith  King ; 
of  his  Fears  and  Conque/is ,  and  the  Difgrace  of  the 
Prince  his  Eldeft  Son. 

TH  E  King,  Inca  Roca,  being  dead ,  his  Son  Yahuar-huacac  fiicceeded  him  in 
the  inheritance  of  his  Kingdom,  and  governed  with  Juftice,  Piety  and 
Gentlenefs,  cherifhing  his  Subje&s  with  as  much  indulgence  and  tendernefs,  as 
was  poflible.  His  chief  defign  was  to  keep  and  preferve  what  his  Father  and  An- 
ceftours  had  left  him,  not  feeking  quarrels  with  any,  or  encroachments  on  others 
right  5  left  contemning  die  ill  omen  of  his  Name,  and  the  misfortunes  which  the 
skilfull  Mafters  in  Divination  did  daily  prefage,  he  lhould  tempt  his  fortune,  and 
provoke  his  Father  the  Sun  to  afflid  him  with  all  thofe  evils  which  they  progno- 
fticated.  With  this  fear  and  apprehenfion  he  lived  for  many  years,  defiring  nothing 
more  than  peace  and  quietnefs,  both  at  home  and  abroad-,  but  not  to  remain  al- 
together idle,  he  vifited  all  parts  of  his  Dominions  three  or  four  times,  and  im- 
proved and  adorned  them  with  ftately  Buildings,,  feafted,  and  generally  carefled 
all  his  Subjects  in  a  higher  degree,  and  with  greater  demonftrations  of  love  and 
tendernefs,  than  any  of  his  Anceftours,  which  were  effects  of  the  great  dangers  he 
apprehended  from  the  Prophecies  concerning  him  •,  and  in  this  caution  and  dread 
upon  his  Spirits,  he  continued  for  the  fpace  of  nine  or  ten  years:  untill  at  length 
coniidering  that  this  cautious  timidity  would  argue  Cowardife  and  lownefs  of  Spi- 
rit, of  which  none  of  his  Anceftours  were  ever  before  taxed,  he  refolved  to  fend 
an  Army  of  twenty  thoufand  Men  to  the  Southweft  of  Cozco,  along  the  Coaft  of 
Arequepa,  where  a  point  of  Land  runs  out  far  into  the  Sea,  whicn  his  Predecef- 
fours  had  overfeen,  or  negle&ed,  becaufe  it  was  ill  inhabited :  His  Brother,  cal- 
led In*  Mayta,  he  made  Commander  in  Chief  of  his  Forces,  and  for  that  reafon 
was  ever  afterwards  called  Apu  Mayta ,  or  General  Mayta ,  to  whom  he  added 
four  other  Incas,  to  be  Major-Generals  under  him :  But  as  to  himfelf,  he  would 
not  adventure  to  go  in  Perfon  •,  for  the  thoughts  of  the  ill  Omen  did  ftill  fo  haunt 
and  opprefs  his  Spirits,  that  he  could  never  refolve  to  truft  the  fuccefs  of  any  mar- 
tial adventure  to  the  fortune  of  his  own  Perfon  5  and  where  the  defire  of  Glory 
fpurred  him  forward  to  any  great  Attempt,  there  always  the  dread  of  the  finifter 
Omen  rerra&ed  and  drew  him  back.  This  apprehenfion  moving  him  to  com- 
mit the  charge  of  his  Army  to  his  Brother,  and  Officers,  they  proceeded  fo  fuc- 
cefsfully  in  it,  that  in  a  fhort  time  they  reduced  all  that  tracl:  of  Land  from  Are* 
quepa  to  Tacama,  which  they  call  Co/lafuyu,  to  his  Empire,  being  at  this  time  the 
utmoft  Limit  and  Confine  by  the  Sea-coaft  of  that  Countrey  which  they  call  Peru, 
the  which  Land  being  long ,  and  narrow ,  and  ill  peopled ,  coft  more  time  to 
march  it  over  than  to  conquer  it. 

This  Enterprife  being  thus  happily  completed ,  they  returned  again  to  Cozto, 
where  they  rendred  an  account  to  the  Inca,  Yahuar-huacac,  of  their  fucce(s ;  with 
which  taking  heart,  and  recovering  new  courage,  he  began  to  afpire  to  the  Ho- 
nour and  Fame  of  reducing  thofe  great  Provinces,  yet  unconquered  in  the  Divi- 
fion  of  Collafuyu,  called  Caranca,  Vllaca,  Llipi,  Chica,  Ampara,  the  which,  as  they 
were  large,  and  great,  fo  they  were  populous,  and  defended  by  a  warlike  Nation  5 
and  for  this  reafon  the  ancient  Incas  forbore  to  moleft  or  irritate  them,  left  being 
as  yet  uncivilized,  and  unacquainted  with  the  gentle  and  eafie  Government  of  the 
to**,  they  mould  fly  to  their  Arms ,  and  oblige  the  Jhcm  againft  their  Maximes, 
and  natural  Difpofition,  to  fubjeft  them  with  Slaughter  and  Deftru&ion  5  ana 
therefore  rather  chofe  to  tame  and  mollifie  them  by  degrees,  and  prevail  by  the 
dear  Evidences  of  their  Neighbours  Happinefs,  to  perfuade  them  into  a  good  opi- 
nion of  the  gentlenefs  of  that  Yoke  which  the  hca  impofed  on  his  Subjects. 

R  %  With 

1 24  Royal  Commentaries.  Book  IV. 

With  the  cares  and  fears  of  this  Conqueft  the  Ma,  Tahuar-huacac  was  greatly 
turmoiled,  being  as  it  were  crucified  between  his  hopes  and  fears,  fometimes  he 
promifed  himfelf  good  fuccefs,  and  that  the  fame  Fortune  would  fmile  upon  him, 
that  did  on  his  Brother  Afu  Mjata ;  then  again  the  dread  of  the  fatal  Omen  pof- 
feffed  his  Mind,  which  always  kept  that  awe  upon  him,  that  he  never  durft  at- 
tempt any  thing  in  War,  wherein  there  appeared  leaf!  Difficulty  or  Hazard. 
Whilft  he  was  thus  tolled  with  thefe  PafTions  and  anguilh  of  mind ,  he  was  di- 
verted from  his  foreign  Defigns  by  domeftick  Troubles,  caufed  by  the  untoward 
Difpofition  of  his  Eldeft  Son,  and  Heir  of  his  Dominions-,  who  from  hL  Child- 
hood gave  fymptomes  of  an  evil  and  cruel  Nature,  by  his  harm  treatment  of 
thofe  Boys  of  his  own  age,  who  converfed  and  played  with  him  •,  and  though  the 
Ac*  his  Father  "fed  all  the  means  imaginable  to  reclaim  him  by  due  and  fevere 
correction,  and  that  he  hoped  that  Years  and  Inftruftion  would  prevail  upon  him, 
yet  in  the  end  all  proved  vain,  and  without  efTec-t,  the  ferocity  of  his  Mind,  and 
the  impetuofity  of  his  ill  Nature  prevailing  over  all  the  means,  and  endeavours 
to  reduce  him  -,  for  neither  the  Examples  of  his  Anceilours,  nor  the  gentle  Ad- 
monitions, nor  fevere  Reproofs  of  his  Father,  had  any  influence  upon  him  5  fo 
that  hisdefperate  incorrigiblenefs  became  now  the  greateft  fear  and  affliction  of 
the  Inca. 

For  fo  far  was  the  Spirit  of  ill  Nature  engrafted  in  the  Heart  of  this  Prince, 
that  all  the  Treacle  of  wholefome  Advice  he  converted  into  Poifon  -,  the  which 
his  Father  having  obferved  and  duely  confidered,  he  refolved  wholly  to  difcoun- 
tenance  and  remove  him  from  his  Favour,  and  if  that  would  not  operate,  then 
abfolutely  to  disinherit  him,  and  conftitute  another  of  his  lawfull  Sons  in  his  place, 
who  was  of  a  Spirit  more  agreeable  to  that  fweet  Temper  and  generous  Galan- 
try  of  his  Anceltours.  This  Refolution  he  took  in  imitation  of  that  Cuftome 
pra&ifed  in  fome  of  his  Provinces,  where  the  mod  favoured  and  moft  worthy 
was  elected  to  the  Government  •,  the  which  on  this  occafion  the  Inca,  was  defi- 
rous  to  introduce,  againft  all  the  Precedents  and  Examples  bf  former  he  as.  With 
this  intention  the  Inca  commanded  the  Prince,  being  now  of  nineteen  or  twenty 
Years  of  age,  to  avoid  the  Court,  allotting  him  a  place  of  Residence  about  a 
League  from  the  City,  and  where  were  fair  and  verdant  Paftures  Eaftward 
from  the  City,  which  they  called  Chita ,  and  where  I  my  felf  remember  often 
to  have  been,  and  where  his  Employment  was  to  feed  the  Cattle  of  the  Sun, 
in  company  with  thofe  Shepherds  who  were  defigned  for  that  Service.  The 
Prince  not  being  able  to  remt  the  Pleafure  of  his  Father,  fubmitted  to  the  Ba- 
nifliment  and  the  Disfavour  of  the  Inca,  which  laid  as  a  punifhment  on  him  for 
the  Bravery  and  Gallantry  of  his  Martial  Spirit.  In  Ihort ,  he  fubmitted  and 
really  applied  himfelf  with  the  other  Shepherds  to  keep  and  feed  the  Cattel  of  the 
Sun  for  the  fpace  of  three  years,  and  more ,  where  we  will  leave  him  untill  the 
time  comes  which  mall  bring  him  on  the  Stage,  and  to  fpeak  well  of  him,  if 
that  which  we  are  to  mention  of  him  may  be  called  good. . 


Book  IV.  Royal  Commentaries. 


CHAP.    XXI. 

Of  the  Intelligence  which  an  Apparition  gave  to  the  Prince, 
enjoining  him  to  communicate  it  to  his  Father. 

THE  I»ca  Yahstar-huacac  having  in  this  manner  Banifhed  his  Eldeft  Son, 
whole  Name  we  cannot  affign,  becaufe  the  obfcurity  of  his  condition  was 
fuch,  as  made  no  impreflion  in  the  minds  of  Men,  fo  as  without  the  help  of  Let- 
ters to  conferve  it  in  remembrance :  He  feemed  now  to  lay  afide  all  the  thoughts 
of  War,  and  Conquefts  of  new  Provinces,  and  to  make  the  Government  of  his 
Dominions,  and  the  Confervation  of  the  common  peace  and  quietneis  to  be  his 
onely  employment :  As  to  his  Son,  he  thought  it  not  convenient,  nor  fecure  to 
remove  him  far  from  his  fight,  that  fo  he  might  more  eafily  apply  thofe  remedies 
to  reclaim  him,  as  beft  fuited  with  his  condition ;  nor  did  he  judge  it  fit  to  im- 
prifon,  and  difinherit,  and  chufe  fome  other  in  his  place,  for  that  feemed  an  expe- 
dient too  violent,  and  without  Example ,  and  was  a  new  and  unpractifed  cafe  to 
depofe  the  true  Heir,  and  degrade  the  Divinity  of  the  hcas  of  its  Right  and 
Honour  -,  befides,  it  appeared  doubtfull  how  far  the  people  would  aflent  to  this 
impiety,  and  how  ill  tney  would  take  this  harlh  ufage  of  the  Prince  and  Heir  to 
the  Empire. 

In  this  wavering  and  unquiet  condition,  which  deprived  the  Inca  of  all  content- 
ment and  repofe,  he  parted  three  years  without  any  obfervable  occurrence  •■>  du- 
ring which  time,  he  twice  Commmionated  four  of  his  Kinfmen  to  vifit  his  Do- 
minions, giving  to  every  one  their  refpective  charges,  and  dilpatches  into  diftinct 
parts  of  his  Dominions,  in  order  to  perform  fuch  publick  Works  as  might  con- 
duce to  the  honour  of  the  I»ca,  and  trie  common  benefit  of  his  Subjects  ;  fuch  as 
the  making  of  Aqueducts ,  raifing  Magazines  for  laying  up  Provilions ,  Royal 
Houfes,  Fountains  and  Bridges,  Caufeys,  and  fuch  other  Works  of  publick  ufe  : 
But  for  his  own  part,  he  never  had  the  courage  to  depart  from  his  Court,  but  one- 
ly there  to  attend  and  celebrate  the  Feflivals  of  the  Sun,  and  fuch  like,  and  ad- 
minifter  Juftice  to  his  Subjects.  At  the  end  of  this  long  time,  one  day  about 
Noon  the  Prince  entred  into  the  Palace  of  his  Father,  without  any  Companion 
or  Attendance,  like  a  Perfon  forlorn,  and  in  disfavour  of  his  btsn  j  and  fent  him 
word,  that  he  was  there  to  fpeak  with  him,  having  a  Meflage  of  high  importance 
to  deliver :  The  Inca,  made  a  quick  Anfwer  in  his  fudden  pafficn,  that  he  ihould 
without  Demur  or  Reply  retire  again  to  the  place  of  his  Confinement,  on  penalty 
of  being  proceeded  againft  according  to  that  fevere  punifhment  which  the  Law 
inflicts  on  thofe  who  break  the  Royal  Command.  The  Prince  made  anfwer, 
that  he  was  not  come  thither  in  contempt  of  his  Commands,  but  in  obedience  to 
the  Meflage  and  Injunction  of  another  Inca,  as  great  as  himfelf,  who  fent  him  to 
impart  unto  him  matters  of  high  and  conliderable  importance  -,  which  if  he  were 
pleafea  to  hear,  he  defired  to  be  admitted  and  n  have  Audience  •,  if  not,  he  had 
complied  with  the  Commands  of  him  that  fent  him,  and  fhould  return  again  to 
render  an  account  of  his  fuccefs. 

The  Inca  hearing  him  mention  another ,  as  Great  a  Lord  as  himfelf,  ordered 
him  to  be  admitted,  for  he  wondered  at  the  impertinence  of  the  Meflage,  and  the 
boldnefsof  any  who  mould  dare  to  employ  his  banifhed  and  difgraced  Son  with 
Advices  of  any  nature  whatfoever.  The  Prince  being  introduced,  and  ftanding 
before  his  Father,  faid  in  this  manner :   /  am  come,  Sir,  to  make  known  unto  you,  that 

fitting  this  day,  about  Noon,  under  one  of  thofe  great  Rocks,  which  are  in  the  Fields  of  Chita, 
where,  by  your  Order,  1  was  employed  to  feed  the  Flocks  of  our  Father  the  Sun  •-,  I  know  not 
whether  I  was  ajleep,  or  well  awake,  there  appeared  before  me  a  Man  in  a  firange  Habit, 
and  of  a  Figure  different  from  us  ;  His  Beard  was  above  a  fpan  in  length,  his  Garments 
long  and  loofe,  reaching  down  to  his  Feet,  and  about  his  Neck\  he  carried  a  fort  of  living 


j  2  5  Royal  Commentaries.  Book  IV. 

creature,  which  I  know  not  what  to  call  it,  becaufe  I  never  faw  the  like  before  :   He  called 
to  me,  and  [aid,  Coufin,  I  am  a  Child  of  the  Sun,  and  Brother  to  the  Inca,  Manco  Capac, 
and  to  Coya  Mama,  Occb  HuacO  his  Wife  and  Sifter,  who  were  the  firft  of  your  Fa- 
mily, and  by  them  I  am  Allied  in  Bloud  to  your  Father,  and  all  of  you,  being  c  ailed  Inca 
ViraCOcha  *,    and  amfent  by  our  Father  the  Sun  to  order  you,  that  you  immediately  carry 
this  Advice  to  my  Brother  the  Inca,  acquainting  him,  that  the  great  eft  fart  of  the  Provinces 
of  Chinchafuyu,  as  well  thofe  who  are  under  his  Dominion,  as  thofe  which  are  not,  are  in 
rebellion,  and  are  united  in  confederacy  to  afault  him,  and  with  a  ftrong  and  numerous  Army 
to  caft  him  from  his  Throne,  and  deftroy  the  Imperial  City  of  COZCO  ;  wherefore  I  order 
you  immediately  to  give  this  intelligence  to  my  Brother  the  Inca ,  advifing  him  from  me,  that 
he  provide  againft  this  emergency,  and  take  fuch  vigorous  refolutions  to  prevent  it,  as  the 
importance  of  this  matter  doth  require.     And  as  to  thine  own  particular,  let  me  tell  thee, 
that  in  what  misfortune  foever  thou  art,  thou  lofe  not  thy  courage  or  fpirit,  for  I  fball  ever 
be  at  hand,  and  ready  to  fuccour  thee  as  my  own  fefh  and  bloud  •,  and  therefore  I ftritlly  ad- 
monifh  thee  not  to  attempt  any  thing,  how  great  foever  it  be,  unworthy  thy  Family  and  ancient 
Bloud,  and  the  Greatnefs  of  thy  Empire ;  for  1  will  ever  be  affiftant,  and  near  to  fuccour 
thee  in  thy  greateft  and  ultimate  exigencies.     Having  faid  thefe  words,  the  Inca  Vira- 
cocha  vanifhed,  and  I  faw  him  no  more  *,  and  then  returning  to  my  felf,  I  delayed 
no  time  to  come  and  appear  before  your  Majefty  to  communicate  unto  you  the 
particulars  of  thefe  Matters. 


Of  the  Consultation  which  the  Incas  held  upon  the  Advice 
which  the  Apparition  gave. 

TH  E  Inca,  Yahuar-huacac,  out  of  the  great  difpleafure  and  prejudice  which 
he  had  taken  to  .his  Son,  would  not  give  any  belief  or  credence  to  his  Re- 
lation, but  rather  termed  him  a  Fool,  and  impertinent,  and  that  fwelled  with  the 
vanity  of  Revelations  from  his  Father  the  Sun,  he  was  come  to  impofe  his  Enthufi- 
afms  for  divine  Truths  •■,  and  therefore  ordered  him  immediately  to  return  to  Chita, 
and  to  confine  himfelf  within  thofe  bounds  on  penalty  of  his  higheft  difpleafure  •, 
in  compliance  to  which  fevere  admonition,  the  Prince  returned  again  to  his  re- 
tirement, and  the  keeping  of  his  Flocks.  How  foever  the  Mas,  who  were  Coun- 
fellours,  and  had  the  King's  Ear,  and  of  a  nature  very  fuperftitious  and  credulous, 
efpecially  of  Dreams ,  took  this  advertifement  in  another  falhion,  than  the  King 
apprehended  it,  telling  him,  that  fuch  an  Apparition  as  this  was  not  to  be  flighted, 
efpecially  fince  it  presented  it  felf  in  the  form  of  Viracocha,  who  was  Brother  to 
the  Inca,  and  of  Alliance  to  the  Sun,  in  whofe  name  and  behalf  he  brought  this 
Meflage.  Nor  was  it  credible  that  the  Prince  mould  be  fo  much  an  Impoftour, 
as  to  dare  to  entitle  the  Sun  to  fuch  an  apparent  forgery,  or  delude  the  Inca  his  Fa- 
ther with  a  Lye ,  and  therefore  that  it  were  beft  to  examine  the  matter  more 
ftri&ly  ;  and  by  Sacrificing  to  the  Sun,  make  judgment  of  the  good  or  bad  O- 
mens,  and  not  neglect  any  care  or  diligence  whatfoever  in  a  matter  of  fo  high  im- 
portance ;  for  to  leave  the  matter  neglected  and  flighted,  were  to  contemn  the 
advice  which  the  Sun  had  fent,  and  his  Meflenger  Viracocha ;  and,  in  lbort,  to  add 
Errour  unto  Errours,  and  Sins  unto  Sins. 

Notvvithflanding  all  which,  the  Inca  had  conceived  that  prejudice  againft  his 
Son,  that  he  cculd  upon  no  terms  admit  the  counfel  which  his  Kindred  gave  him, 
but  rather  termed  the  Vilion  he  declared,  to  be  the  effecl  of  a  wild  and  furious 
brain ,  imagining  by  lyes  and  forgeries  to  bring  his  extravagant  humour  again  into 
repute  •-,  which  was  fuch  an  aggravation  of  his  former  folly,  that  he  deferved  on 
this  very  fcore  to  be  deprived  of  the  inheritance,  and  declared  for  ever  uncapable 


Book  IV.  Royal  Commentaries.  12 

of  the  Succeffion  •-,  and  that  in  the  place  of  him,  fome  other  of  a  more  flexible 
and  gentle  temper,  worthy  the  title  of  being  allied  to  the  Sun,  fhould  be  ordai- 
ned and  proclaimed  the  true  Heir  in  the  place  and  ftead  of  a  revengefull,  merci- 
lefs  and  tyrannical  Prince,  and  of  one  of  a  far  different  temper  to  that  fweet  and 
pleafant  humour  of  his  Anceftours,  which  had  been  the  mod  forcible  Arms  to 
win  and  overcome  all  the  Nations  they  governed.  Moreover,  that  in  Wifedom 
they  ought  to  provide  againft  all  Rebellions,  but  not  on  the  fcore  or  belief  of  the 
vain  words  of  a  wild  fellow  •,  who  ought  to  be  punifhed,  and  have  his  Head  cut 
off  for  daring  to  break  the  limits  affigned  for  his  Banilhment  5  and  profaning  the 
Sacred  Name  of  the  Sun  with  a  pretence  fo  falfe  and  enthufiaftick  as  this :  And 
therefore  he  charged  them  not  to  mention  this  matter  farther,  nor  fb  much  as  to 
name  the  Prince ,  for  that  he  had  already  determined  in  what  manner  to  deal 
with  him. 

The  Incas  upon  this  Command  of  the  King  were  filent,  and  urged  the  matter 
no  farther-,  howfoever,  they  could  not  forbear  to  revolve  the  thing  in  their  minds, 
as  portending  fome  fad  and  difmal  difafters :  For  the  Indians  were  naturally  addic- 
ted to  Signs  and  Prognoftications  •,  and  efpecially  if  the  King,  or  the  Prince,  or 
the  High  Prieft,  who  were  efteemed  Gods  and  Oracles,  had  any  Dream ,  they 
were  never  at  eafe  untill  the  Diviners,  or  Magicians,  made  the  Interpretation  -, 
in  which  they  efteemed  themfelves  fo  expert,  that  they  not  onely  pretended  to 
interpret  the  Dream,  but  alfo  to  declare  what  the  Incas  themfelves  had  related 
fhort,  or  miftaken  in  it. 


The  Rebellion  of  the  Chancas,  and  of  their  Ancient  exploits 
in  War. 

THree  Months  after  this  Dream  of  the  Prince  Viracoc^  ( for  fo  afterwards 
his  Friends  named  him  from  the  Vifion  he  had  feen )  a  confuted  and  un- 
certain rumour  came  of  an  Infurre&ion  in  the  Provinces  of  Chmcafuyu,  and  that 
all  the  people  were  in  Arms,  which  is  from  Atahualla,  about  forty  Leagues  North- 
ward from  Cozco,  through  all  the  Countries  to  the  fartheft  extent  of  the  new  Con- 
quefts.  This  News  hacfas  yet  no  certain  authour  or  ground,  being  but  whifpered 
as  in  cafes  of  like  nature ;  and  though  it  agreed  with  the  Dream  of  the  Prince 
Viracocha,  and  feemed  an  Accomplilhment  of  the  words  of  his  Vifion,  yet  the 
King  gave  no  heed  or  credit  to  it,  believing  it  to  be  a  Canterbury  tale,  or  Stories 
of  the  way,  broached  to  revive  the  Dream  of  the  Prince,  which  feemed  almoft 
forgot,  and  out  of  memory  :  Some  few  days  after  the  report  became  hotter  than 
before,  and  common  in  every  Man's  mouth,  though  dill  uncertain,  and  without 
any  particulars  \  for  the  Enemies  had  obftru&ed  all  the  ways  and  paflages  in  that 
manner,  that  no  intelligence  fhould  be  carried,  and  that  the  knowledge  of  their 
Rebellion  might  be  firft  made  known  by  appearance  of  their  force  before  Cozco. 
Howfoever,  at  length  certain  and  particular  information  was  brought,  that  the 
Nations  called  Chanca,  Vramarca,  Vilka,  Vtufulla,  Hawohualht,  and  other  Neigh- 
bouring Nations,  were  all  in  Arms  ?  and  having  killed  all  the  Governours  and 
Officers  of  the  Inca,  were  now  Marching  with  an  Army  of  forty  thoufand  Men 
againft  the  City. 

Thefe  Nations  ( as  we  have  faid)  being  all  reduced  by  the  power  of  the  King 
he  a  Roca,  rather  out  of  fear,  than  love,  had  ever  fince  fupprelled  their  rancour  and 
malice  to  the  Incas,  with  intention  to  own  and  teftifie  the  fame,  when  occafion 
prefented  •-,  which  now  feemed  fairly  to  offer  it  felf  in  the  time  of  this  Ma,  Tahnar- 
h*.v.K,  who  being  a  Prince  not  addicted  to  War,  but  rather  intimidated  by  the  ap- 


12,8  Royal  Commentaries,  Book  IV. 

prehenlion  and  fear  he  conceived  from  his  finifter  Omen  •,  and  being  alfo  moved 
with  compaflion  of  the  hard  ufage,  and  unnatural  treatment  which  the  lnca  (hewed 
towards  the  Prince  his  Son,  they  judged  it  warrant  and  reafon  fufficient  to  re- 
venge his  caufe  in  deteftation  of  the  bafe  cowardife  and  tyranny  of  this  mean-fpi- 
rited,  and  yet  cruel,  lnca, :  Wherefore  with  what  expedition  and  fecrecy  they 
could,  they  incited  their  Neighbours  to  rebell ,  who  being  already  well  difpofed 
in  the  matter,  they  eaiily  took  fire,  and  putting  themfelves  in  Arms,  and  with  a 
body  of  thirty  thoufand  Men  marched  diredly  againft  the  Imperial  City  of  Gxro. 
The  principal  Authours  and  Contrivers  of  this  War,  befides  other  Lords,  were 
three  principal  Caracas  of  three  great  Provinces ,  all  comprehended  under  the 
common  name  of  Chanca  .•  The  firft  of  thefe  Lords  was  called  Hancobuallu,  a 
Young  Man  of  twenty  fix  years  of  Age,  the  fecond  was  Tumay  Huaraca,  and  rhe 
third  Aftu  Huaraca  •,  the  two  lafl:  of  which  were  Uncles  and  Brothers  to  Hanco- 
huallu.  The  Anceftours  of  thefe  three  petty  Kings,  before  the  times  of  the  W, 
waged  a  perpetual  War  with  their  Neighbouring  Nations,  efpecially  with  the 
people  called  Stuechua,  under  which  denomination  five  other  great  Provinces  were 
Contained :  For  which  reafon,  and  for  the  Tyranny  and  Oppreffion  which  they 
fuffered  from  them,  the  <H»ecbuas  were  greatly  pleafed  to  accept  and  receive  the 
Protection  of  the  lncas.  And  fo  on  the  contrary,  thefe  petty  Kings  greatly  re- 
fenced  the  curb  and  power  the  lncas  impofed  upon  them,  by  reftraining  them  in 
their  Progrefs  and  Conquefts ,  rendring  them  in  the  place  of  abfolute  and  fove- 
reign  Princes,  Tributaries  and  VafTals,  which  they  ftomached  and  fupprefied  un- 
tUl  this  feafon ,  in  which  they  efteemed  it  convenient  to  vent  their  hatred.  And 
in  regard  that  the  life  of  all  defigns  is  fpeedy  execution ,  and  that  now  they  were 
taiurprize  the  /«,  unprovided  of  Men,  and  power  of  Refiftence,  they  did  not 
doubt,  but  by  one  fingle  Vidory  to  render  themfelves  Matters  again,  not  onely 
of  their  ancient  Enemies,  but  of  all  the  Empire  of  the  lncas. 

With  thefe  probable  hopes  and  expectations  of  fuccefles,  they  invited  all  their 
Neighbours,  as  well  thofe  that  were  Subjeds  to  the  lnca,  as  thofe  that  were  not , 
to  partake  with  them  in  the  defign  and  reward  of  the  enterprize  •-,  the  which  ap- 
peared fair  and  promifing  in  this  prefent  conjuncture.  To  thefe  Summons  the  In- 
dians  eaiily  yielded,  expeding  great  advantages,  and  depending  on  the  great  re- 
nown and  fame  in  War,  which  the  Ancient  bravery  of  the  Chancas  had  acquired: 
And  having  conftituted  Hanco-hnallu  their  Captain-General,  and  the  two  Brothers 
Major- Generals,  with  other  Curacas  for  Colonels  and  Officers,  they  marched  di- 
redly  with  refolution  to  Summon  and  make  demand  of  the  City  of  Cozco. 


The  lnca  abandons  the  City-,  and  the  Prince  fuccours  it. 

SO  foon  as  the  lnca  Yahmr-hmcac  underftood  the  certainty  of  this  News,  and 
of  the  approach  of  the  Enemy,  he  was  affrighted  and  terrified  within  him- 
felf ;  for  it  feemed  a  furprize  to  him  to  underftand  of  a  rebellion,  for  as  yet  no 
fuch  thing  had  ever  happened  in  the  Provinces,  during  the  lenity  of  that  Govern- 
ment which  the  lncas  had  exercifed  from  the  time  of  Mmco  Capac  to  thofe  very 
days  •-,  under  the  feoarity  of  which,  and  out  of  the  hatred  he  conceived  to  his  Son, 
to  whom  he  could  not  allow  the  honour  of  divine  revelation ,  he  neither  would 
give  credit  to  the  dream ,  nor  hearken  to  the  advice  or  counfel  of  his  kindred  * 
but  having  blinded  his  understanding  with  paffion  and  prejudice,  he  found  himfelf 
enihared  in  inextricable  difficulties,  having  neither  time  to  levy  a  force  fufficient 
to  encounter  his  Enemies,  nor  a  Garrifon  in  readinefs  to  defend  the  City,  until! 
other  relief  or  fuccour  could  be  adminiftred.  Wherefore  in  thefe  doubts  he  re- 
lblved  to  give  way  to  the  Torrent  of  his  Enemies  rage,  and  retire  towards  Colla- 


Book  IV.  Royal  Commentaries.  129 

fuyn,  where  he  promifed  to  himfelf  fecurity  of  life,  and  defence  from  the  Loyalty 
and  Valour  of  that  people.  With  this  intention  and  defign  he  departed  from 
Cozco  with  a  retinue  of  fuch  Mas  as  were  able  to  follow  him ,  and  came  to  the 
Straits  of  Mayna,  about  five  Leagues  Northward  from  the  City,  towards  the  Sea 
of  Zur,  and  there  ported  himfelf  on  the  top  Mountain,  from  whence  he  could 
furvey  the  Enemies  Camp,  and  defcry  what  they  acted  in  the  way  as  they  parted. 
The  King  having  thus  abandoned  Cozco,  the  City  was  expofed  to  open  violence, 
none  daring  to  propofe,  much  led  act  in  the  defence  of  it  •,  every  one  endea- 
vouring to  fhift  for  himfelf,  and  fave  his  life  in  the  beft  manner  he  was  able.  Of 
thefe  Fugitives,  fome  repaired  to  the  Prince  Viracocha ,  informing  him  of  the  Re- 
bellion of  chincajtijti,  and  of  the  flight  of  his  Father  •,  and  that  .there  was  no 
pofllbility  in  fo  mort  time  and  warning  to  withftand  or  make  head  againft  the 
Enemy.  ' 

The  Prince  deeply  refenting  this  fad  news  of  the  flight  of  his  Father,  and  the 
nakednefs  of  the  City,  commanded  thofe  who  brought  him  the  advice,  and  thofe 
few  Shepherds  that  were  with  him ,  that  they  (hould  immediately  repair  to  the 
City,  and  order  thofe  that  they  (hould  find  there,  and  as  many  as  they  (hould 
meet  in  the  ways,  that  they  (hould  with  fuch  Arms  as  they  had,  and  with  as 
much  fpeed  as  they  could  poflibly,  repair  to  the  Inca  their  Lord  and  Mafter$  gi- 
ving them  likewife  to  underftand,  that  it  was  his  intention  fo  to  doe ,  and  that 
this  was  his  Order  and  Special  Command  to  them.  Having  iflued  out  this  ad- 
vice, the  Prince  Viracocha  proceeded  in  Queft  of  his  Father,  and  without  vifiting 
the  City,  he  took  a  (hort  cut  •,  and  lofing  no  time,  overtook  him  in  the  Straits  of 
Muyna,  from  whence  he  was  not  as  yet  departed  ;  and  being  covered  over  with 
fweat  and  duft ,  holding  a  Lance  in  his  hand,  which  he  had  cafually  taken  up  on 
the  way,  he  prefented  himfelf  before  the  King,  and  with  a  grave  and  melancholy 
countenance,  he  thus  addrefled  his  Speech  to  him. 

How  is  it,  Inca,  that  upon  a  report  (whether  true  or  falfe,  is  uncertain)  of  fome  few 
of  your  Subjetts  rifen  in  Rebellion ,  you  (hould  abandon  your  City  and  Court,  and  fly  be- 
fore an  Enemy,  not  as  yet  feen,  nor  appearing  ?  How  can  you  yield  and  refign  the  Temple  of 
the  Sun  your  Father  into  the  power  of  your  Enemies,  to  be  polluted  by  their  prophane  and  un- 
hallowed feet  •■,  giving  them  thereby  liberty  to  return  to  their  ancient  Abominations,  and 
there  offer  again  their  deteflable  Sacrifices  of  Men,  Women  and  Children,  with  other  un- 
humane  and  unnatural  attions,  from  which  your  Ance flours  had  reformed  them  ?  What  ac- 
count /hall  we  be  able  to  render  of  the  charge  committed  to  us  for  guard  and  defence  of  thole 
Virgins  dedicated  to  the  Sun,  if  we  abandon  and  leave  them  to  the  brutality  and  lufls  of  our 
Enemies  ?  And  what  benefit  (hall  we  get  by  faving  our  lives,  with  the  lofs  of  our  honour 
and  admiffion  of  all  the  evils  and  mifchiefs  imaginable  ?  For  my  part,  I  (hall  never  ajfent 
unto  it,  but  rather  appear  fingly  before  the  face  of  my  Enemies,  and  lofe  my  life  in  oppo/ing 
their  entrance  into  CoZCO,  rather  than  live  to  fee  the  defolation  of  that  City,  and  thofe  a- 
bominable  prallices  committed  in  that  Sacred  and  Imperial  Court,  which  the  Sun  and  his 
Children  had  founded  :  Wherefore  let  fuch  ax  have  courage  follow  me,  and  1  (hall  fhew  them 
how  to  exchange  an  infamous  and  loathfome  Life  for  a  noble  and  honourable  Death. 

Having  faid  thu<  much  with  deep  fenfe  and  heat  of  fpirit,  he  took  his  way  to- 
wards the  City,  without  lofing  fo  much  time  as  to  eat  or  drink.  The  lncas  of  the 
Bloud,  who  untill  now  had  accompanied  the  King,  and  with  them  his  own  Bro- 
thers, Coufins  and  neareft  Relations,  to  the  number  of  above  4000  Men,  returned 
and  followed  the  Prince,  fo  that  onely  fome  few  old  and  impotent  Men  remained 
with  the  King :  As  many  as  they  met  in  the  way  they  marched ,  and  thofe  alio 
who  were  fcattered  abroad  in  the  Countrey,  they  called  and  fummoned  unto  . 
them  -,  giving  them  to  underftand,  that  the  Prince  Viracocha,  was  returned  to  the 
City  with  intention  to  defend  that  and  the  Temple  of  his  Father  the  Sun,  with 
the  laft  drop  of  his  bloud.  With  this  news,  which  was  foon  fpread  over  all 
places,  the  Indians  were  fo  encouraged,  ( the  prefence  of  the  Prince  giving  coun- 
tenance to  the  refolution )  that  they  all  unanimoufly  returned  to  the  City,  inten- 
ding there  to  dye  with  great  alacrity  and  chearfulnefs  with  their  Prince,  who  evi- 
denced fo  much  refolution  and  courage  in  their  defence. 

In  this  manner,  and  with  thefe  thoughts,  he  entred  the  City,  and  from  thence 
immediately  taking  the  direct  road  towards  Chincafuyu,  which  was  the  Pais  by 
which  the  Enemy  marched  •,  he  commanded  his  Army,  without  any  delay,  to  fol- 

S  1o\t 

i2o  Royal  Commentaries.  Book  IV.' 

low  him ,  intending  there  to  place  himfelf  between  the  Enemy  and  the  City ; 
not  that  he  expecled  thereby  to  give  a  ftop  to  their  proceedings,  for  that  it  could 
never  be  hoped  that  their  inconfiderable  number  could  make  head  againft  fuch 
Multitudes  j  but  that  as  valiant  and  defperate  Men ,  they  might  dye  righting  a^ 
gaiftft  their  Enemies,  rather  than  behold  the  Barbarians  victorious  in  the  Temple 
and  City  of  their  Father  the  Sun,  which  was  a  matter  that  made  the  moft  falli- 
ble impreffion  of  all  thefe  difafters. 

And  becaufe  we  muft  here  fet  a  period  to  the  Reign  of '  rahnar-huacAf,  (whofe 
Life  we  now  write )  and  as  hereafter  will  appear ,  we  (hall  now  put  a.  full  ftop  to 
the  current  of  this  Hiftory,  that  fo  we  may  diftinguifh  the  Actions  of  this  King 
from  thofe  of  his  Son  Vhacocha  .■  And  for  variety  fake,  and  to  pleafe  the  Reader,, 
We  mail  intermix  other  matters  which  are  curious  and  divertifjng ,  and  then  after- 
wards return  to  the  Atchievements  and  Exploits  of  the  Prince  Firacecha,  whifik 
were  famous  and  of  great  Renown. 



Royal  Commentaries, 

book   v. 

CHAP.    I. 

Hove  they  enlarged  and  divided  the  Lands  amongjl   the 

SO  foon  as  the  Inca  had  conquered  any  Kingdom  or  Province,  and  thai 
he  had  fettled  and  eftabliihed  his  Government  and  Religion  amongft 
the  Inhabitants,  he  ordered  that  thofe  Lands  which  were  capable  of 
improvement  ( that  is,  fuch  as  would  bear  May*,)  mould  be  drefled 
and  manured  •-,  and  in  order  hereunto  they  drained  all  wet  Moors  and 
Fens,  for  in  that  Art  they  were  excellent,  as  is  apparent  by  their  Works 
which  remain  unto  this  day :  And  alfo  they  were  very  ingenious  in  making  Aque- 
da&s  for  carrying  Water  into  dry  and  fcorched  Lands,  fuch  as  the  greateft  part 
of  that  Countrey  is,  which  is  iituated  under  the  Torrid  Zone,  being  commonly 
barren  for  want  of  Water  to  refrelh  and  make  it  fruitfull  3  and  for  that  reafon, 
wherefoever  they  intended  to  fow  their  Mayz  or  Indian  Wheat,  they  always  made 
contrivances  and  inventions  to  bring  their  Water  for  them,  nor  lefs  carefull  were 
they  to  water  their  Paftures,  which  they  drowned  in  cafe  the  Autumn  proved  dry, 
that  fo  they  might  have  Grals  fufficient  to  feed  the  numerous  Flocks  they  main- 
tained. Thefe  Aqueducts,  though  they  were  ruined  after  the  Spaniards  came  in, 
yet  feveral  Reliques  and  Monuments  of  them  remain  unto  this  day. 

After  they  had  made  a  provifion  of  Water,  the  next  thing  was  to  drefs,  and 
cultivate,  and  clear  their  Fields  of  Bullies  and  Trees  3  and  that  they  might  with 
moft  advantage  receive  the  Water,  they  made  them  in  a  Quadrangular  form  -, 
thofe  Lands  which  were  good  on  the  fide  of  Hills,  they  levelled  them  by  certain 
Allies,  or  Walks,  which  they  made ,  as  is  to  be  feen  in  Cozco,  and  all  over  Tern 
unto  this  day  3  to  make  thefe  Allies,  they  raifed  three  Walls  of  Freezed  Stone , 
one  before,  and  one  of  each  fide,  fomewhat  inclining  inwards,  ( as  are  all  the 
Walls  they  make)  fo  that  they  may  more  fecurely  bear  and  keep  up  the  weight 
of  the  Earth,  which  is  prefled  and  rammed  down  by  them,  untill  it  be  raifed  to 
the  height  of  the  Wall :  Then,  next  to  this  Walk,  they  made  another  fomething 
morter  and  lefs,  kept  up  in  the  fame  manner  with  its  Wall  3  untill  at  lengch  they 
came  to  take  in  the  whole  Hill,  levelling  it  by  degrees  in  fafhion  of  a  Ladder,  one 
Ally  above  the  other,  untill  they  came  to  take  in  all  the  Hill,  and  inclofe  the 
ground  which  was  capable  of  improvement,  and  of  receiving  Water;,  where  the 

S  %  ground 

i  o  2  Royal  Commentaries.  Book  V. 

ground  was  ftony,  they  gathered  up  the  Stones,  and  covered  the  barren  Soil  with 
frem  Earth  to  make  their  Levels,  that  fo  no  part  of  the  ground  might  be  loft  .- 
The  firft  Allies  were  the  largeft,  and  as  fpatious  as  the  iituation  of  the  place  could 
bear,  fome  being  of  that  length  and  breadth  as  were  capable  to  receive  a  hundred, 
fome  two  hundred,  or  three  hundred  Buihells  of  Seed.:  The  .fecond  row  of  Allies 
were  made  narrower  and  fhorter,  and  fo  went  leflening,  untill  at  lafti  at  the  bot- 
tom and  lowermoft  Ally,  they  were  contracted  to  fo  narrow  a  Compafs,  as  was 
not  capable  to  produce  more  than  two  or  three  fmall  meafures  of  May*.  In 
fome  parts  they  husbanded  their  matter,  that  they  brought  the  Chanels  of  water 
from  hfteen  or  twenty  Leagues  diftance,  though  it  were  onely  to  improve  a  flip 
of  a  few  Acres  of  Land,  which  was  efteemed  good  Corn-ground. 

Having  in  this  manner  (as  we  have  faid)  improved,  and  enlarged  their  Lands,  the 
next  thing  was  to  make  a  juft  Divifion  of  them  in  all  Countries  *  for  performance 
of  which  they  divided  the  grounds  into  three  parts,  one  was  allotted  to  the  Sun, 
a  fecond  to  the  King,  and  a  third  to  the  Inhabitants:  This  Rule  was  obferved 
with  great  exadnefs,  and  in  favour  of  the  People,  that  fo  the  Natives  might  not 
want  ground  for  tillage-,  for  in  that  cafe,  when  the  Countrey  abounded  with 
numbers  of  People,  they  abated  of  the  proportion  allotted  to  the  Sun,  and  to 
the  hca,  for  the  fake  and  benefit  of  the  Subjects  •,  fo  that  in  effect,  neither  did 
the  King  in  his  own,  or  in  right  of  the  Sun,  appropriate  to  himfelf  any  Lands, 
but  fuch  as  lay  untilled,  unpofteft,  and  without  a  Proprietor.  Moft  of  the  Lands 
belonging  to  the  Sun,  and  the  Inca,  were  inclofed ,  and  laid  in  Allies,  being  fo 
manured  and  improved  by  fpecial  Command.  Befides  thefe  Lands,  which  by 
reafon  of  their  convenient  iituation  for  receiving  water,  produced  May*,  they 
made  a  Divifion  of  other  Land ,  alfo  that  were  in  a  dry  foil,  without  any  conve- 
nience of  water,  and  yet  becaufe  they  were  capable  to  produce  fome  forts  of  grane, 
and  pulfe,  fuch  as  they  called  Papa,  and  Oca,  and  Amu*,-  which  were  very  benefi- 
cial-, the  Sun  and  the  King  had  their  (hares  allowed  thereof  This  foil,  which 
for  want  of  water  was  thus  barren,  they  did  not  fow  above  one  or  two  years  to- 
gether, and  then  broke  up  frem  ground,  leaving  the  other  to  lie  fallow,  untill  it 
had  again  recovered  its  former  ftrength. 

Their  May*,  or  Wheat  fields,  which  had  the  benefit  of  water,  they  fowed 
every  year,  dunging  them  after  every  crop,  as  we  do  our  Gardens,  which  made 
them  extremely  fruitfully  and  with  the  May*  they  fowed  a  fmall  feed,  like  Rice, 
which  they  call  gmnua,  and  grows  much  in  cold  Countries. 


Book  V.  Royal  Commentaries.  155 

CHA  P.     It 

Of  the  Order  they  obferved  in  manuring  their  Lands  ;  and 
what  Feajl  and  Joy  they  made  when  they  tilled  the 
Grounds  of  the  Inca,  and  of  the  Sun, 

IN  cultivating  their  Lands  they  obferved  this  Rule  and  Method;  thofe  of  the 
Sun  were  preferred  in  the  firft  place,  then  thofe  belonging  to  Orphans,  and 
Widows,  and  Perfons  impotent,  by  reafon  of  age  and  ficknefs;  all  which  remai- 
ning under  the  notion  of  poor,  were  by  order  of  the  Inca  provided  for,  and  their 
Lands  manured  by  fpecial  Command :  To  perform  which,  there  were  Deputies 
appointed  in  every  Parim,  or  Community  of  the  People,  to  take  care  that  thofe 
Lands  were  tilled  and  drefled.  Thefe  Deputies  were  called  Llailacamayu,  which 
is  as  much  as  Monitors  of  the  People,  whofe  charge  it  was  according  to  the  Sea- 
fens  of  the  Year,  to  plow,  and  fowe,  and  reap>  and  gather  die  fruit,  laying  it  up 
in  places  which  they  had  built  like  Barnes  to  receive  them.  The  fummons  which 
the  People  had  to  this  work,  was  by  found  of  Trumpet,  or  other  loud  Inftru- 
ment,  to  crave  attention ;  and  then  the  Crier  proclaimed,  That  fuch  a  day  the 
work  of  the  poor  was  to  be  done,  and  therefore  that  every  one  mould  provide 
againft  that  time  to  attend  that  fervice;  and  then  where  they  were  firft  to  be- 
gin, and  how  to  proceed,  either  in  that  of  their  Relations,  or  Neighbours,  was 
afligned  by  the  Overfeer.  Every  workman  that  came  to  labour  in  the  fields  of 
the  Orphans,  or  Widows,  or  impotent  brought  his  own  Provifions  with  him; 
for  that  the  Poor  were  obliged  to  no  care,  their  infirmities  and  wants  excufing 
them  from  other  troubles,  than  a  patient  fufferance  of  their  own  evils.  If  the 
poor  wanted  ked  to  fow  their  Lands,  it  was  adminiftred  to  them  out  of  the  pub- 
lick  Granaries,  of  which  we  mail  have  occafion  to  fpeak  hereafter. 

The  Lands  of  Souldiers ,  whilft  they  were  actually  employed  in  the  Wars, 
were  manured  with  the  fame  care  and  manner  as  thofe  of  the  poor;  their  Wives, 
during  the  abfence  of  their  Husbands,  being  lifted  into  the  number  of  Widows, 
and  the  Children,  of  thofe  who  were  flainin  the  Wars  were  provided  for,  and 
carefully  educated,  untill  the  time  of  their  Marriage. 

The  Lands  of  the  poor  being  already  tilled ,  in  the  next  place  every  private 
Perfon  might  attend  to  his  own  Farm,  and  the  firft  that  had  done  was  to  help  his 
fellows :  then  the  Lands  of  the  Curaca  were  to  be  ferved,  and  were  the  laft  in  or- 
der after  thofe  of  the  People;  the  which  was  obferved  fo  feverely,  that  in  the 
Reign  of  Hnoyna  Capac,  a  certain  Indian  Overfeer  was  hanged  for  tilling  the  Land 
of  a  Curaca,  who  was  his  Kinfman,  before  that  of  a  Widow;  and  to  make  the 
pUnifhment  more  exemplary,  the  Gallows  was  fet  up  in  the  very  Land  of  the  Cur 
raca.  The  feverity  of  this  Law  was  grounded  on  the  fame  practice,  which  was 
obferved  in  the  Lands  of  the  /w*  himfelf;  for  that  the  Inca  always  preferred 
the  Tillage  of  his  Subjects  before  his  own,  it  being  their  fure  Maxime,  that  the 
Happinefs  of  the  Prince  depends  on  the  Profperity  of  the  People^  without  which 
they  become  unable  to  ferve  him,  either  in  times  of  War  or  Peace. 

The  laft  Lands  to  be  tilled  were  thofe  of  the  King,  to  which,  and  to  thofe  of 
the  Sun,  the  People  in  general  applied  themfelves  with  great  alacrity  and  rejoicing ; 
they  then  at  that  work  appeared  in  their  beft  Cloths,  full  of  Gold  and  Silver  plates, 
and  feathers  on  their  Heads,  in  the  fame  manner  as  they  were  drefled  on  their 
feftival  days.  When  they  ploughed ,  which  feemed  the  more  pleaiant  wor/r 
they  fung  the  Sonnets  made  in  praife  of  their  Inpas,  with  which  the  time  pafled  fo' 
eafjy,  that  their  Labour  feemed  a  Recreation ,  fb  great  was  their  Devotion  to  » 
wards  their  God  and  their  King. 


1^4  Royal  Commentaries.  Book  V. 

Within  the  City  of  Cozco,  bordering  on  the  fide  of  that  Hill  where  the  Cattle 
was  built,  there  was  a  fpatious  Walk  or  Alley,  containing  many  acres  of  ground 
called  Colkampata,  and  is  ftill  remaining ,  unlefs  they  have  built  houfes  upon  it' 
fince  the  time  I  was  there:  the  plat  of  ground  on  which  it  was,  took  its  name 
from  the  Walk  it  felf,  being  the  beft  piece  of  Land,  and  as  it  were  the  Jewel 
and  Flower  of  all  the  Mate  belonging  to  the  Sun,  and  was  the  firft  plat  of  Earth 
which  the  Incas  had  dedicated  to  him.  This  Walk  was  like  a  Garden,  manured 
.and  cultivated  onely  by  lncas  of  the  Royal  Bloud,  nor  was  any  other  admitted  to 
be  Gardiner  or  Labourer  there,  under  the  degree  of  Inca,  or  Pa/la,  which  was  a 
Lady  of  the  Royal  Family.  All  the  Songs  they  made,  were  Panegyricks  in  praife 
of  the  Sun-,  and  the  fubftance  of  them  was  taken  from  the  word  Haylli,  which 
in  the  common  language  of  Peru  fignifies  triumph-,  as  if  they  were  victorious 
and  triumphed  over  the  Earth,  when  they  ploughed  and  digged  into  its  bowels' 
forcing  it  to  fructify,  and  raking  fruit  from  thence.  .  With  thefe  Sonnets  they  in- 
termixed the  quick  and  acute  Sentences  and  Sayings  of  dilcreet  Lovers,  and  vali- 
ant Souldiers,  tending  to  the  Subject  and  Work  in  hand ,  concluding  every  ftaff 
or  ftanza  of  their  Verfes  with  the  word  Haylli,  which  was  the  burthen  of  the  Song' 
and  repeated  as  often  as  was  neceffary  to  fill  up  the  cadence  of  the  Tune  5  and 
thus  they  fang,  and  worked  backward  and  forward,  as  they  made  the  Furrows 
with  which  chearfulnefs  the  toil  and  labour  was  much  alleviated. 

The  Plough  they  ufe  was  made  of  a  piece  of  Wood,  of  about  four  fingers 
broad,  and  a  yard  long,  it  was  flat  before,  and  round  behind,  and  pointed  at  the 
end,  that  fo  it  might  the  more  eafily  pierce,  and  enter  the  Earth;  then  about  half 
a  yard  high,  on  the  main  fhaft  they  bound  two  pieces  of  Wood  for  a  flay  to  the 
Foot,  with  which  the  Indian  prefling  very  hard,  thruft  his  Plough,  or  Shovel  up 
to  the  very  ftep,  or  flay  to  the  Foot  -,  and  therewith  feven  and  feven,  or  eight 'and 
eight  a  breaft,  according  to  the  number  of  the  Kindred,  or  Partnership,  drawing 
all  together,  they  turned  up  turfs,  and  clods  of  Earth  of  an  incredible  bignefs 
fo  that  thofe  who  have  not  feen  this  Invention  before,  would  wonder  that  fo  weak 
an  Inftrument  could  be  able  to  doe  fo  great  and  heavy  a  work,  and  with  that  dif- 
patch  and  eafe  alfo,  as  did  not  put  the  Labourers  out  of  breath,  fo  as  to  fpoil  the 
Air  and  Cadence  of  the  Tune.  The  Women  likewife  were  affiftents  to  the 
Men  in  this  work,  helping  to  turn  up  the  turf  and  clods,  and  pluck  up  the  Weeds 
and  roots,  that  they  might  dye  and  wither ;  in  which  labour  they  bore  alfo  part  in 
the  Mufick,  and  joined  in  the  Chorus  of  Haylli,  Haylli. 

The  Indian  Tunes  having  a  kind  of  fweet  Air  with  them,  the  Mufick-Mafter 
of  the  Cathedral  Church  at,  in  the  Year  1  s  j  1 .  or  1  j  j2.  compofed  an  An- 
theme,  and  fet  it  to  one  of  their  Tunes,  which  he  plaid  on  the  Organ,  upon  the 
Feftival  of  the  moft  Holy  Sacrament,  at  which  Solemnity  he  introduced  eight 
Mongrel  Boys,  of  mixed  Bloud  between  Spanijh  and  Indian,  and  my  School-fel- 
lows, finging  the  Songs  which  he  had  fet  according  to  the  true  Air  of  Incas  Mu- 
fick, and  each  of  them  carrying  a  Plough  in  his  hand,  accompanied  the  Proceflion 
reprefenting  and  imitating  the  Haylli  of  the  Indians-,  all  the  Chapell  in  the  mean 
time  joining  in  the  Chorus,  to  the  great  fatisfa&ion  of  the  Spaniards,  and  content- 
ment of  the  Indians,  who  were  over-joyed  to  fee  the  Spaniards  fo  far  to  honour 
them,  as  to  pradife  their  Dances  and  Mufick,  when  they  celebrated  the  Feftival 
of  their  Lord  God,  which  they  called  Pachacamac,  and  is  as  much  as  to  fay  he 
that  gives  Life  to  the  whole  Univerfe. 

Thus  I  have  related  the  manner  how  the  Incas  celebrated  the  Feaft  which  they 
held  at  the  time  of  ploughing,  and  fowing  the  Grounds  dedicated  to  the  Sun,  the 
which  I  faw,  and  obferved  for  two  or  three  following  years,  when  I  was  a  Child 
and  by  them  we  may  guefs  at  the  form  and  manner  of  the  Feftivals  folemnized  in 
other  parts  of  Peru,  on  the  fame  occafion,  though  thofe  Feafts  which  I  few  as 
the  Indians  allured  me,  were  but  faint  reprefentations  of  thofe  in  ancient  times, 
and  were  not  to  be  efteemed  comparable  to  them. 


Book  V.  Royal  Commentarki.  135 

CHAP.    III. 

Of  the  Proportion  of  Land  which  was  allotted  to  every  In- 
dian, and  with  what  fort  of  Dung  the"y  improved  it. 

HpO  every  S*M'a»  was  given  zTupu  df  Land,  which  was  as- much  as'he  might 
J.  fow  with  a  Haneta,  (which  is  as  much  as  a  Bulhel  and  a  half  of  Myzy  or 
2w#4»- Wheat,  Aough  the  #Wgrf  of  Peru  is  a  W^^and'a'.half  of  Sf4i».)  This 
word  Tupt  fignifies  alfo  a  League  in  travelling,  likewife  all  forts  of  meafures  of» 
Water,,  or  Wine,  or  any  other  Liquour ;  as  alfo  the  greatPi'ris  with  which  Wo- 
men tuck  up  their  drefftngs :  The  Meafure  df  Seed-corn  hath'  alfo  another  name, 
which  isPicfttM 

One  Tip*  of  Land'  was  efteemed  fufhcierit  to  maintain- an  ordinary  Countrey-; 
Bellow  and  his  Wife,  provided  he  had  not  Children-,  for  then,  fo Joon  as  he  had 
aiSon,  they  addfed  another  Tupu  of  Land  to  his  Eftate,  and  if  a  Daughter,  half 
an  one :  When  the'Sen  married,  fo  that  he'left  his  Father's Houfe,  then  he  re-' 
figned.overtotheSon  his  7**^  of  Land,  in  which  he  had  an  Original  Right  and 

But  this-  was^ifferencly  obferved  as  to  Daughters,  for  they  were  not  "to  take 
their  Lands  with  them  in  marriage,  it  having  been  given  the'rri  for  their  fubfiftence 
during  their  Minority  onely,  but  not  to  accrue  to  them  byway  of  Portion;  for 
every  Husband  claiming  his  (hare  of  Land  in  his  own  Rights  was  obliged  to  fup- 
port  his  Wife,  the  Law  taking  no  farther  cognizance  of  Women  after  their  Mar- 
riage •,  the  Land  'remaining  with  the  Father,  in  cafe  he  had  need  of  it,  and  if  not, 
then  it  returned  ag^in  to  the-Community,  for  it  was  not  lawfull  either  to  fell  or 
alienate  it. 

Proportionabiy  to  thofe  Lands  which  they  gave  for  bearing  May*,  they  alfo 
adjoined  others,  which  were  dry  Lands,  and'did  not  require  Water,  and  yet  pro-' 
dttced-Pulfe  and  other  feeds.  i 

To  Ndble  and  great  Families,  fucli  as  were  thofe  of  the  Curacas,  or  Lords  who 
hadSubje&s under  them,  they. allotted  fo  much  Land  as  was  fumcient  to  main- 
tain their  Wives -and  Children,  Concubines  and  Servants.  To  the  heat  of  the 
Bloud  Royal  the  fame  advantage  and  benefit  was  allowed,  in  any  part  whetefoe- 
ver  they  were  pleafed  to  fix  their  aboad  •■,  and  their  Lands  were  to  be  the  belt  and 
icheft  of  any  t  And  this  they  were  to  enjoy  over  and  above  the  common  (hare 
md  right  which1  they  claimed"  in  the  Eftates  of  the  King,  and  the  Sun,  asChil- 
Iren  of  the  one,  and  Brother^'  df  the  other. 

They  ufed  to  dung  their  Lands,  that  they  might  make  them  fruitfull,  and  it  is 

^bfervable,  that  in  all  the  Valley  about  Cozco,  and  in  the  hilly  Countries,  where 

hey  fowed  Mtjzj  they  efteemed  the  beft  manure  to  be  Man's  Dung  •■,  and  to  that 

■nd  they  faved  and  gathered  it  with  great  care,  and  drying  it,  they  caft  it  upon 

heir  Land  before  they  fowed  their  Mayz.    But  in  the  Countrey  of  ColUo,  which 

5  above  an  hundred  and  fifty  Leagues  long,  which,  by  reafon  of  the  coldnefs  of 

he  Climate,  doth  not  produce  Mayz,  though  it  bear  other  fort  of  Grane,  there 

hey  efteem  the  Dung  of  Cattle  to  be  the  beft  manure  and  improvement 

By  the  Sea-coaft,  from  below  Arequepa,  as  far  as  Tarapaca,  which  is  above  two 

undred  Leagues,  they  ufe  no  other  Dung,  but  fuch  as  comes  from  the  Sea-birds, 

!|    f  which  there  are  great  numbers,  and  incredible  flocks  on  the  Coaft  of  Pern; 

ley  breed  in  little  Elands,  which  lie  in  the  Sea,  and  are  unpeopled,  where  they 

y  fuch  heaps  of  Dung,  that  at  a  diftance  they  feem  to  be  Hills  of  Snow.    In 

le  times  of  the  I»cm,  who  were  Kings,  great  care  was  taken  of  thefe  Birds  in 

leieafon  of  their  Breedings  for  then  on  pain  of  Death  no  Man  was  to  enter  on 

lofolfknds,'  left  they  fhould  difturb  the  Birds,  or  fpoil  their  Nefts-,  nor  was  it 

wfull  to  take  or  kill  them  at  any  time,  either  off  or  upon  the  Ifland, 


ig6  Royal  Commentaries,  Book  V. 

Every  Ifland  was  by  order  of  the  hca,  affigned  to  fuch  and  fuch  Provinces,  and 
if  the  Ifland  were  very  large,  then  two  or  three  of  them  divided  the  foilage,  the 
which  they  laid  up  in  feparate  heaps,  that  fo  one  Province  might  not  encroach 
on  the  proportion  allotted  to  the  other  •,  and  when  they  came  to  make  their  Di- 
vifion  to  particular  Perfons,  and  Neighbours,  they  then  weighed  and  fhared  out 
to  every  Man  the  quantity  he  was  to  receive ;  and  it  was  felony  for  any  man  to 
take  more  than  what  belonged  to  him,  or  to  rob  or  fteal  it  from  the  ground  of  his 
Neighbour,  for  in  regard  that  every  man  had  as  much  as  was  neceflary  for  his 
own  Lands,  the  taking  a  greater  quantity  than  what  belonged  to  him,  was  judged 
a  Crime,  and  a  high  offence-,  for  that  this  fort  of  Birds  dung  was  efteemed  pre- 
tious,  being  the  beft  improvement  and  manure  for  Land  in  the  World. 

Howfoever  in  other  parts  of  that  Coaft,  and  in  the  Low  Countries  ofdtica, 
Atiauipa,  Villacoriy  Malta  and  Chi/lca,  and  other  Vallies,  they  dung  their  grounds 
with  the  Heads  of  a  fmall  fifh,  like  our  Pilchards,  and  with  no  other  foilage. 
The  Natives  of  thefe  Countries  which  we  have  named,  and  others  under  the  fame 
Climate,  live  with  great  labour  and  toil,  where  they  can  neither  water  their 
Grounds  with  ftreams  from  the  Springs  or  Fountains,  nor  yet  with  the  Rain  or 
Dews  from  Heaven :  For  it  is  a  certain  truth,  that  for  the  fpace  of  feven  hundred 
Leagues  along  that  Coaft  it  did  never  rain,  nor  are  there  in  all  that  trad  of  Land 
ftreams,  or  places  for  water,  the  whole  Countrey  being  exceedingly  hot,  dry,  and 
nothing  almoft  but  fand ;  for  which  reafon  the  Natives  endeavouring  to  moiften 
their  grounds,  fo  as  to  make  them  capable  to  yield  Mayz,  they  approach  as  near 
to  the  Sea,  as  they  are  able,  where  they  turn  afide,  and  caft  away  the  Sand  which 
lies  upon  the  furface,  and  dig  down  as  deep  as  a  Man's  Body  is  in  length,  and 
fometimes  twice  as  deep,  untill,  having  palled  the  Sand,  they  come  to  fuch  a 
fort  of  Earth  as  is  able  to  bear  the  weight  of  Water,  which  places  the  Spaniards 
czWHoyas,  or  Vaults  j  and  being  of  different  proportions,  fome  greater,  andfome 
lefler  •-,  fome  are  not  capacious  enough  to  receive  above  half  a  meafure  of  Seed- 
corn,  others  again  are  fo  large  as  to  receive  three  or  four  meafures  of  Seed:  In 
thefe  places  they  neither  plow,  nor  reap,  becaufe  they  rather  fet  than  fow,  plan- 
ting their  grane  of  Mayz  at  an  equal  diftance  one  from  the  other  5  and  in  the  holes 
or  furrows  which  they  make-,  they  caft  three  or  four  grains  of  May*,,  with  a  kw 
Pilchards  Heads-,  which  being  all  the  dung  they  ufe,  and  which  is  onely,  as  they 
lay,  profitable  in  that  foil,  they  expect  their  Harveft  at  its  due  feafbn.  And  to 
fee  how  Divine  Providence  taketh  care  of  all  Creatures,  for  that  neither  the  In- 
dians may  want  that  Manure,  which  onely  makes  their  Land  fruitful!,  nor  the 
Birds  of  the  Iflands  their  food,  there  are  fuch  quantities  of  Pilchards  caft  up  by 
the  Sea  at  thofe  feafons,  as  are  not  onely  fufficient  for  the  Food  of  Men,  and  Birds, 
and  for  dunging  the  Earth,  but  even  to  lade  many  Ships ,  if  occafion  fhould  re- 
quire: It  is  faid,  that  this  Fifh  is  chafed  afhore  by  fome  Dolphins,  or  greater 
Fifh ;  be  it  by  what  means  it  will,  the  advantage  is  great,  and  the  Providence  of 
God  is  admirable  in  thefe  his  Bleffings  towards  his  poor  Creatures.  Who  was  the 
firft  Inventer  of  this  manner  of  planting  in  holes  with  the  Heads  of  Pilchards,  is 
uncertain  5  we  may  rather  attribute  it  to  Neceffity,  which  is  the  Mother  of  Inge- 
nuity 5  for  in  regard,  as  we  have  faid,  that  there  is  great  want  of  Bread  in  all  parts 
of  Peru,  the  fame  Underftanding  which  in  fome  parts  taught  them  to  plant  their 
May*,  in  holes,  the  fame  alfo  inftracled  them  to  make  their  Allies  in  the  parts  of 
Coze 0,  and  by  this  means  every  one  fowing  for  his  own  maintenance,  and  not  to 
fell,  all  People  enjoyed  fufficient  for  their  fupport,  never  any  fcarcity  or  famine 
having  been  known  in  that  Land. 


Book  V.  Royal  Commentaries.  137 

CHAP.    IV. 

How  they  divided  their  Water  into  fever  al  Rivulets  for  the 
refrejhment  of  their  Land  ;  and  what  Punijhment  they 
inflifted  on  the  idle  and  negligent  People  that  would  not 

IN  thofe  Countries  where  Water  was  fcarce,  they  took  care  to  divide  their 
Waters  to  every  one  according  to  his  neceflities,  and  by  fuch  equal  proporti- 
ons ,  and  with  that  order,  that  all  quarrels  and  contentions  for  it  were  avoided ; 
and  hereunto  they  had  moft  efpecial  regard  in  dry  years,  when  Rain  was  wanting  5 
for  then  they  allotted  out  unto  every  one  his  certain  hours,  having  by  experience 
learned  in  how  much  time  an  Acre  of  Ground  might  be  fupplied,  and  drink  the 
Water  it  required. ..  In  which  benefit  neither  the  Rich  nor  the  more  Noble,  nor 
the  Kinfman  of  the  Curaca,  nor  the  Curaca  himfelf,  nor  the  Governour,  nor  the 
King  himfelf  enjoyed  any  privilege  or  preference  before  another,  but  every  one 
took  his  turn,  as  his  Lands  and  Furrows  lay  in  order.  He  that  was  negligent  to 
take  his  turn,  and  to  watch  his  ground  whilft  the  .Water  ran  into  the  Furrows, 
and  Dams,  was  punilhed  for  a  fluggard  in  the  moft  affrontive  manner  5  for  he  was 
to  receive  publickly  three  or  four  thumps  on  the  Back  with  a  Stone,  or  whipped 
on  the  Armes  and  Legs  with  Switches  of  Ofier,  and  (named  with  the  difgracefull 
term  of  an  idle  and  floathfull  fellow,  which  was  a  great  diihonour  and  difreputa-, 
tion  to  them,  calling  them  Mzqttitullu,  which  is  Eafie-bones,  being  a  word  com- 
pounded of  Mzqtii,  which  fignifies  fweet ,  and  ThUu  which  is  bones. 

CHAP.    V. 

Of  the  Tribute  which  they  gave  to  the  Inca ,  and  of  the  Vef 
fels  they  made  to  receive  their  Fruits. 

HAving  already  declared  the  manner  by  which  the  Incas  divided  the  Lands,  and 
the  ways  and  inventions  by  which  the  Subjects  improved  them  •,  we  are 
in  the  next  place  to  proceed  to  (hew  what  Tribute  they  gave  unto  their  Kings. 
The  chiefeft  part  of  their  Tribute  did  confift  in  their  labour,  which  was  to  culti- 
vate and  manure  the  Lands  belonging  to  the  Sun,  and  to  the  lnca ,  and  alfo  to 
gather  and  reap  the  Fruits,  and  lay  them  up  in  the  King's  Barns :  One  fort  of 
Fruit  which  was  in  efteem  amongft  them,  was  that  which  they  call  Vchtt,  and  the 
Spaniards  Axi,  and  we  in  Engliih  Red  Pepper.  The  places  in  which  they  laid  their 
Corn  called  Pima,  were  made  of  Clay,  tempered  with  Straw :  In  the  times  of 
the  Incas  they  were  very  curious  in  this  work,  and  made  them  of  different  fizes 
and  faihions-,  fome  being  long  and  narrow,  and  others  fquare  j  fomeof  them 
were  made  to  receive  thirty,  fome  fifty,  and  fome  an  hundred  meafures  of  Corn : 
Every  one  of  thefe  Clay-veflels  was  put  into  a  Chamber  by  it  felf,  juft  fitted  to 
the  proportion  of  the  VeiTel,  and  fixed  with  Walls  on  each  fide ,  fo  as  not  to  be 

T  removed-, 

1 3g  Royal  Commentaries.  Book  V. 

removed  5  and  in  the  middle  of  the  Chamber  a  palTage  was  left  to  go  from  one 
to  the  other  to  empty  ;and  fill  them  according  to  the  feafons  of  the  year  •,  for 
emptying  thefe  Veflels,  they  opened  a  little  ihutter  before,  of  about  a  quarter  of 
a  Yard  fquare,  or  bigger,  or  lelTer,  according  to  its  proportion ,  by  which  they 
knew  certainly  the  quantity  that  was  taken  out,  and  what  remained  without  mea- 
furing  of  it  -,  whereby,  and  by  the  largenefc  of  the  Veflels,  they  eafily  made  the 
account  of  the  quantity  of  the-Mayz  which  remained  in  every  Barn  or  Magazine. 
I  remember  that  I  once  faw  fome  of  thefe  Clay- veflels,  which  remained  ever  fince 
the  time  of  the  Mas  5  they  were  fuch  as  were  of  the  beft  fort,  for  they  had  be- 
longed to  the  Convent  of  the  Select  Virgins,  who  were  Wives  to  the  Sun,  and 
made  folely  for  the  fervice  of  thofe  Women  5  when  I  faw  them,  they  were  in 
the  Houfe  of  the  Sons  of  Pedro  it  Barco,  who  had  been  School-fellows  with  me. 
The  Provifions  of  the  Sun,  and  of  the  fact,  were  laid  up  apart,  and  in  different 
Veflels,  though  in  the  fame  Store-houfe  or  Magazine.  The  Corn  for  Seed  was 
given  out  by  the  Lord  of  the  Land,  who  was  the  Sun  and  the  Inca ;  as  alfo  the 
•  Corn  which  made  Bread  for  the  Labourers ,  during  the  time  that  they  cultivated 
and  manured  their  Lands  3  fo  that  all  the  Tribute  which  the  Indians  were  obliged 
to  give,  was  nothing  but  their  perfonal  labour,  their  Lands  and  Fruits  being  free 
of  all  Tax  or  Impofition.  The  truth  of  which  is  affirmed  by  Acofla  in  the  fifteenth 
Chapter  of  his  fixth  Book,  in  thefe  words :  "  The  Inca  gave  the  third  part  of 
"  the  Lands  to  the  People  -,  but  it  is  not  certain  whether  this  third  part  was  fo  ex- 
"  a&ly  meafured,  as  to  anfwer  an  equality  with  that  of  the  Inca  .-  But  this  is 
"  fine,  that  great  care  was  taken  to  render  unto  every  one  a  fufficient  proportion 
*  of  Land  for  his  maintenance  and  fupporc  In  this  third  part  no  particular  per- 
"  fon  had  fuch  a  right,  as  to  be  able  to  give  it  away,  or  fell,  or  by  any  ways  alie- 
"  nate  it  to  anothet,  becaufe  the  inca  was  the  fole  Lord  of  the  Fee,  and  the  Ori- 
"  ginal  right  was  in  him.  Of  thefe  Lands,  new  Divifions  were  made  every 
"  year,  according  to  the  increafe  or  diminution  of  Families  \  fo  that  the  proporti- 
"  ons  of  Lands  were  in  general  afcertained,  and  the  Divisions  already  laid  out, 
?  that  there  needed  no  great  trouble,  far  ther  therein.  Of  all  thefe  Lands  fo  given, 
no  Tribute  was  exacted,  unlels  it  was  their  labour  to  cultivate  and  manure  the 
"  Lands  of  the  Inca  and  the  Guacas,  and  to  gather  the  Fruits,  and  lay  them  up  in 
"  their  Store-houfe,  which  was  all  the  Tribute  or  Impofition  required  of  them. 
Thefe  are  the  words  of  Acofta,  who  calls  the  Sun  by  the  Name  of  Guacas. 

In  all  the  Province  of  Colla,  which  is  above  1  jo  Leagues  long,  Mayz  doth  not 
grow,  by  reafon  of  the  coldnefs  of  the  Climate 3  but  in  the  place  of  it  they  have 
great  abundance  of  £>uinua,  which  is  a  fort  of  Rice,  befides  plenty  of  other  Grane 
and  Pulfe,  and  fuch  Corn  as  grows  low  upon  the  ground  •,  fuch  as  is  that  which 
they  call  Papa,  which  is  round  and  juicy,  and  by  reafon  of  the  great  humidity  of 
it  inclines  much  to  corruption,  and  is,  foon  rotten  •,  but  the  better  to  conferve  it, 
they  fpread  it  on  the  ground  upon  Straw ,  of  which  there  is  great  ftore,  and  very 
good  in  that  Countrey,  expoiing  it  for  many  Nights  to  the  Froft ;  for  the  Frofts 
are  very  tliarp  and  lafting  there  5  after  it  hath  in  this  manner,  as  it  were,  been  di- 
gefted  and  ripened  by  the  colds,  they  then  gently  prefs  it,  that  the  watriflineis  may 
pafs  away  with  the  crude  humour  caufed  by  the  Froft  ;  and  after  they  have  thus 
well  prefled  it,  they  lay  it  out  in  the  Sun ,  keeping  it  from  the  ferene  damps  of 
the  Night,  untill  it  is  perfectly  dried.  And  by  thefe  means  they  conferve  the 
Papa  for  a  long  time,  which  then  they  call  by  the  Name  of  Chunum ,  and  by  that 
Name  all  the  Papa  pafled,  which  was  gathered  from  the  Lands  of  the  Sun,  and  of 
the  Inca,  and  which  they  conferved  in  their  Store-houfes,  with  other  Grane,  and 
with  their  Peafe  and  Vetches,  and  fiich  like. 


Book  V.  Royal  Commentaries.  139 

chAp.  vl. 

How  they  made  Clodths,  and  Arms ,  and  Shoes  for  the 

BEfides  this  Tribute  of  Labour  which  the  Indians  beftowed  on  the  Lands  of  the 
Sun,  and  the  Inca,  and  of  the  gathering  in  their  Fruit  --,  the  fecond  Tribute 
required  was  a  contribution  towards  the  Cloathing ,  Shoes  and  Arms  of  the 
Souldiery ,  as  alfo  for  the  poor  and  needy,  who  by  reafon  of  Age,  or  want  of 
Health,  were  not  able  to  labour  and  provide  for  themfelves :  And  herein  the  fame 
rule  and  order  was  obferved,  as  in  the  former  Tribute.    The  Cloathing  in  all  the 
Hilly  Countries  was  made  of  Wool,  which  was  produced  by  thofe  multitudes  of 
Cattel  which  were  paftured  in  thofe  parts  for  account  of  the  Sun  j  but  in  the 
Plains  along  the  Sea-coaft,  where  the  Countrey  is  hot,  they  made  ail  their  Gar- 
ments of  Cottons,  which  grew  in  the  Lands  belonging  to  the  Inca  and  the  Sun, 
fo  that  the  Indians  were  at  no  farther  expence  therein,  than  that  onely  which  pro- 
ceeded from  the  kbour  of  their  hands.    Their  Woolen  Cloathing  wis  of  three 
forts  5  the  courfeft,  which  they  called  Avafca,  was  for  the  common  people ;  the 
next  degree,  which  was  fomething  finer,  they  called  Compi,  which  was  fit  for  Cap- 
tains and  Nobles,  and  the  better  fort  of  people,  and  were  made  of  divers  colours, 
and  drefled  and  curried  like  the  Dutch  Cloths :   To  the  fined  fort  likewife  they 
gave  the  fame  name  of  Compi,  which  was  onely  for  the  cloathing  of  Incas  of  the 
Royal  Bloud,  and  fuch  of  them  as  were  Souldiers  and  Officers  both  of  War  and 
Peace.    This  fineft  fort  was  made  in  Countries  where  the  bed  Workmen  lived, 
and  the  moft  ingenious  Artifts ;  and  the  courfer  was  made  by  the  more  dull  and 
courfer  fort  of  Heads.    All  the  Wool  for  this  Cloathing  was  Spun  by  the  Wo- 
men 5  as  likewife  the  Jvafia,  or  courfer  fort,  was  Woven  by  them  5  but  the  fineft 
was  Woven  by  the  Men,  becaufe  they  always  Weaved  ftanding  5  and  both  one 
and  the  other  was  the  Work  of  the  Subje&s,  and  not  of  the  Incas,  though  it  were 
for  their  own  Cloathing ,  though  fome  are  of  opinion  that  the  Incas  worked  and 
weaved  for  themfelves  •,  which  we  muft  contradict,  and  (hall  ihew  hereafter,  when 
we  come  to  treat  of  the  Arms  ofHorfemen,what  it  was  that  they  termed  the  Spin- 
ning of  the  Incas.    Thofe  Provinces  were  moft  charged  with  the  Aflefment  for 
Shoeing ,  where  Hemp  grew  in  moft  plenty,  and  was  made  from  the  Stalk  of  a 
Plant  called  M.iguey  $  their  Arms  likewife  were  made  in  thole  Countries  where 
the  Materials  for  them  were  moft  plentifull :  In  fome  places  they  made  Bows  and 
Arrows,  in  others  Lances  and  Darts,  in  others  Clubs  and  Bills  5  fome  Countries' 
provided  Ropes  and  Winlefles  for  lading  and  faftning  of  Burthens ,  and  others 
made  Helmets  and  Targets,  befides  which  they  had  no  other  defenfive  Arms.   In 
ftiort,  every  Province  furnifhed  and  fupplied  fuch  Commodities  as  the  Nature  of 
the  Countrey  did  moft  eafily  produce,  and  fuch  Manufactories  as  they  could  make 
at  home  5  for  it  was.  a  fettled  and  an  eftablifhed  Law  through  the  whole  Empire, 
that  no  Indian  mould  be  obliged  to  feek  or  ranfack  other  Countries  for  the  TrU 
bute  he  was  to  pay  •■,  for  as  that  would  not  be  juft  nor  equal ,  fo  it  would  be  a 
means  to  make  them  Vagabonds,  and  to  open  a  door  to  the  Inhabitants  to  go  out 
of  their  Countrey,  and  ferfake  their  own  habitations  3  fo  that  the  Subjects  were 
obliged  to  furnilli  the  Inca  with  four  things ,  via,  Provifions  or  food  anting  from 
the  proper  grounds  of  the  inca  \  Cloathing  made  of  the  Wool  of  his  own  Flocks, 
Shoes  and  Arms ,  arifing  from  Countries  where  the  Materials  are  moft  common  5 
all  thefe  Aflefments  were  laid  and  iinpofed  with  great  order  and  attention  5  for 
thofe  Provinces  which  were  charged  with  Cloths,  by  reafon  of  the  quantity  of 
Wool,  which  abounded  in  their  parts,  were  freed  from  the  charge  and  care  of 
providing  Shoes;  thofe  that  provided  Shoes,  w'ere  freed  from  Arms,  fo  that 
none  could  be  twice  charged ,  nor  the  Subject  agrieved  by  the  weight  of  his  Op- 
preffions,    By  this  gentlenefs  and  lenity  of  the  Yoke  which  the  inca  laid  on  his 
^,  T  £  f>eopI^, 

140  Royal  Commentaries.  Book  V. 

people ,  every  one  ferved  him  with  fuch  chearfulnefs  and  alacrity,  that  a  Spamfh 
Hiftorian  much  admiring  thereat,  ufed  thefe  words :  "  The  Riches  of  thofe  bar- 
*'  barous  Kings  confifted  in  the  Number  of  their  Subje&s ,  who  were  all  Slaves 
"  to  them  •,  and  what  is  moft  wonderfull  is,  that  all  the  labour  and  toil  they  ufed 
"  for  their  Kings,  was  their  greateft  delight  and  recreation  5  and  fuch  was  the 
"  good  rule  and  order  obferved  in  it ,  that  no  labour  was  tedious,  but  rather  of 
"  contentment  and  fatisfaction.  Thefe  words  are  not  my  own,  but  the  exprefii- 
ons  offofeph  de  Acofla,  a  Perfon  of  good  authority,  which  I  gladly  infert  here, 
as  in  other  places,  to  defend  my  felf  againft  the  Malice  and  Obloquy  of  thofe 
who  are  ready  to  charge  me  with  Fables  forged  in  honour  and  favour  to  my  own 
Kindred  and  Countrey.  And  this  is  what  we  have  to  fay  of  the  Tribute  which 
was  given  to  thefe  Idolatrous  Kings. 

Tliere  was  another  fort  of  Tribute  which  the  Kings  exadled  from  the  Impotent, 
and  fuch  as  were  called  Poor  9  and  that  was,  that  every  one  was  obliged  from  fo 
many  days,  to  fuch  a  time,  to  deliver  into  the  hands  of  the  Governours  a  Reed 
filled  with  Lice.  It  is  faid ,  that  the  reafon  why  the  foot  required  this  ftrange 
fort  of  Tribute,  was,  that  fo  no  perfon,  how  impotent  foever,  might  pretend  an 
entire  exemption  from  Tribute  \  and  becaufe  Lice  were  the  eafieft  Tribute,  the 
King  exacted  fuch  as  they  could  pay  •,  and  the  rather,  that  fo  this  people  by  fuch 
obligation  might  be  forced  for  payment  to  clear  and  make  clean  themfelves  of 
Vermine,  and  not  pretend  to  be  void  of  all  employment ;  and  the  care  of  this 
Collection  was  encharged  to  a  Decurion,  or  Officer  of  ten,  as  before  mentioned. 
By  fuch  Ads  of  mercy  and  compaffion  as  this  towards  the  Poor,  the  Inca  meri- 
ted the  Title  of  a  Lover  of  tire  Poor ,  the  which  Name  he  affumed  to  himfelf 
amongft  his  other  Dignities  and  Titles  of  Honour. 

.  The  perfons  exempt  from  all  Tribute  were  the  Inca*  of  the  Bloud-Royal,  the 
Priefts  and  Minifters  of  tire  Temple,  the  Curacas  and  Sovereign  Lords,  Colonels, 
and  Captains,  and  Centurions,  though  they  were  not  of  the  Bloud-Royal  5  alfo 
Governours,  Judges,  Minifters  of  State ,  during  the  time  of  their  Offices,  they 
were  onely  obliged  to  attend  their  charge  and  employments,  without  other  trou- 
ble or  diverfion :  All  Souldiers  who  were  adually  in  Arms,  and  attending  in  the 
War,  were  excufed  from  other  Services  •-,  and  Youths  under  the  Age  of  twenty 
five  years,  being  untill  that  time  efteemed  Servants  jo  their  Fathers,  and  without 
power  over  themfelves  •,  and  not  capable  to  difpofe  of  themfelves  in  Marriage, 
were  not  obliged  to  pay  any  fort  of  Tribute  5  as  alfo  new-married  perfons  for  the 
firft  year  were  difpenfed  with  in  that  particular.  Old  Men  from  fifty  years  and 
upwards ,  as  alfo  Women,  and  Maids,  and  Widows,  and  Married  people  were 
alio  exempt  from  Tribute,  though  the  Spanijh  Writers  alledge,  that  Women  were 
obliged  unto  that  payment,  becaufe  they  were  obferved  to  work  and  labour  as  o- 
ther  people  ■■,  but  herein  they  were  miftaken ,  for  that  Women  were  not  obliged 
to  this  labour  by  way  of  Tribute,  but  onely  for  the  help  and  affiftence  of  their 
Parents  or  Husbands,  that  fo  they  might  more  fpeedily  difpatch  their  tasks,  and 
finilli  the  labour  allotted  to  them.  It  was  alfo  an  excufe  for  any  to  prove  himfelf 
to  have  been  iick  and  indifpofed  in  his  health  •,  the  lame  alfo  and  the  blind,  but 
not  the  dumb  nor  deaf  were  freed  from  their  perfonal  labour  -,  the  which  belong- 
ing properly  to  every  particular  perfon,  became  a  debt  not  to  be  remitted,  unlefs  on 
the  preceding  Conditions  and  Provifoes.  And  thus  much  BIm  Valera  alledges  fo 
agreeable  to  our  fenfe,  as  if  what  we  (hall  hereafter  declare  in  this  matter,  or  have 
already  herein  delivered,  had  been  onely  a  Copy,  or  Extrad,  out  of  his  Wri- 


Book  V.  Royal  Commentaries.  141 

CHAP.     VII. 

That  Gold,  and  Silver,  and  other  things  of  value,  were  not 
given  by  way  of  Tribute-,  but  of  Prefents. 

ALL  that  great  quantity  of  Gold  and  Silver,  and  pretious  Stones  which  the 
I»cas  poflefled,  were  not  Rents,  nor  Fruits  ifluing  from  Tribute,  but  Pre- 
fents which  the  People  voluntarily  offered  to  their  Kings-,  for  neither  Gold  nor 
Silver  were  efteemed  neceflary  for  maintenance  of  Peace,  nor  (as  we  will  have  it) 
the  Sinews  of  War,  nor  reckoned  as  any  part  of  Riches,  or  Eftate,  nor  were  they 
meafures  in  buying  or  felling,  or  given  in  payment  to  the  Souldiers ;  for  they 
could  neither  drink  nor  fatisfie  their  hunger  with  thofe  Metalls,  and  therefore 
were  valued  at  no  other  rate,  than  for  their  glittering  Luftre,  and  refplendent 
Beauty,  defigned  onely  for  Ornaments  to  adorn  the  Temples  of  the  Sun,  and  the 
Palaces  of  the  Inc.™,  and  the  Monasteries  of  the  Virgins,  as  we  have  already  made 
appear,  and  (hall  hereafter  have  occaiion  to  prove  more  at  large.  They  found 
out  the  Mines  of  quick-filver,  but  knew  not  the  ufe  of  it,  onely  that  U  was  hurt- 
full,  and  of  a  quality  noxious  to  the  Head,  and  for  that  reafon  prohibited  the 
People  from  gathering  or  medling  with  it.  . 

We  fay  then,  that  Gold  and  Silver  was  a  free  Offering  from  the  Subje&s  to 
their  Prince,  and  never  demanded  by  them  in  way  of  Tribute,  or  Duty :  and  in 
regard  it  was  a  cuftome  amongft  that  People,  never  to  appear  before  their  Supe- 
riours  with  empty  hands,  for  when  nothing  better  offered,  even  a  basket  of  dry 
or  ripe  fruit  was  acceptable:  and  that  alfo  it  was  accuftomary  for  the  Curacy,  and 
Princes,  who  had  fovereign  Authority  over  Subjects ,  to  prefent  themfelves  be- 
fore the  luca  at  the  principal  feafts  of  the  Year,  which  were  dedicated  to  the  Sun, 
fuch  as  Rayrrti,  and  at  other  times  when  Triumphs  were  celebrated  for  great  and 
fignal  Victories ,  or  when  a  Prince  and  Heir  was  born ,  or  his  Head  ihorn,  or 
that  the  Inca  vifited  the  Provinces,  and  the  like,  the  Caracas  did  then  never  pre- 
fume  to  appear  before  the  Inca,  and  kifs  his  Hands,  without  their  Prefents  of 
Gold ,  or  Silver ,  or  pretious  Stones,  fuch  as  the  Indians,  who  were  their  Vaflals, 
had  at  their  leifure  times  extracted  from  the  Mines-,  for  in  regard  that  thefe 
things  were  not  neceflary  for  fupport  of  humane  Life,  the  acquisition  of  them  was 
fcarce  efteemed  worth  their  labour ,  and  the  employment  onely  appointed  for 
their  vacant  hours-,  for  when  they  knew  that  there  was  no  other  ufe  for  them, 
but  onely  for  the  adornment  of  their  Temples,  and  Palaces  of  the  Inca,  they  then 
efteemed  them  worthy  their  trouble,  for  no  other  reafon,  than  that  they  might 
appear  with  confidence  before  their  Gods,  who  were  the  Sun  and  the  Inca. 

Moreover  belides  fuch  rich  Gifts  as  thefe,  the  Caracas  did  commonly  prefent 
to  the  King  Timber  of  the  beft  and  ftrongeft  nature  for  his  Buildings,  with  excel- 
lent Matters,  and  the  moft  able  Artifls  arid  Workmen  to  erect  them ;  for  if  there 
were  any  Perfons  ingenious,  or  excellent  in  Arts,  or  Crafts,  fuch  as  Silver-fmiths, 
Painters,  Stone-cutters,  Carpenters ,  or  others,  they  were  always  preferred  and 
recommended  by  the  Curaca*  to  the  fervice  of  the  lnca ;  for  indeed  fuch  Perfons 
as  thefe  could  find  no  Employment  or  Encouragement  with  the  common  People, 
every  one  of  which  had  skill  and  art  fufticient  for  building  his  own  poor  Hutt 
or  Cottage  where  he  dwelt ,  and  making  his  own  Shoes  and  Garments ;  for 
though  anciently  the  Community  had  the  care  of  providing  every  Family  with  a 
Houfe,  yet  now,  fince  every  fingle  Perfon  hath  learnt  that  myftery,  and  become 
a  rare  Architect,  and  can,  with  the  afliftence  of  a  few  Friends  and  Relations,  be 
able  to  form  his  own  Neft  and  Habitation  -,  the  Art  of  Surveyors,  and  the  La- 
bour of  Workmen  is  of  little  ufe  to  them,  for  being  poor,  and  living  onely  with 
defign  to  fupply  the  necefiities  of  humane  Life,  they  nave  no  need  of  thofe  fuper- 



i  a 2  Royal  Commentaries.  Book  V. 

fluities  which  are  neceffary  to  fupport  the  Magnificence  and  Pomp  of  great  Per- 

Moreover  they  prefented  to  the  Jnca  wild  Beafts,  fuch  as  Tygers,  Lions  and 
Bears,  with  other  Creatures  lefs  fierce,  fuch  as  Drills,  Monkies,  Mountain-Cats, 
Deer,  Parots,  and  other  greater  Birds,  as  dftritches,  and  another  fort  of  Bird  cal- 
led a  Cuntur ,  which  is  the  biggeft  of  any  in  the  world :  Hereunto  they  fome- 
times  added  Serpents  which  were  produced  in  Auis\  the  biggeft  and  largeft  of 
which  they  call  Amaru,  being  twenty  five  or  thirty  foot  in.  length,  as  alfo  Toac's 
of  a  rhbnftrcus  bignefs,  and  Snakes  that  were  very  fierce.  And  from  the  Sea-coaft 
they  fent  Soils  and  Allagatots,  which  ,they  called  Caymanes,  and  were  fome  of 
them  twenty  five  or  thirty  foot  ih  length.  In  fhort,  there  was  no  creature  excellent 
in  its  kind  either  for  ferocity,  or  bignefs,  or  nimblenefs,  which  they  omitted  to 
carry  and  prefent  with  their  Offerings  of  Silver  and  Gold,  that  fo  by  this  way  of 
Homage,  and  Duty,  they  might  acknowledge  him  the  fupreme  and  univerfal 
Lord  of  all,  and  teftify  the  zeal  and  affection  they  bore  to  liis  Service. 


Flow  this  Tribute  was  conferved,  and  laid  up,  and  how  it 
was  expended,   and  in  what  Service.  i 

WE  are  come  now  to  enquire  in  what  manner  this  Tribute  was  conferred,  in 
what  it  was  expended,  and  wh3t  account  was  given  of  it :  and  herein  it a 
to  be  obferved,  that  there  were  three  Treafuries  in  the  whole  Kingdom,  where- 
in they  amaffed  and  kept  the  Tributes,  and  publick  Profits.  In  every  Province 
whether  it  were  great,  or  fmall,  there  were  always  two  Magazines,  or  Storehoufes  i 
in  one  of  which  they  laid  up  corn,  and  provifions  for  fupport  of  the  Natives  againft 
years  of  fcarcity,  or  famine  -y  in  the  other,  all  the  Profits  and  Benefits  belonging 
to  the  Sun,  and  the  Jnca,  were  laid  up :  befides  which  they  had  other  fmaller 
Store- houfes,  built  upon  the  King's  High-way,  about  three  or  four  Leagues  one 
from  the  other,  which  the  Spaniards  make  ufe  of  at  prefent  for  Inns  and  Lodgings 
when  they  travell. 

All  the  Eftate  of  the  Sun,  and  the  Jnca  which  lay  within  fifty  Leagues  about 
the  City  of  Cozco,  was  all  brought  thither  for  maintenance,  and  fupport  of  the 
Court,  that  fo  the  Jnca  might  not  onely  have  a  fufficient  plenty  for  himfelf  and 
Family,  but  likewife  to  beftovv  in  Rewards  and  Prefents  to  his  Captains  and  Cw 
rac.u,  and  to  entertain  and  treat  them  :  But  fome  part  of  the  Revenue  which  be* 
longed  to  the  Sun,  and  which  was  within  the  aforefaid  limits  of  fifty  Leagues, 
was  feparatei,  and  laid  up  apart  for  the  common  benefit  of  the  People. 

What  Revenue  was  coming  in  from  other  places  more  remote,  without  the 
compafs  of  the  fifty  Leagues,  was  laid  up  in  the  King's  Store-houfes,  which  he  had 
in  every  Province,  and  from  thence  it  was  tranfported  to  the  places  which  were  built 
on  the  common  Road,  for  receiving  Provifions,  Arms,  Cloths,  Shoes,  and  all  ne- 
ceffaries  for  an  Army,  that  fo  in  all  parts  they  might  readily  be  fupplied,  whenfb- 
ever  they  marched  unto  any  of  the  four  quarters  of  the  World,  which  the  Jndians 
called  tavantwfuyu.  Thefe  Store-houfes  being  thus,  as  we  have  faid ,  provided, 
were  able  to  fupply  and  furnilh  an  Army  with  whatsoever  they  needed  •,  fo  that  in 
their  march  they  neither  lay  upon  flee  quarter ,  nor  burthened  the  People  -,  nor 
might  any  Souldier  rob  or  vex  the  Inhabitants  upon  pain  of  Death.  Pedro  de  dec* 
in  the  6oth.  Chapter  of  his  Book,  fpeaking  of  the  great  Roads,  hath  thefe  Words. 
The  Inc as  \ad.  great  and  large  Store-houfes ,  wherein  they  flowed  and  laid  up 
all  their  Ammunition  and  Provifions  of  War,  in  which  they  were,  fo  carefully 
that  they  never  failed  to  make  due  and  large  Provifions,  and  in  failure  thereof 

"  the 


Book  V.  Koyal  Commentaries.  143 

"  the  Officer  encharged  was  feverely  punifhed  5  and  confequently  the  Army  being 
"  thus  well  provided,  no  perfon  was  permitted  to  break  into  the  Fields  or  Houfes 
t;  of  the  Indians ,  though  the  damage  were  never  fo  inconiiderable,  under  lefs  than 
"  a  capital  punifhment.  Thus  far  are  the  Words  of  Pedro  de  Cieca  j  and  the  rea- 
fon  of  this  feverity  was  grounded  on  the  fufficient  maintenance  which  the  Souldi- 
ers  received,  who  were  thus  well  provided  for  by  the  People,  on  condition  that ' 
they  might  be  fecured  from  their  violence  and  outrages-,  2nd  thus  as  the  Maga- 
zines in  the  Roads  were  emptied  by  the  Souldiers  in  their  March,  fo  they  were 
again  replenished,  and  fupplied  by  the  Provincial  Stores.  Augufiin  de  Carate  dif- 
courfing  of  the  great  Roads,  or  the  King's  High-Ways,  (as  we  (hall  hereafter 
have  occafion  to  mention  more  at  large)  doth  in  the  14th.  Chapter  of  hisfirft 
Book  fay :  "  That  befides  thefe  common  Store-houfes  on  the  Roads,  Guayna- 
"  cavagaxe  command  for  building  in  all  the  mountainous  Countries  large  and 
*'  capacious  Houfes,  able  to  receive  him,  and  his  Court,  and  all  his  Army,  and 

to  be  feated  at  the  diftance  of  a  days  march,  one  from  the  other.  In  the  plains 
"  alfo  he  built  others  of  the  like  capacious  Form,  but  thofe  were  fituated  more 
*'  remote  one  from  the  other,  being  at  eight  or  ten,  or  perhaps  fifteen  or  twenty 
"  Leagues  afunder,  according  as  the  Rivers  or  conveniences  of  Water  happened ; 
"  and  thefe  Houfes  were  ailed  Tombos,  where  the  Indians  laid  up  fuch  quantities 
"  andftores  of  Arms,  and  other  necef&ies,  for  an  Army,  that  every  one  of 
"  them  was  fufficient  to  cloath,  and  arme,  and  feed  twenty  or  thirty  thoufand 
"  Men,  with  the  Provisions  contained  within  it  felf  •,  and  yet  the  Army,  though 
"  it  was  numerous,  was  yet  well  accoutred  with  all  forts  of  Weapons,  fuch  as 
"  Pikes,  Halberts,  Clubs  and  Pole- Axes,  made  of  Silver,  and  Copper,  and 
"  fome  of  them  of  Gold,  having  (harp  points,  and  fome  of  them  hardened  by 
"  the  fire,  befides  Slings,  and  Darts  thrown  by  hand.  Thus  far  are  the  Words 
of  Auguflin  Carate,  touching  the  Provifions  lodged  in  the  Roads  for  accomodation 
of  the  Army. 

If  the  King  were  at  any  time  put  unto  exceffive  charge  in  his  Wars,  fo  that  his. 
Revenue  could  not  reach  the  expence,  then  in  that  cafe  it  was  lawfull  for  the  Inca, 
as  univerfal  Heir  to  his  Father  the  Sun,  to  make  ufe  of  his  Riches,  and  Revenue, 
and  that  whenfoever  the  Wars  were  finifhed,  the  overplus  which  remained  of 
fuch  Provifions  were  carefully  laid  up  in  the  refpe&ive  Store-houfes ,  for  fupporc 
and  maintenance  of  the  People  in  Years  of  Famine  and  Scarcity  5  in  which  fuch 
care  was  taken,  that  the  Inca  himfelf  judged  it  an  Employment  fit  to  be  fupervifed 
by  his  own  particular  regard  and  infpe&ion. 

ThePriefls,  in  all  parts  of  the  Empire,  were  maintained  at  the  charges  of  the 
Sun,  that  is,  whilft  they  were  actually  employed  in  the  Service  of  the  Temple, 
for  they  attended  by  Weeks,  according  to  their  turns  •,  but  when  they  were  at 
home,  and  out  of  waiting,  they  then  fed  and  maintained  themfelves  from  the 
fruits  of  thofe  grounds,  which  were  equally  divided  to  them  with  other  People  s 
by  which,  arid  the  like  Pariimony,  ufed  in  expending  the  Revenue  of  the  Sun, 
his  Stores  were  always  great  and  plentiful],  and  fufficient  to  affift,  and  fuccour  the 
iwa,  as  his  neceffities  and  urgencies  did  require. 


144  Royal  Commentaries.  Book  V. 

CHAP.    IX. 

That  the  People  were  [applied  with  Clothing ,  and  that  no 
Beggars  were  allowed  amongft  them. 

AS  by  this  good  Order,  and  Method,  the  Souldiery  was  well  provided  with 
Clothing,  fo  with  the  like  care  every  two  years  a  certain  proportion  of 
Wool  was  distributed  to  the  Commonalty,  and  to  the  Caracas  in  general,  wherer 
with  to  make  Garments  for  themfelves,  their  Wives,  and  their  Families  •,  and  it  was 
the  Office  of  the  Decurions  to  fee,  and  render  an  account  to  the  Superiour  Offi- 
cers, how  far  this  Wool  was  employed  to  the  ufes,  unto  which  it  was  defigned. 
The  Indians  were  generally  very  poor  in  Cattel,  and  the  Curacat  themfelves  for 
the  moft  part  were  Matters  of  fo  few  as  were  not  fufficient  for  fupply  of  them? 
felves  and  their  Families-,  whereas  on  the  other  fide,  the  Sun,  and  the  Inca,  had 
fuch  vaft  Flocks  and  Herds ,  as  were  almoft  innumerable.    The  Indians  report, 
that  when  the  Spaniards  came  firft  in  amongft  them,  their  flocks  of  Cattel  were 
greater  than  their  Paftures  could  feed,  and  I  have  heard  from  my  Father,  and 
others  who  lived  in  his  time,  that  the  Spaniards  made  great  Deftru&ion  of  the 
Cattel,  as  we  (hall  hereafter  have  occafion  more  largely  to  relate.    In  the  hoc 
Countries  they  gave  them  Cottons  to  foin  for  the  clothing  of  themfelves  and  Fa- 
milies; fo  that  every  one  having  a  fufnciency  of  Food  and  Raiment,  none  could 
properly  be  termed  poor,  nor  could  any  be  forced  to  beg,  becaufe  his  Neceflities 
were  fupplied  3  it  is  true,  that  none  could  be  called  rich,  if  Riches  be  placed  in  af- 
fluence and  abundance-,  for  as  none  wanted,  fo  noon  had  more  than  his  Needs 
required.  What  we  have  declared  at  large,  is  confirmed  by  Acofta  in  a  few  words, 
who  in  the  1  jth  Chapter  of  his  6th  Book,  fpeaking  of  Peru,  hath  this  paflage: 
"  At  the  feafons  they  ibore  their  Cattel,  and  then  divided  unto  every  one  fuffici- 
"  ent  for  him  to  fpin,  and  weave  for  his  own,  and  the  clothing  of  his  Houfe  and 
"  Family,  and  how  diligent  he  was  in  his  work,  and  how  well  he  complied 
"  with  his  Task,  was  carefully  infpe&ed  by  an  Officer,  appointed  for  that  Affair  : 
"  what  Wool  or  Cotton  remained  after  fuch  Divifion,  was  laid  up  in  the  com- 
"  mon  Storehoufes,  which  was  performed  with  that  good  Husbandry,  that  they 
"  were  found  full  when  the  Spaniards  entred  their  Countrey.    And  herein  no 
"  thinking  Man  can  without  due  reflexion  admire  and  wonder  at  the  Providence 
"  of  this  People,  and  their  political  Government  -,  for  though  they  had  not  been 
u  refined  with  the  pure  Do&rine  of  the  Chriftian  Religion,  nor  yet  had  been 
ft  taught  the  Rules  of  a  Monaftical  Life,  yet  they  had  learned  that  point  (which 
"  we  call  perfection)  how,  and  in  what  manner  to  provide  all  neceflaries  both 
"  for  the  King  and  his  People,  without  appropriating  any  thing  to  a  particular 
"  pofleffion:    And  thus  Acofla  ends  this  15th  Chapter,  which  he  entitles,  The 
Revenue  and  Tribute  of  the  Inca.    In  another  Chapter  following,  difcourfing  there 
of  the  Offices  held  by  the  Indians,  he  touches  many  points  which  we  have  alrea- 
dy declared,  and  which  we  (hall  have  occafion  to  fpeak  of  more  at  large  hereafter, 
he  hath  farther  thefe  exprefs  words.     :  The  Indians  of  Peru  had  this  Rule  and 
"  Maxime  amongft  them,  that  it  was  neceflary  to  teach  their  Children  fo  foon  as 
"  they  were  capable,  thofe  works  which  were  conducing  to  humane  Life;  for  in 
"  regard  they  had  no  Trades  amongft  them,  fuch  as  Shoemakers,  Weavers,  and 
"  the  like,  whofe  Profeflion  it  was  to  make  Shoes  and  Clothing  for  others,  as 
"  well  as  themfelves  -,  but  every  one  applyed  himfelf  to  make  and  provide  that 
"  of  which  he  had  need  and  occafion-,  fo  that  all  knowing  how  to  weave  and 
"  fovv,  provided  themfelves  with  Garments  out  of  the  Wool  which  the  Inca  di- 
"  ftributed  to  them.   Every  one  knew  how  to  plow,  and  manure  his  Land  with- 
"  out  putting  himfelf  to  the  charge  of  Labourers-,  every  one  was  a  Carpenter, 
"  and  Mafon ,  and  was  able  to  build  his  own  Houfe ,  efpecially  the  Women 
"  were  the  moft  ingenious  and  diligent  of  any,  for  being  bred  up,  and  educated 


Book  V.  Royal  Commentaries.  145 

"  in  hardlhip  and  toil ,  contributed  much  to  the  affiftence  of  their  Husbands  in 
"  all  their  labours.  But  thofe  ProfefTions  and  Aits  which  were  not  common, 
"  and  which  did  not  fo  properly  belong  to  the  neceflity  of  Humane  Life,  fuch  as 
"  Silverfrr.iths,  Painters,  Potters,  Boatmen,  Accountants  and  Pipers,  had  their  par- 
"  ticular  Mafters  and  Profeflburs  •,  but  the  ordinary  and  neceflary  Works  were 
"  taught  and  pradtifed  in  every  Family,  every  one  doing  his  own  bufinefs,  did  not 
"  hire,  or  pay  another  for  it,  but  made  his  own  Cloaths  and  Shoes,  fowed  his 

*  own  Fields,  and  gathered  in  his  own  Harveft :  And  this,  as  it  was  the  ancient 
"  cuftome  amongft  them ,  fo  it  hath  continued  even  to  this  day ;  wherein  they 
"  feem  to  have  imitated  the  Lives  of  the  Ancient  Monks,  as  the  Fathers  of  the 
"  Church  have  delivered  them  to  us.    The  truth  is,  they  are  a  people  neither 

*  covetous,  nor  luxurious  by  nature  5  that,  in  reality,  were  the  life  they  lead 
"  a  point  of  free-will,  rather  than  neceflity,  or  chofen  for  the  fake  of  Mortifica- 
"  tion  5  certainly  thefe  people  would  be  rarely  well  difpofed  to  receive  the  Doc- 
"  trine  of  the  Golpel ,  which  is  an  enemy  to  pride,  and  covetoufnefs,  and  luxu- 
,c  rious  living,  though  the  Preachers  up  of  thefe  Graces  unto  the  Indians  do  not 
•'  always  live  according  to  thofe  Precepts  which  they  deliver  in  their  Pulpits. 
And  then  foon  after  he  adds  •,  "  That  it  was  an  Eftablifhed  Law  amongft  them, 
"  that  no  Man  lhould  change  the  Habit  and  Fafhion  of  his  Countrey,  though  he 
"  altered  his  Habitation  out  of  one  Province  into  anodier  --,  the  obfervance  of 
"  which  Rule,  the  Inc.i  enjoined  with  great  feverity  as  a  matter  of  importance  in 
"  relation  to  the  Government.  Thus  far  are  the  words  of  Acofia  .-  To  which  I 
(hall  add,  that  the  Indians  wonder  much  to  fee  the  Spaniards  fo  frequently  change 
their  Habits,  and  attribute  it  to  their  pride,  prefumption,  and  wantonnefs  of  their 

In  the  Year  1  <^6o,  when  I  departed  from  Peru,  it  was  not  the  cuftome  for  any 
to  beg,  or  ask  Alms  •,  for  vvhere-ever  I  travelled  in  that  Countrey,  I  never  obfer- 
ved  any  Man  or  Woman  to  beg,  unlefs  it  were  an  Old  Woman  which  I  knew  at 
Coxxo,  called  Ifabd ;  and  (he  neither  had  no  great  neceflity,  onely  ihe  was  deligh- 
ted to  Goffip  from  houfe  to  houfe ,  and,  like  a  Gypfie,  with  her  Jefts  and  Tricks, 
perfuaded  the  Neighbours  to  be  kind  to  her.  Howfoever,  the  Indians  detefted 
her  way  of  living,  and  in  token  of  their  abhorrence  thereof  would  reprove  her 
with  words,  and  then  fpit  on  the  ground,  which  was  a  kind  of  reproach ;  and  for 
that  reafon  this  Woman  would  never  beg  of  the  Indians,  but  onely  of  the  Spani- 
ards ;  and  becaufe  at  that  time,  in  my  Countrey,  there  was  no  Money  coined, 
they  gave  her  Mayz,  which  was  the  chief  thing  me  deiired  ■■,  and  if  lhe  found  this 
come  freelv,  fhe  would  beg  a  little  Flefh,  and  then  fome  of  their  Drink  3  and  then 
with  her  Tricks  and  Jefts  Hie  would  get  fome  of  their  Cuca,  which  is  that  preti- 
ous  Plant  fo  much  in  efteem  amongft  the  Indians,  and  which  they  commonly  carry 
in  their  Mouths  -,  and  thus  fhe  palled  a  merry  and  wanton  life,  but  deteftable  to 
her  Neighbours.  Nor  were  the  1mm,  amongft  their  other  Charities,  forgetfull 
of  the  conveniencies  for  Travellers,  but  in  all  the  great  Roads  built  Houfes,  or  Inns, 
for  them,  which  they  called  Corpahuaci,  where  they  were  provided  with  Victuals, 
and  other  neceflaries,  for  their  Journies,  out  of  the  Royal  Stores,  which  were  laid 
up  in  every  Province ;  and  in  cafe  any  Traveller  fell  fick  in  the  way,  he  was  there 
attended,  and  care  taken  of  him,  in  a  better  manner  perhaps  than  at  his  own  home  : 
But  the  truth  is,  no  perfon  Travelled  for  his  curiofity,  or  pleafure,  or  bufinefs,  but 
for  the  fervice,  and  by  order  of  the  King,  or  his  Caracas,  when  they  had  occafiori 
to  difpatch  Meflengers,  fuch  as  Captains  for  the  War,  or  other  Officers  for  conser- 
vation of  the  Peace  •,  and  then  thefe  were  well  provided  for,  and  treated  with 
all  conveniencies ;  whereas  others  who  had  not  the  pretence  and  pafs-pbft  fof 
their  Travc-:-  were  taken  up  for  Vagabonds,  and  puniihed  accordingly. 


ia6  Royal  Commentaries.  Book  V. 

CHAP.    X. 

The  Rule  they  obferved  in  the  Vivifion  of  their  Flocks,  and 
of  other  ftrange  Beafls. 

TH  E  Hocks  of  Cattel  which  belonged  to  the  Inca  were  fo  numerous,  that 
for  die  better  keeping  an  account  of  them,  they  feparated  them  by  ctiftinct 
Droves,  according  to  their  colours  •,  for  their  Cattel  are  of  Party-colours  in  thofe 
Countries,  as  the  Horfes  are  in  Spain;  and  for  every  colour  they  have  a  proper 
word :  Thofe  creatures  which  have  great  variety  of  colours,  they  call  MurumurH, 
which  the  Spaniards  by  corruption  call  Moromoro.  As  for  inftance ,  fo  foon  as  a 
Lamb  was  Yean'd  of  a  different  colour  to  the  Ewe  which  was  her  Dam ,  they 
prefently  feparated  it,  and  made  it  to  affbciate  with  the  Flocks  of  the  fame  co- 
lour ;  in  which  manner  they  ealily  kept  an  account  of  their  Cattel  by  their  Knots, 
which  were  always  made  of  the  fame  colour  with  that  of  their.Catcel. 

The  Beads  which  carried  their  burthens  were  a  fort  of  Sheep,  with  a  bunched 
back  like  Camels,  but  in  every  thing  elfe  had  a  likenels  with  our  Sheep  5  and 
though  it  was  common  for  the  Indians  to  Lade  their  burthens  on  thefe  creatures* 
yet  the  hxa  never  made  ufe  of  them  himfelf,  unlefs  it  were  in  fome  cafe  of  ne- 
ceifity,  or  for  the  publick  profit  and  ufe  5  fuch  as  carrying  Materials  for  building 
Fortrefles,  Royal  Palaces  or  Bridges,  or  for  making  the  High-ways,  Allies  and 
Water-works  5  thefe  being  publick  and  common  concernments,  admitted  of  no 
excufe  or  exemption  from  them. 

.  We  have  already  mentioned  that  the  Gold  and  Silver  which  was  prefented  by 
the  Subjects  to  their  Ima,  was  employed  in  Adorning  the  Temple  of  the  Sun, 
and  of  the  Royal  Palaces  -,  and  herein  we  lhall  enlarge,  when  we  come  to  fpeak 
farther  of  the  Houfe  belonging  to  the  Select  Virgins. 

All  the  ftrange  Birds  and  Beafls,  fuch  as  Serpents  of  all  forts  and  fizes,  Lizards, 
and  other  creeping  things  which  the  Cmtent  prefented ,  they  kept  in  certain  Pro- 
vinces, which  to  this  day  have  their  Names  from  thofe  creatures :  They  alfo  kept 
fome  of  them  in  the  Court,  both  for  grandeur,  and  alio  to  pleafe  the  Indians,  who 
efteemed  themfelves  greatly  obliged  by  the  acceptance  which  the  Inca  did  vouch- 
fafe  to  make  of  them. 

I  remember  that  when  I  came  from  Cotco,  there  remained  fomeRuines  of  thofe 
places  where  they  kept  thefe  creatures,  which  they  called  Amar*c*ncha  •,  which  is 
as  much  as  to  fay,  the  Confervatory  of  thofe  Serpents  which  were  of  the  largeft 
f  ize,  for  Amam  fignifies  a  great  Serpent ,  on  which  place  now  the  College  of  Je-  - 
fuits  is  erected :  So  likevvife  they  called  thofe  Dens  where  they  kept  the  Lions, 
and  Tygers,  and  Bears ,  Puma  curat  and  Pumap  chiipar.  5  for  Puma  was  their  word 
for  a  Lion,  one  of  which  Dens  was  formerly  at  the  foot  of  the  Caftle-hill,  and 
the  other  juft  behind  the  Monaftery  of  St.  Dmmmk. 

Their  Aviary  for  the  better  Air,  and  chearfulnefs  of  the  Birds,  was  placed  with- 
out the  City,  which  they  called  SxrihttaUa,  which  lignifies  the  Field  of  Oftritches, 
which  is  about  half  a  League  Southward  from  Covo,  and  was  the  Inheritance  of 
my  Tutor  foh»  de  Alcobaca ,  and  defcended  afterwards  to  his  Son  Diego  de  Alcohacay 
who  was  a  Prieft  and  my  School  fellow. 

Thofe  fierce  creatures,  fuch  as  Tygers  and  Lions,  Serpents  and  Toads  of  a  pro- 
digious bignefs,  ferved  not  onely  for  oftentation  and  the  grandeur  of  the  Court, 
but  alfo  were  fometimes  made  ufe  of  to  punifh  and  devour  Malefactors,  of  which 
we  fliall  have  occafion  to  fpeak  where  we  treat  of  thofe  Laws  and  Ordinances 
which  were  made  againft  Offenders  in  Criminal  matters. 

And  thus  much  lhall  ferve  for  what  we  have  to  fay  concerning  the  Tribute 
which  they  gave  to  their  hcas,  and  of  the  Manner  and  Occafion  for  which  it  was 
expended.  From  the  Papers  of  that  curious  and  learned  Father  Bias  Vaiera,  I  have 
made  this  following  Extract,  that  fo  we  may  by  his  Authority  confirm  the  truth 


Book  V.  Royal  Commentaries.  i±n 

f i  ■-■--■  -      i ■  ■- - 

of  what  we  have  related,  touching  the  Beginnings,  Cuftoms,  Laws  and  Govern- 
ment of  this  people. 

And  becaufe  he  hath  wrote  on  this  fubjecl:  with  much  perfpicuity,  order  and 
elegancy  of  expreffion,  I  have  thought  fit  to  Adorn  this  Hiftory,  and  fupply  the 
defects  of  it  by  fome  of  thofe  Excellencies  which  I  have  copied  from  his  Works. 

CHAP.    XI. 

Of  the  Laws  and  Statutes  which  the  Incas  made  for  the 
good  and  benefit  of  their  Subjecls. 

THat  which  now  immediately  follows  concerning  the  Government  of  the  In- 
cas, we  have  for  the  better  confirmation  and  authority  of  what  we  have 
already  declared ,  Translated  Verbatim  out  of  the  Elegant  Latin  of  Bias  Valera. 
"  The  Indians  of  Peru,  faith  he,  began  to  lay  fome  Foundations  of  a  Political  Go- 
"  vernment  in  the  Reigns  of  the  Inca,  Manco  Capac,  and  of  the  Inca  Roca,  who 
"  was  alfo  one  of  their  Kings  5  for  before  that  time,  in  all  preceding  Ages,  they 
"  lived  like  Brutes,  in  all  filthinefs  and  beftiality,  without  order,  rule,  or  any  go- 
"  vernment :  But  from  that  time  they  began  to  educate  their  Children  with  fome 
"  mean  rudiments  of  learning,  and  to  enter  into  civil  and  mutual  communica- 
"  tion ;  they  then  alfo  began  to  Cloath  themfelves,  not  onely  with  a  refpeft  to 
"  modefty,  but  likewife  for  ornament-,  they  then  plowed  and  cultivated  their 
rt  Fields  with  induftry  and  labour,  and  therein  afforded  mutual  afliftence  each  to 
"  other?  they  then  conftituted  Judges,  and  kept  Courts,  they  built  Houfes 
"  both  for  private  Dwellings  and  publick  Meetings,  with  many  other  things 
"  commendable,  and  worthy  of  praife.  Thofe  Laws  and  Statutes  which  their 
"  Princes  from  the  mere  light  of  reafon  dictated  and  prefcribed  to  them ,  they 
"  readily  embraced,  and  thereunto  directed  and  conformed  all  their  A&ions  in 
"  that  exact  manner,  that  for  my  part  I  cannot  but  prefer  thefe  Incas  of  Peru,  not 
"  onely  before  the  Inhabitants  of  China  and  Japan,  and  all  thofe  of  the  Eafi-indies ; 
"  but  even  before  the  Natural  Gentiles  of  Afia,  and  the  Nativesof  Greece .-  For  if 
"  it  be  well  considered,  the  labour  and  induftry  which  Numa  Pompilius^&erclfed  in 
"  framing  and  conftituting  Laws  agreeable  to  the  humour  and  difpofition  of  the 
:'  Romans ;  and  that  Solon  was  an  excellent  Legiflatour  for  the  Athenians,  and  Licur- 

*  gut  for  the  Lacedemonians,  is  not  much  to  be  admired,  becaufe  they  were  Men 
f  expert,  and  knowing  in  all  the  points  of  Humane  literature  5  which  was  a  great 
K  advantage,  and  availed  them  much  in  compofingLaws  and  Cuftoms  proper  and 
"  neceftary  for  thofe  prefent  days,  and  the  happinefs  and  welfare  of  future  Ages. 
"  But  it  is  ftrange  and  wonderfull,  that  thefe  poor  Indians,  who  had  none  of  thofe 
"  helps  nor  advantages,  mould  be  able  to  lay  fuch  a  folid  foundation  of  excellent 
'  Laws,  which  ( excepting  the  Errour  of  their  Idolatrous  Worlhip )  were  truly 
"  rational  and  comparable  in  every  refpedt  to  the  Conftitutions  of  the  moft  lear- 
tc  ned  Statefmen,  and  which  thefe  conftant  Indians  conferve  with  facrednefs  and 

*  veneration  unto  this  day  :  And  which  is  moft  ftrange,  that  without  letters  or 
$  writing,  and  onely  by  knots  of  thread  of  divers  colours  they  mould  be  able  to 
§  diftinguilh  their  Laws ,  and  reade  them  with  their  true  fenfe  and  fignitica- 
11  tion ;  and  fo  well  by  this  invention  to  commit  them  to  the  knowledge  of  po- 
"  fterity,  that  fince  they  were  eftablifhed  by  their  firft  Kings ,  fix  hundred  years 
"  are  fully  elapfed,  and  yet  are  as  faithfully  and  as  lively  conferved  in  the  memo- 
'x  ry  of  that  people ,  as  if  they  had  been  Laws  of  later  date.    Such  was  their 

Municipal  Law,  which  treated  of  the  particular  advantage  of  every  Nation , 
"  and  the  Privileges  and  Immunities  refpe&ive  to  every  people.  They  had  their 
r'  Agrarian  Law,  which  determined  and  meafured  out  the  bounds  and  limits  of 

U  %  .  Provinces, 

148  Royal  Commentaries.  Book  V. 

"  Provinces,  which  was  with  lingular  diligence  and  rectitude  obferved  -,  for  they 
'l  had  their  fworn  Meafurers,  who  meted  out  their  Lands  with  Cords  by  Acres, 
"  which  they  called  Tupu,  whereby  they  made  a  juft  divifion  to  the  Neighbour- 
"  hood,  affigning  to  every  one  his  juft  ihare  and  proportion.  They  had  alfo  that 
"  which  they  called  a  Common  Law,  which ,  as  they  faid ,  refpedted  every  one 
"  (  unlets  Old  Men,  and  fick,  and  Children,  and  infirm,  which  were  exempted  ) 
"  but  all  others  were  obliged  to  labour  in  matters  relating  to  the  benefit  of  the 
"  Common-wealth ,  fuch  as  in  the  building  of  Temples,  Palaces  for  the  King, 
'"'  and  the  great  Lords ,  railing  Bridges,  making  and  mending  High-ways,  and  o- 
M  ther  matters  of  like  nature.  They  had  another  Law,  which  they  named  the 
b  Law  of  Brotherhood,  which  laid  an  obligation  on  the  people  to  be  aiding  and 
"  affifting  one  to  the  other,  in  plowing,  and  fowing ,  and  gathering  in  the  Fruits, 
"  and  in  building  Houfes  one  for  the  other,  without  pay,  or  expectation  of  re- 
"  ward.  They  had  another  Law,  which  they  called  Mtachamcuy,  which  was  as 
"  much  as  to  fay,  a  rotation,  or  a  turn ,  or  circulation  of  labour,  which  was  no 
c  more  than  that  in  all  the  work  which  was  performed  by  publick  alfiftence ,  the 

*  like  account  mould  be  obferved,  and  meafures  taken,  as  was  in  the  divifion  of 
"  the  Lands,  that  fo  no  Province,  People,  Lineage  or  Perfon,  fhould  be  obliged 
u  to  labour  beyond  their  due  proportion ,  but  that  their  Lives  fhould  have  their 
u  turns  and  times  mixed  with  recreation  and  leifures,  as  well  as  labours.  They 
"  had  alfo  a  Sumptuary  Law,  which  prohibited  all  kind  of  vanity  and  expence  in 
"  C  loathing  and  Adornments  of  them  with  Gold,  or  Silver,  or  pretious  Stones  j 
"  and  efpecially  all  profufenefs  in  banquets  and  delicacies  in  Diet  were  forbidden, 
"  onely  the  Neighbourhood  were  enjoined  to  Dine  two  or  three  times  a  Month 
"  together,  in  prefence  cf  their  Caracas,  and  then  afterwards  to  exercife  them- 
"  felves  in  feats  of  Arms,  or  in  fports  and  divertifements,  which  was  efteemed  a 
"  probable  means  to  reconcile  Mens  affections,  and  conferve  them  in  love  and 
"  friendfhip  one  with  the  other :  And  this  Law  was  alfo  made  in  favour  to  the 
"  Shepherds,  and  other  Field-labourers,  that  fo  they  might  taft  fome  pleafures 
"  and  recreations.  They  had  alfo  a  Law  in  relation  to  thofe  whom  they  call 
"  Poor  5  which  was,  That  fuch  as  were  blind,  dumb,  lame,  old,  decrepit  and  lin- 
"  gering  with  any  long  or  Chronical  difeafe,  fo  as  that  they  were  uncapable  of 
"  work,  fhould  be  cloathed  and  fed  out  of  the  King's  Store.    Likewife  it  was  a 

*  Law,  that  out  of  thefe  Stores  all  Strangers  and  Travellers  (hould  be  provided  •, 
"  for  whom  alfo  Inns  and  places  of  refrefhment  were  erected,  which  they  called 
"  Cerfahtiaci,  which  is  as  much  as  a  Houfe  of  Hofpitality  in  which  Men  had  their 
"  charge  and  expence  defrayed  by  the  Publick :  And  in  this  Law  alfo  it  was  Or- 
"  dained,  that  twice  or  thrice  a  Month  they  were  to  invite  thofe  which,  as  before 
"  mentioned,  are  termed  Poor  unto  their  Meetings  and  publick  Feafts,  that  fo 
"  their  miferies  might  receive  fome  confolation  and  diverfion  by  the  common  joy 
"  and  fociety.  Another  Law  they  called  the  Ordinance  of  good  Husbandry, 
"  which  enjoined  and  required  two  things :  Firft,  that  no  perfon  fhould  remain 

*  idle,  or  be  exempt  from  labour  5  for  (as  we  have  laid  befoic)  even  Children 
"  of  five  years  of  Age  were  employed  in  fomething  agreeable  to  their  capacities, 
"  nor  were  the  lame  and  infirm  altogether  excufed ,  but  fome  work  was  given 
"  them,  which  they  werebeft  able  to  perfoim  5  for  idlenefs,  which  was  punifh- 
"  able  with  much  cifhonour  and  infamy,  was  not  indulged  on  any  pretence  but 
"  what  was  of  neceffity,  and  unavoidable.  And  farther  it  was  Ordained  by  this 
"  Law,  That  the  Indians  fhould  dine  and  fup  with  their  Doors  open,  that  fo  the 

*  Officers  and  Minifters  of  the  Judges  might  have  free  and  open  accefs  to  them 
"  at  their  pleafure  ;  for  there  were  certain  Officers  appointed  to  vifit  the  Houfes 
"  of  particular  perfons,  as  well  as  the  Temples,  and  publick  Houfes,  and  Edifices, 
"  whom  they  called  LlaBacamayu ;  and  thefe  were  Monitors,  or  Vifitors,  appointed 
4i  to  overfee,  and  make  enquiry  into  the  Houfes  of  particular  perfons,  obferving 

*  the  order,  and  regular  care,  and  diligence  which  the  Husband  and  Wife  ufed  in 

*  their  labour  and  families,  and  what  obedience  and  refpecl:  the  Children  paid 
<(  unto  their  Parents  •,  the  evidence  and  meafures  of  which  they  took  from  the 
"  neatnefs  and  politenefs  of  their  Attire,  and  from  the  cleanlinefs  of  their  Uten- 
"  fils  and  good  Houfewifery  in  their  Houfes  •-.  fuch  as  they  found  in  all  things 
"  cleanly,  they  praifed  and  commended  in  publick  5  and  fuch  as  were  flovenly  and 
"  nafty,  they  punifhed  with  (tripes,  whipping  them  on  their  Armes  and  Legs,  or 
"  with  fueh  other  infliction  as  the  Law  required ;  by  which  care,  and  fevere  in- 

"  fpection, 

Book  V.  Royal  Commentaries.  149 

"  fpe&ion,  every  one  became  laborious,  and  that  induftry  produced  fuch  abun- 

"  dance  of  all  things  necefTary  to  humane  Life  •■,  that  thofe  things  were  given  al- 
"  moft  for  nothing,  which  now  are  to  be  purchased  at  exceflive  rates.  What  other 

"  Laws,  and  moral  Conftitutions  they  obferved,  either  relating  to  Men  in  a  com- 

"  mon  or  a  fingle  capacity,  they  were  all  regulated,  and  fquared  by  the  rule  of 

"  right  Reafon-,  and  which  may  be  known  and  collected  from  thofe  particulars, 

<c  which  we  (hall  hereafter  relate,  concerning  the  Lives  and  Cuftoms  of  this  Peo- 

"  pie.    And  we  {hall  hereafter,  in  the  eight  and  ninth  Chapters,  fpecifie  the 

"  caufe  and  manner,  why,  and  how  they  came  to  loofe  thefe  Laws  and  Cuftoms, 

"  which  were  thus  worthy  and  commendable ;  all  which  declined,  and  fell  with 

"  the  Government  of  the  Incas .-    And  that  the  barbarity  of  the  Indians  is  much 

u  more  favage,  and  their  living  much  lefs  political,  and  greater  want' of  all  things 

"  neceflary  in  thefe  days  amongft  them,  than  was  in  the  ancient  times,  when  the 

u  Incas  bore  the  fvvay  and  rule  in  thofe  Dominions- 


How  they  conquered  and  civilized  their  new  Subjeffs. 

THE  Policy  and  Arts  which  the  Incas  ufed  in  their  Conquefts,  and  the  man- 
ner  and  methods  they  purfued  in  civilizing  the  People,  and  reducing  them 
to  a  couife  of  moral  Living,  is  very  curious,  and  worthy  to  be  obferved.  For 
from  the  firft  foundation,  which  their  Kings  laid  of  Government ,  which  ferved 
afterwards  for  an  example ,  or  pattern  to  their  Succeflours,  their  Maxime  was, 
Never  to  make  War  on  their  Neighbours  without  juft  caufe ,  or  reafon ;  fo  the 
Barbarity  and  Ignorance  of  the  People  feemed  a  good  and  lawfull  motive,  and 
next  the  Opprellion  and  Violence  which  the  Neighbours  ufed  towards  their  Sub- 
jects, was  another  ^  but  before  they  attempted  on  them  by  any  adls  of  Hoftility, 
they  flrft  fent  their  fummons  three  or  four  times,  requiring  their  Obedience :  Af- 
ter any  Province  was  fubdued,  the  firft  thing  that  the  Inca  did,  was  to  take  their 
principal  Idol  as  an  Hoftage,  and  carry  it  to  Cozco,  where  it  was  to  remain  in  the 
Temple  as  a  Captive,  untill  fuch  time  as  the  People,  being  difabufed  by  the  Va- 
nity and  Inability  of  their  Gods,  mould  be  reduced  to  a  complyanc£  with  the 
Incas  in  their  Worftrip  and  Adoration  of  the  Sun.  Howfoever  they  did  not  pre- 
fently  overturn  and  demolilh  the  ftrange  Gods  of  the  Countrey  fo  foon  as  they 
had  fubdued  it-,  but  rather  out  of  refpedt  to  the  Inhabitants,  they  tolerated  for 
fome  time  their  Idols,  untill  that  having  inftru&ed,  and  perfuaded  them  in  a  bet- 
ter Religion,  as  they  thought,  they  might  without  their  difpleafure,  and  perhaps 
with  their  content,  deftroy  and  fupprefe  the  God  they  had  adored.  Next  they 
carried  the  principal  Cacique  of  the  Countrey,  with  all  his  Sons,  to  Cozco,  there  to 
carefs,  and  treat  them  with  all  kindnefs  and  humanity  •-,  by  which  occafion  they 
informing  them  of  the  Laws,  Cuftoms  and  propriety  of  their  Speech,  and  inftruft- 
ing  them  in  their  fuperftitious  Rites  and  Ceremonies,  they  became  more  eafily 
reconciled  to  the  Laws  and  Servitude  of  the  Inca  i  After  which  the  Curaca  be- 
ing reftored  to  his  Ancient  Honour  and  Rule,  was  permitted  to  return  unto  his 
Subjects,  who  were  commanded,  as  formerly,  to  obey  him  as  their  natural  Prince 
and  Lord.  And  that  the  conquered  Nations  might  be  reconciled  with  their 
Conquerours,  and  that  the  rancour  and  malice  which  lay  on  the  Spirits  of  thole, 
who  conceived  themfelves  injured,  by  afts  of  Violence  and  War,  might  be  aba- 
ted, andafluaged  by  gentle  Lenitives,  an  Ad  of  Oblivion  was  parted,  and  Ban- 
quets were  prepared  for  feafting  of  the  new  Subjects,  together  with  the  Conque- 
rours of  them,  that  fo  a  perpetual  Peace  and  Amity  might  be  concluded  by  a  co- 
alition of  their  Minds,  reconciled  at  thefe  Feafts-,  to  which  alio  the  blind,  the 
lame,  and  the  infirm  were  admitted,  that  fo  they  alfo  might  partake  of  the  boun- 
ty and  liberality  of  the  Inca.    At  thefe  Banquets  they  were  entertained  with  the 


i^o  'Royal  Commentaries.  Book  V. 

Dances  of  the  young  Maidens,  and  a&ivity  of  the  Youth,  and  with  the  military 
Exercifes  of  the  Souldiery ;  befides  which  they  prefented  them  with  gifts  of  Gold, 
and  Silver,  and  Feathers,  for  the  adornment  of  their  Habits,  at  the  times  of  their 
principal  Feftivals^  and  alfo  they  gave  them  Cloths,  and  other  (mall  curiofities, 
which  they  highly  efteemed :  fo  that  thofe  People,  though  never  fo  barbarous 
and  brutifh  at  firft,  were  yet  made  fenfible  of  thefe  kindnefles  to  fuch  a  degree, 
that  they  never  afterwards  fo  much  as  attempted  to  arife  in  Rebellion.  And  to 
take  away  all  occasions  of  complaint  from  the  Subjeds  of  Aggreivances  and  Op- 
preffions  whatfbever  •■,  left  thofe  Complaints  lhould  from  words  proceed  to  blows, 
and  open  violence-,  wherefore  to  prevent  that,  their  Eftates  and  Liberties  were 
always  conferved  to  them ;  onely  they  were  required  to  be  obedient  to  the  Laws, 
Statutes,  and  ancient  Inftitutions,  which  were  publiflied,  and  openly  promulged 
amongftthem,  for  unto  thefe,  and  to  the  Worihip  of  the  Sun,  their  lubmiiTion 
was  required,  and  no  Difpenfation  allowed  in  the  cafe-,  and  being  obftinate,  they 
were  to  be  compelled  by  force-,  fometimes,  where  it  was  convenient,  they  tranf- 

Elanted  Colonies  from  one  place  to  another,  but  then  they  provided  them  with 
,ands,  and  Houfes  and  Cattel,  and  Servants,  and  whatfoever  was  neceflary  and 
requifite  for  their  livelihood  -,  and  into  their  places  they  tranfported  perhaps  fome 
of  the  Citizens  of  Cozco,  or  others  of  approved  Loyalty,  which  ferved  for  Guards 
and  Garrifons ,  to  keep  the  Neighbourhood  in  awe  and  fubjedion ,  and  alfo  to 
teach  and  inftrud  thofe  Savages,  and  ignorant  People  in  their  Laws  and  Religion, 
together  with  the  Tongue  and  Language  of  their  Countrey. 

All  the  other  points  of  Government,  and  Injunctions  impofed  by  the  Lica  Kings, 
were  more  eafie  and  gentle  than  of  any  other  Princes,  who  ruled  the  Nations  of 
the  New  World  ■-,  the  which  is  not  onely  made  manifeft  and  apparent  by  their 
own  HiftoricalKnots,by  which  they  committed  the  occurrences  of  part  times  unto 
memory,  but  are  alio  approved  and  confirmed  by  the  faithfull  Commentaries  of 
the  Vice- King  Don  Franci/co  de  Toledo,  who  having  informed  himfelf  of  the  Cu- 
ftome  and  manners  of  every  Province  from  the  Indians  themfelves,  made  a  Col- 
lection of  them  with  his  own  hand- writing,  and  commanded  his  Vifitors,  Judges 
and  Regifters  to  tranfcribe  rhem,  Copies  whereof  are  conferved  unto  this  day  in 
the  publick  Archives,  and  ferve  to  evidence  that  Benignity  and  Gentlenefs,  which 
the  Kings  of  Peru  in  exercife  of  their  Government  ufed  towards  their  Subjects  : 
for  as  we  have  noted  before,  that  excepting  fome  particular  matters,  enjoined  and 
impofed  for  the  Defence  and  Security  of  the  Empire-,  all  other  Laws,  and  Sta- 
tutes had  no  other  afped,  than  what  regarded  the  fole  benefit,  and  intereft.  of  the 
Subjeds }  for  every  Man's  private  Eftate  and  Patrimony  had  the  fame  Protection, 
as  that  of  the  publick  •■,  no  Souldiers  were  permitted  to  pillage,  or  plunder  even 
thofe  People  whom  they  had  fubdued  by  force  of  Arms-,  but  received  and  treated 
them,  as  if  they  were  faithfull  and  true  Servants :  and  for  thofe  who  voluntarily 
fubmitted  and  furrendred  themfelves,  they  conferred  in  fome  fhort  time  Places 
and  Offices  of  preferment,  relating  to  civil  or  military  Commands. 

The  Duty  of  Tribute  which  thefe  Kings  laid  on  their  Subjeds  was  fo  trivial, 
and  inconfiderable,  that  when  in  the  fequel  of  this  Hiftory  we  mail  come  to  treat 
of  the  particulars  thereof,  and  wherein  it  confifted ,  it  will  feem  ridiculous  to 
the  Reader  •-,  in  return  notwithstanding  hereof,  the  focas  were  not  onely  conten- 
ted to  beft ow  on  their  Subjeds  their  Food  and  Rayment ,  but  many  other  pre- 
fents,  which  they  bountifully  conferred  on  die  Curacy,  and  Great  Men,  extending 
alfo  their  largefles  to  the  poor,  and  neceffitous -,  as  if  they  had  been  Stewards  or 
Matters  of  Families,  whofe  Office  was  to  make  Provifionfor  others,  rather  than 
Kings,  who  bore  the  renowned  Title  of  Capac  Titu,  which  the  Indians  conferred 
upon  them  •-,  Capac  fignifying  as  much  as  a  Prince  powerfull  in  Riches,  and  Tun  is 
as  much  as  Liberal,  Magnanimous,  a  Demi-God,  or  Auguftus.  Hence  proceeded 
that  great  Love  and  Affedion  which  the  Peruvians  bore  towards  their  Kings,  that 
even  to  this  day,  though  they  are  become  Chriftians,  they  cannot  forget  the  me- 
mory of  them ,  but  are  ready  on  all  occafions ,  when  their  prefent  Oppreffions 
grieve  them,  with  fighs  and  groans  to  invoke  their  Names-,  and  in  reality  they 
had  much  reafon  ,  for  we  do  not  reade  in  all  the  Hiftories  of  Afia,  Africa,  or  Eh- 
rope,  that  ever  thofe  Kings  were  fo  gratious  to  their  Subjeds,  as  thefe ,  or  that 
they  were  fb  frank,  or  familiar  with  them,  or  fo  gentle  and  carefull  managers  of 
their  Intereft.  And  now,  from  what  we  have  already  faid,  and  what  we  fhall 
hereafter  declare,  the  Reader  may  be  able  to  colled,  and  underftand  what  were 


3ook  V.  Royal  Commentaries.  151 

the  ancient  Laws ,  Cuftoms,  and  Statutes  of  the  Indians  of  Peru,  and  how, 
and  in  what  manner  they  jived  *  and  that  by  the  fame  accuftomed  Methods  of 
Gentlenefs,  we  may  believe,  that  thefe  People  may  be  bed  and  moft  eafily  redu- 
ced unto  the  Chriftian  Religion. 


How,  and  in  what  maimer  they  inftituted,  and  invefted  Offi- 
cers in  their  refpeftive  Employments, 

Bias  Valera,  in  the  procefs  of  this  Difcourfe,  hath  one  Chapter  under  this  title, 
and  alfo  how  the  Overfeers  of  the  labours  of  the  People  diftributed  to  eve- 
ry one  his  refpe&ive  task.    How  alfo  they  difpenfed  the  Eftate  belonging  to  the 
publick,  and  to  particular  Perfons,  and  how  alfo  they  proportioned  and  laid  their 
1     The  Inca  having  fubdued  any  new  Province,  and  carried  the  Idol  God  captive 
-  to  Cozto,  he  then  endeavoured  to  fatisfie  and  appeafe  the  minds  of  the  Lords  of 
c  the  Countrey,  and  gain  the  good- will  of  the  People-,  commanding  that  all  Indians 
c  in  common,  as  alfo  their  Priefts  and  Sorcerers  mould  worfhip  and  adore  the  God 
c  Tied  Viracocha,  under  the  title  and  denomination  of  Pachacamac,  which  is  as  much 
c  as  the  Almighty,  or  fupreme  God  of  Gods,    The  next  command  laid  on  them, 
:  was,  That  they  mould  acknowledge  the  Ma  for  their  fovereign  Lord  and  King  5 
:  and  that  the  Caciques  mould  by  their  turns  appear,  and  prefent  their  Perfons  at  the 
:  Court  once  every  year,  or  every  two  years,  according  as  the  diltance  of  the  Province 
c  was  remote  from  Cow,  by  which  means  fo  great  was  the  concourfe  of  people  to 
c  that  City,  that  it  became  the  moft  populous  part  and  place  of  the  New  World, 
c  Moreover  it  was  ordained,  that  the  Natives  and  Stringers  which  came  to  fojourn 
c  in  any  Province,  fhould  be  numbred,  and  regiftred  according  to  their  Age,  Line- 
c  age,  Offices,  Eftates  and  Qualities  j  all  which  being  performed  by  help  of  their 
:  Threads  of  various  colours,  ferved  afterwards  for  a  rule ,  whereby  they  regula- 
c  ted  and  proportioned  their  Tribute ;  and  meafured  every  thing  which  had  rela- 
c  tion  to  the  publick  Intereft.    The  next  thing  the  lnca  did  after  fuch  Conqueft, 
:  was  to  nominate  his  Generals,  and.  feveral  Officers  of  the  Army,  fuch  as  Colonels, 
c  Captains,  Enfigns,  Serjeants*  and  Corporals :    Some  of  which  commanded  ten, 
c  fbme  fifty  Souldiers  ■■,  but  a  Captain  of  the  moft  inferiour  degree  was  fet  over  at 
c  leaft  an  hundred ,  others  commanded  five  hundred ,  others  a  thoufand ,  but  the 
c  Major-Generals  commanded  four  or  five  thoufand  Men ;  a  General  was  not  called 
c  fo,  unlefs  he  were  at  the  Head  often  thoufand  Men,  and  then  his  Title  was  Ha- 
c  tun  Afu,  which  was  as  much  as  Great  Captain.    Thole  whom  they  called  Curacao, 
c  were  fovereign  Lords,  fuch  as  our  Dukes,  and  Earls,  and  Marquefe,  who  being 
c  the  Natural  Lords  of  their  People,  ruled  and  prefided  over  them ,   both  in  the 
c  times  of  War  and  Peace.    Thefe  had  power  to  make  Laws,  and  tax  the  people 
c  for  payment  of  their  Tribute  •,  and  it  was  their  duty  alfo  to  provide,  and  to  take 
c  care  for  their  Subjects  in  hard  times  of  want  and  neceifity.    The  Captains  of  the 
c  higlieft,  as  well  as  thofe  of  inferiour  rank,  though  they  were  not  capacitated  to 
c  make  Laws,  did  yet  by  right  of  Inheritance  fucceed  into  the  Offices  of  their  Pa 
c  rents-,  their  military  Employments  privileged  and  exempted  them  from  the  pay- 
c  ment  of  Tribute,  being  freed  of  all  Taxes,  and  Impofitions,  and  in  cafe  of  want. 
c  were  to  be  fupplied  out  of  the  Royal,  and  not  out  of  the  common  Stores.  How- 
c  foever  the  Officers  of  inferiour  rank,  fuch  as  were  the  Chiefs  often  or  fifty  Men, 
c  were  not  feed  of  their  Tribute,  becaufe  they  were  not  of  Noble  Defcent.    The 
c  Generals  of  the  Armies  had  power  to  make  and  commiffionate  Officers,  and  con- 
c  ftituce  them  in  their  Employments,  but  being  once  fo  feded  and  eftablifhed,  they 


10  Royal  Commentaries.  Book  V. 

cc  could  not  take  away  their  Commiffions,  or  deveft  them  of  their  Offices.    The 

cc  diligent  and  carefull  difcharge  which  the  Decurions  performed  in  their  duty,  fuch 

cc  as  iurveying  the  fields,  overfeeing  the  true  and  lawfull  difpofal  of  Inheritances, 

cc  the  Royal  Houfes,  and  difpenfing  Food  andRayment  to  the  Com.nonalty,  was 

cc  accepted  in  the  place  of  their  Tribute,  and  no  other  charge  required  at  their  hands. 

cc  Under  the  great  Minifters  other  fubordinate  Officers  were  fubfhtuted  in  all  mag 

cc  ters  relating  either  to  Government,  or  to  the  Tribute,  it  being  efteemed  the  beft 

cc  and  mod  certain  way  to  prevent  cheats  and  frauds  in  Accounts.    They  had  alfo 

cc  Chief  Shepherds,  and  fervants  that  were  under  them,  to  whofe  care  the  Flocks 

"were  committed,  which  belonged  both  to  the  King,  and  to  the  Community, 

ce  which  they  conserved  with  that  fidelity,  that  not  a  Lamb  was  miffing,  nor  Paftor 

cc  Fhh  more  faithfull  to  his  charge,  than  thefe  trufty  Shepherds,  whofe  chief  dread 

cc  and  fear  was  of  Wild-beads,  which  they  watchfully  chafed  away-,  but  as  for 

cc  Thieves,  there  being  none,  they  palled  their  time  with  the  lefs  fear.    They  had 

cc  Guardians,  and  Surveyors  of  the  Fields,  and  Pofleffions  ■-,  they  had  alfo  Stewards, 

cc  Adminiftrators,  Judges  and  Vifitors,  whofe  chief  care  and  incumbency  was  to  fee 

cc  that  nothing  fhould  be  wanting,  either  to  the  People  in  common,  or  to  any  pri- 

cc  vate  perfon  whatfoever  5  for  in  cafe  any  one  did  fignifie  his  neceffities  to  the  De- 

cc  curions,  they  were  obliged  immediately  to  make  their  needs  known  to  the  Cum- 

cc  cxsy  and  they  to  the  Inca,  who  readily  fupplied  their  occafions,  it  being  his  greateft 

cc  Glory  to  be  efteemed  the  Father  of  his  Countrey,  and  the  Guardian  of  his  People. 

cc  It  was  the  Office  of  the  Judges  and  Vifitors  to  fee  that  the  Men  employed  them- 

cc  felvesin  then-  refpe&ive  duties-,  and  that  the  Women  were  good  Houfewives,  ta- 

cc  king  care  of  their  Houfes,  keeping  their  Rooms  clean,  and  nurling  and  educating 

cc  their  Children ;  and  in  (hort,  that  every  one  bufied  him  or  herfelf  in  fpinning  ana 

cc  weaving.  That  the  young  Women  obeyed  their  Mothers  and  Miftreffes,  and  were 

"  diligent  about  the  Affairs  of  their  Houfes,  and  other  works  appertaining  to  their 

cc  Sex.    The  aged  and  infirm  were  excufed  from  all  laborious  works,  and  had  no 

cc  injunctions  laid  on  them,  but  fuch  as  tended  to  their  own  benefit,  fuch  as  gathering 

cc  flicks,  and  ftraws,  and  loufing  themfelves,  being  afterwards  obliged  to  carry  their 

cc  Lice  to  the  Chief  of  their  Squadron,  and  fo  they  took  a  difcharge  for  their  Tri- 

cc  bute.    The  Employment  for  blind  men  was  to  cleanfe  the  Cottons  of  the  Seeds, 

cc  and  foulnefs,  and  rub  out  the  Mayz  from  the  ftalks,  or  Ears  in  which  it  grew. 

cc  And  befides  thefe  principal  Officers  which  refpefted  the  orderly  Government  of 

cc  the  Commonwealth,  there  were  Heads,  or  Mafter-workmen  fet  over  the  Silver- 

ce  Smiths,  and  Goldfmiths,  Carpenters,  and  Mafons  and  Jewellers-,  which  Order 

cc  and  Rule,  had  it  been  continued,  and  confirmed  by  the  Ads  and  Patents  of  the 

cc  Emperour  Charles  the  Fifth,  with  the  fame  care  and  policy,  as  it  was  fTrfr  efta- 

cc  blilhed  by  the  lncai,  that  People  would  at  this  day  have  been  more  flourilhing, 

cc  and  considerable,  and  all  things,  both  for  eating  and  clothing,  would  have  been 

cc  more  plendfull,  and  this  happinefsof  affairs  would  have  been  a  good  preparation 

cC  to  the  preaching  and  admiffion  of  the  Gofpel.   But  now  our  negligence,  and  want 

cC  of  due  care,  hath  been  the  caufe  of  the  decay  and  mine  of  that  People-,  of  which 

cc  the  poor  Indians  were  fo  fenfible,  that  they  often  murmured,  and  complained  of 

cc  the  prefent  Government  in  all  their  private  Cabals,  and  Meetings  ^  but  how  they 

cc  compared  the  particulars  of  thefe  times  with  the  Reigns  of  the  Incas,  we  ihall  dif- 

cc  courfe  more  largely  hereafter,  in  the  9th  Chap,  of  our  2d  Book,  fag.^s-    Thus 

far  are  the  Words  of  Father  Bin  Valera.    And  this  Authour  proceeding  farther, 

in  his  Difcourfe,  hath  thefe  words.    cc  Befides  what  we  have  faid  already,  they 

cc  had  Officers  fet  over  the  Countrey  Labourers,  over  the  Fowlers,  over  the  Fifher- 

cc  men,  who  fiflied  either  in  the  Sea,  or  in  the  Rivers  -,  fome  alio  were  fet  over  the 

cc  Weavers,  Shoemakers,  and  over  thofe  who  hewed  Timber  for  the  Royal  Palaces* 

cc  and  publick  Edifices-,  alfo  over  thofe  Smiths,  who  made  inftruments  of  Copper, 

cc  for  feveral  ufes.    They  had  alfo  Heads  and  Chiefs  over  the  Mechanicks,  who  did 

cc  all  attend  with  great  care  and  diligence  to  their  Trades-,^  fo  that  it  is  Change  to 

"  confider  in  thefe  our  days,  that  thefe  People  who  were  lb  fond,  and  tenacious  of 

cc  conferving  their  ancient  Cuftoms  and  Pra&ices,  mould  be  fo  carelefs  in  conferva- 

cc  tion  of  their  Arts,  they  being  wholly  difuled,  and  now  loft  and  forgotten  amongft 

cc  them. 

.     CHAP. 

Book  V.  Royal  Commentaries. 

GHAP.    XIV. 

What  the  Rule  and  Account  wot  which  they  obferved  in  pub- 
lick.  *nd  private  Eftates. 

"  A  Fter  the  Inca  had  fubdued  a  Province,  he  confirmed  the  Right  of  poilefliori 
"  jHL  to  the  Natives  of  it,  and  then  conftituted  Governours  over  the  people,  and 
"  Inftru&ors  who  were  to  teach  them  the  Doctrine  and  Ways  of  Religion,  and  to 
"  compofe  all  troubles  and  differences  arifing  amongft  them :  For  better  difpatch 
"  of  much,  it  was  ordered,  that  they  fhould  decipher  and  fet  down  by  their  Knots, 
"  a  Plat,  or  Map,  of  all  the  Meadows,  Mountains,  Hills,  Arable  Grounds,  Mines, 
"  Salt-pans,  Fountains,  Lakes,  Rivers,  aad  Plantations  of  Cottons  and  Fruit-trees  5 
"  together  with  their  Flocks  which  produced'  Wool,  and  Herds  of  other  Cattel. 
"  All  which  particulars,  with  many  more,  they  ordered  to  be  meafured,  and  laid 
"  down  diftin&ly  by  themfelves.  As  firft  a  Scheme  was  drawn  of  the  whole  Pro- 
"  vince ;  then  how  it  was  divided  into  its  feveral  people  ■■,  and  laftly,  how  it  bor- 
"  dered  on  all  parts  and  quarters  on  its  Neighbours  •,  then  the  length  and  breadth 
lC  of  it  was  meafured ,  and  notice  taken  of  the  quality  of  the  Land ,  as  what  was 
"  barren,  and  what  part  of  it  was  fruitfull  •,  the  defign  of  all  which  was,  not  in  or- 

*  der  to  apply  any  part  or  parcel  thereof  to  the  Eftate,  or  benefit  of  the  Inca  •,  but 
"  onely  that  a  due  knowledge  and  consideration  being  had  of  the  fruitfulnefs  or  fte- 
"  rility  of  the  Land,  fure  and  certain  meafures  might  be  the  better  taken  of  what 
"  every  Countrey  was  able  to  provide  and  give  towards  their  Tribute ;  and  that 
"  having  made  a  juft  calculate  of  all  things,  they  might  be  the  better  enabled  to  lay 
"  a  due  proportion  of  thofe  fupplies  which  were  required  from  them  in  times  of 
"  Peftilence,  Famine,  or  other  Calamities :  And  laftly,  it  was  publickly  promul- 
"  ged,  and  made  known  to  every  Individual  perfon,  what  Service  the  Inca,  or  the 
"  Curacy,  or  the  Commonwealth  required  at  his  hands :  And  laftly,  it  was  Ordai- 
"  ned,  that  according  to  fuch  Models  and  Meafures  as  were  iaid  down  of  the  Pro- 
"  vince,  and  the  fituation  of  it,  that  Boundaries  and  Land-marks  fhould  be  fet  up 
"  for  diftinclion  and  feparation  from  the  Frontiers  belonging  to  the  Neighbouring 
"  Countries.  And  left  in  times  to  come  there  fhould  happen  out  any  miftakes  or 
"  confufion  for  want  of  due  diftin&ion,  they  gave  new  and  proper  Names  to  every 
"  Mountain,  Hill,  Field,  Meadow,  Fountain ,  and  all  other  particular  places  ;  and 
"  if  any  of  them  had  Names  anciently  given  them,  they  confirmed  them  again,  ad- 
"  ding  fomething  new  and  more  diftinguifhing  •-,  the  which  will  be  more  remarka- 
"  ble  when  we  treat  of  that  great  veneration  and  refpedt  which  the  Indians  conferve 
"  unto  this  day  of  feveral  places.    Afte.r  this  they  divided  and  fhared  out  the  Land 

*  by  parcels  to  the  people  of  the  Province  according  to  their  proportions ,  ordering 
"  them  efpecially  to  be  carefull,  that  thefe  Lands  thus  meafured,  and  laid  out,  and 
"  bounded,  fhould  in  no-wife  be  mixed  or  confounded  with  the  Pafturage  or  Moun- 
"  tains  of  other  people ,  but  that  every  one  fhould  know  its  own  Land-marks  and 
"  Boundaries  allotted.  The  Mines  of  Gold  and  Silver,  whether  anciently  known,  or 
"  difcovered  of  late  times,  were  allowed  to  the  CnracM  to  enjoy  for  themfelves, 
"  their  kindred  and  fervants ;  not  for  Treafure,  for  they  contemned  that,  but  onely 
"  to  Adorn  their  Cloaths  and  Veftments  with  which  they  were  apparelled  on  Fefti- 
"  val-days,  and  with  fuch  a  quantity  as  might  ferve  for  Cups  and  Veflels  for  the 

*  Curaca  to  drink  in,  for  he  was  ftinted  and  limited  to  fuch  a  certain  number  of 
■  them :  befides  thefe  ufes,  they  had  little  regard  unto  their  Mines,  but  rather  fuf- 
"  fered  them  to  be  forgotten  and  loft  •,  which  was  the  reafon ,  that  when  the  Spani- 
"  ards  came  in,  though  the  Artifts  and  Labourers  in  other  Crafts  were  very  nume- 
"  rous,  yet  in  this  alone  few  Founders,  or  skilfull  in  Melting  Ore,  were  to  be  found. 
"  Such  as  were  employed  in  the  King's  Service  were  abundantly  provided  with  all 
"  Utenfils  and  Inftruments,  together  with  Cloaths  and  Diet  at  the  charge  and  ex- 
"  pence  of  the  King,  or  of  the  Lord.    Thefe  Artifts  were  obliged  to  work  two 

X  "  Months 

154  Royal  Commentaries.  Book  V. 

"  Months  of  the  Year  in  Service  of  the  Inca,  which  was  in  difcharge  of  their  Tri- 
"  bute,  the  remainder  of  the  Year  was  their  own,  free,  and  might  difpofe  of  them- 
"  felves  as  they  thought  fit ;  this  was  a  particular  Trade  and  Myftery,  and  fuch  as 
"  laboured  in  it  were  called  Smelters.  That  fort  of  Copper  which  they  called  A»- 
"  ta,  ferved  them  in  the  place  of  Iron,  of  which  they  made  their  Knives  and  Car- 
"  penters  Tools,  and  the  great  Pins  with  which  the  Women  tucked  up  their  Cloths? 
"  and  hereof  they  made  great  and  large  Plates,  which  ferved  for  Looking-glafles  5 
"  and  likewife  of  the  fame  Metal  they  made  all  their  Rakes  and  Hammers ;  fo  that 
"  being  of  an  Univerfal  ufe  to  them,  they  preferred  it  before  Gold  or  Silver ,  and 
"  for  that  reafon  worked  more  in  the  Mines  of  Copper,  than  in  the  richer  Mines 
"  of  Gold  or  Silver. 

"  The  Salt  which  they  made,  whether  it  were  from  their  Salt  Springs,  or  Sea- 
"  Water.,  as  alfo  Fifh  taken  in  the  Seas,  or  Rivers,  or  Lakes  and  Fruit  growing 
"  from  their  Wild  Trees,  as  alfo  Cottons  and  fine  Rufhes  were  by  Command  of 
"  the  Inca  deemed  and  judged  to  be  the  Common  Eftate  of  the  people,  and  the 
"  Goods  of  the  Inhabitants  in  every  Province,  of  which  they  had  right  and  licence 
"  to  take  and  ufe  as  much  as  their  occafions  did  require  5  but  of  thole  Trees  which 
"  any  particular  perfon  had  planted,  the  Fruit  was  peculiar,  and  appropriated  onely 
"  to  the  ufe  of  him  who  planted  them. 

"  The  Corn  which  the  Countries  yielded  for  Bread,  and  thofe  alfo  which  pro- 
*  duced  other  Grane,  were  by  order  of  the  inca  divided  into  three  parts,  and  ap- 
"  plied  to  different  ufes.  The  firft  was  for  the  Sun,  his  Priefts  and  Minifters  ■■,  the 
"  fecond  was  for  the  King,  and  for  the  fupport  and  maintenance  of  his  Governours 
"  and  Officers,  whom  he  difpatched  and  employed  in  foreign  parts  •,  and  the  third 
"  was  for  the  Natives  and  Sojourners  of  the  Provinces,  which  was  equally  divided 
"  according  as  the  needs  which  every  Family  required.  This  was  the  divifion 
"  which  the  Inca  obferved  and  'proportioned  in  all  parts  of  his  Empire  •,  fo  that 
"  there  was  no  other  Tribute  required  of  the  Indians  payable  either  to  their  King , 
"  or  their  Lords  or  Governours,  or  to  the  Temple  or  Priefts,  or  any  perfon,  or  for 
"  any  other  matter  or  thing  whatfoever.  What  overplus  remained  of  the  King's 
"  Provifions,  were  at  the  end  of  the  Year  tranfported  to  the  Common  Stores  of 
"•  the  people  •-,  and  what  overplus  remained  to  the  Sun,  was  diftributed  amongft 
"  the  poor,  the  lame,  and  the  blind,  and  others  who  were  in  any  manner  difabled ; 
"  but  no  diftribution  hereof  was  made ,  until!  fuch  time  as  the  Sacrifices  were 
"  completed ,  which  were  many  5  and  plentifull  provifion  made  for  the  Priefts 
"  and  Minifters  of  the  Temple,  who  were  almoft  innumerable. 


Book  V.  Royal  Commentaries:  155 

CHAP.    XV. 

In  what  the  Tribute  was  paid?  and  in  what  quantity  >  and 
what  Laws  were  made  in  relation  to  the  fame. 

COming  now  to  difcourfe  of  thofe  Tributes  which  the  Inca  Kings  of  Peru  ex- 
acted of  their  Subjects,  they  were  (6  fmall  and  inconsiderable,  that  if  we 
1  duly  reflect  on  the  quality  and  quantity  of  the  Matters  required,  we  may  boldly 
:  affirm,  that  the  great  Cafars,  who  were  ftyled  Auguft  and  Pious,  were  not  to  be 
:  compared  to  thefe  Incas,  in  refpecl  of  that  protection  and  compaffion  they  had  to- 
;  wards  their  People  •,  for  indeed,  if  it  be  well  confidered,  thefe  Princes  teemed 
:  to  have  paid  Toll  and  Tribute  to  their  Vaflals,  rather  than  they  unto  their  Kings, 
:  whofe  care  and  bufinefs  k  was  to  lay  out  themfelves  for  the  good  and  welfare  of 
:  their  people-  The  quantity  of  their  Tribute  being  reduced  to  the  Account  and 
'  Meafures  we  make  in  thefe  days,  would  be  very  inconfiderable  •-,  for  the  days 
:  work  of  the  Labourers,  and  the  value  of  the  things  in  themfelves,  and  the  con- 
:  fumption  which  the  Incus  made  of  their  Stores,  being  all  duly  calculated ,  it  will 
!  be  found  that  many  Indians  did  not  pay  the  value  of  four  Ryals  of  our  Money. 
:  And  left  this  fmall  Tribute  (hould  feem  burthenfome  in  the  payment  thereof,  ei- 
[  ther  to  their  Inca,  or  their  Curaca,  they  exprefled  much  joy  and  chearfulnefs  when 
c  they  carried  it  into  the  Stores  ■■,  having  fome  consideration  that  the  Tribute  was 
1  but  fmall,  and  yet  greatly  tended  to  the  confervation  and  benefit  of  themfelves 
'  and  the  publick.    Thofe  Laws  and  Statutes  which  were  made  in  favour  of  the 

<  Tributaries,  were  fo  faithfully  and  inviolably  conferved,  that  neither  the  Gover- 
1  nours,  nor  Captains,  nor  Generals,  nor  the  Inca  himfelf  had  power  to  corrupt  or 
« cancel  them  in  prejudice  of  his  Subjects.  The  which  Laws  are  thefe  which  fol- 
1  low.    The  Firft  and  principal  Law  was  this :  That  whofoever  hath  at  any  time 

<  been  free,  and  exempt  from  Tribute,  cannot  at  any  time  afterwards  be  obliged 
'  to  the  payment  thereof.  Thofe  that  were  free  and  privileged,  were  all  thofe  of 
'  the  Bloud-Royal ,  all  Captains  of  high  or  low  degree ,  even  the  very  Centurions, 

<  with  their  Children  and  Grandchildren ;  together  with  the  Caracas,  and  all  thofe 
c  of  their  Generation :   Souldiers  alfo  actually  employed  in  the  War  were  excu- 

<  fed  •,  and  Young  Men,  untill  they  arrived  at  the  Age  of  twenty  five,  were  not 

<  within  the  Order,  becaufe  untill  that  time  they  were  judged  to  be  under  the  Tui- 

<  tion,  or  Pupillage  of  their  Parents.    Old  Men  of  fifty  years,  and  upwards,  were 

*  alfo  exempted  from  Tribute ,  as  likewife  all  Women,  whether  Virgins,  or  Wives, 
•<  or  Widows :  The  fick  and  infirm,  untill  they  had  recovered  their  health,  were 

<  excufed  5  and  the  blind,  and  lame,  and  deaf,  and  dumb,  were  employed  in  fuch 

<  Tributary  Work  as  they  were  capable  of.  The  Second  Law  was,  That  all  others, 
'  unlefs  Priefts  and  Ministers  attending  on  the  Temple  of  the  Sun,  and  the  Seled: 
1  Virgins,  were  all  without  any  limitation,  or  reftri&ion,  (except  before  excepted) 

<  obliged  to  payment  of  their  Tribute.    A  Third  Law  was,  That  no  Indian  what- 

<  foever  was  obliged  to  pay  his  Tribute,  or  any  part  thereof,  out  of  his  own  Stores 

*  orEftate,  but  onely  by  his  Labour,  or  in  difcharge  of  his  Office,  or  by  the  time 

<  which  he  employed  in  the  publick  Service  of  his  King  and  Countrey  ■■,  and  here- 
<■  in  every  Man  was  equal,  the  Rich  being  not  farther  charged  than  he  that  was 
'  Poor :  We  call  him  Rich  that  had  many  Children  and  Servants,  who  affiited 

*  him  in  his  Work,  and  fpeedily  to  difpatch  the  task  of  Tribute  which  was  impo- 

*  fed  upon  him  •,  for  a  Man  might  be  Rich  in  other  things,  and  yet  Poor  in  this 
'<■  particular.  A  Fourdi  Law  was,  That  no  Man  could  be  obliged  to  any  other  La- 
'  bour,  but  that  which  was  properly  his  own,  unlefs  it  were  upon  Tillage  of  Land> 

<  and  in  the  Wars,  for  thofe  were  Matters  of  common  concernment.    A  Fiftri 

<  Law  was,  That  no  Nation,  or  Province,  in  payment  of  their  Tribute,  was  ob- 
'  liged  to  any  Contribution,  but  of  that  which  was  of  the  Growth  of  their  own 

X  s  "Countrey, 


i^6  Royal  Commentaries.  Book  V. 

"  Countrey  •,  for  otherwife  it  would  be  an  agreivance  unto  the  people  to  be  obli- 
"  ged  to  wander  into  foreign  parts  for  fruits  of  different  nature  to  them  which 
"  their  foil  did  produce,  The  Sixth  Law  was,  That  all  thofe  Officers  and  Mafter- 
"  workmen  who  were  engaged  in  fervice  of  the  l/Aa,  or  the  Caracas,  were  to  be  pro- 
"  vided  at  the  charge  of  the  Employers,  with  fuch  Tools  and  Inftruments  as  their 
"  Trade ,  and  fuch  materials  as  their  work  required.  As  for  example ,  he  that 
"  worked  upon  Metalls  was  to  be  provided  with  Gold,  or  Silver,  or  Copper,  on 
"  which  he  was  to  exercife  his  art  and  labour-,  the  weaver  was  to  be  fupplied  with 
"  Wool,  or  Cottons,  the  Painter  with  Colours,  and  fo  the  like  in  other  matters; 
"  fo  that  the  Artift  was  not  obliged  to  beftow  more  than  his  time  and  skill:  and 
"  then  at  the  end  of  two  months,  or  three  at  moft,  he  was  difmifled  from  his  task, 
"  and  made  free  from  his  Labour,  for  the  remaining  part  of  the  whole  year:  and  in 
"  cafe  any  one,  out  of  his  own  voluntary  good-will  and  pleafure,  or  out  of  a  defire  to 
"  finiih  and  perfect  any  part  of  his  work,  already  begun,  mould  think  fit  to  con- 
"  tinue  his  labour  untill  a  longer  time,  then  fuch  overplus  of  time  was  pafTed  to  his 
"  credit,  and  difcounted  in  the  two  months  of  the  following  Year,  and  notified, 
"  and  kept  in  memory  by  the  help  of  their  knots.  The  Seventh  Law  was,  That 
"  all  thofe  Artifts  who  laboured  in  any  Trade  or  Myftery,  being  in  difcharge  of 
"  their  Tribute,  were  to  be  provided  of  all  neceflaries,  either  for  Food  or  Rayment, 
"  and  of  Medicines  in  cafe  of  fkknefs;  and  that  not  onely  they,  but  alfo  their 
"  Wives  and  Children,  and  thofe  that  came  to  their  affiftence  were  alfo  to  be  main- 
"  tained  with  the  like  provisions-,  but  then  the  account  was  kept  according  to  the 
"  task  impofed,  and  not  by  the  time;  for  if  a  Man  could,  with  the  help  of  his  Af- 
"  fiftents,  perform  that  in  a  week,  which  would  require  two  months  of  his  own . 
f  fingle  work,  he  was  judged  to  have  complied  with  his  obligation,  and  fo  difchar- 
"  ged  from  his  fervice.  And  this  (hall  ferve  to  difcover  the  errour  of  thofe  who  al- 
<c  ledge ,  that  anciently  the  Mother,  and  Sons,  and  Daughters,  paid  their  Tribute, 
"  the  fame  being  a  miftake,  by  not  rightly  diftinguiftring  that  from  right  and  duty, 
"  which  was  onely  performed  by  a  voluntary  affiftence,  which  the  Wives,  and  Chil- 
"  dren,  and  Servants,  yielded  to  their  Fathers  and  Mafters ;  for  in  cafe  the  Husband 
"of  the  Family  were  pleafed  to  labour  fingly,  and  without  other  affiftence,  his 
"  Wife,  or  Children,  could  not  be  forced  to  work-,  nor  had  the  Judges  or  Decuri- 
"  ons  any  other  power,  than  to  correct  and  puniih  their  idlenefs,  in  cafe  they  were 
"  negligent  and  remifs  in  their  own  Affairs:  So  that  in  the  time  of  the  Incas, 
"  thofe  perfons  were  onely  accounted  rich,  who  had  a  numerous  Family  of  Children, 
"  able  to  work,  and  to  be  affiftent  to  him,  by  whofe  help  a  quick  riddance  was 
"  made  of  his  task,  whilft  others  moiling  and  toiling  fingly  for  a  long  time  at  their 
"  work,  untill  their  Tribute  was  accompli(hed,  often  fell  fick,  and  fainted  under 
9  their  burthen:  Wherefore  for  eafe  and  remedy  herein,  a  Law  was  made,  that  the 
"  rich  Family  having  performed  their  own  task,  were  to  beftow  the  labour  of  a  day 
"  or  two  on  their  fellows,  which  was  very  acceptable,  and  pleafing  to  all  the  I»- 

"  dlans. 


Book  V.  Royal  Commentaries.  157 

CHAP.    XVI. 

The  Order  they  ufed  in  impofing  and  proportioning  their  Tri- 
bute ;  and  how  the  Inca  requited  the  Curacas  in  return 
of  thofe  pretious  things  they  gave  him  for  Prefents. 

<c  'T*  H  E  Eighth  Law  ordained  and  prefcribed  the  manner  and  rule  how  every 
"   X      perfon  was  to  be  taxed  for  his  proportion  of  Tribute,  for  equality  and  juft 

*  proportion  was  obferved  in  all  matters  by  them}  and  the  manner  was  this:  Up- 
"  on  a  certain  day  appointed,  the  principal  People  of  every  Province,  fuch  as  their 

*  Judges,  Tax-gatherers,  Accountants,  and  Keepers  of  their  Knots  in  threads ,  af- 
"  fembled  together,  by  help  of  which,  and  of  their  Pebles,  which  were  in  number 
"  as  many  as  the  Inhabitants  of  the  Province  were,  they  made  their  Accounts  lb 
"  exaft,  that  I  know  not  who  are  more  to  be  commended,  either  thofe  who  with- 
"  out  figures  of  Arithmetick  were  able  by  a  quicker  way,  than  our  Accountants,  to 

*  make  a  fpeedy  or  juft  reckoning,  or  the  Govemour  and  Minifters,  who  eafily  ap- 
"  prehended  the  method  and  reafon  of  their  Accounts,  by  fuch  obfcure  and  unin- 

*  telligible  ways  to  us. 

"  By  thefe  Knots  they  were  informed  of  the  work  done  by  every  Indian,  what 
"  Offices  he  had  afted,  what  journies  he  had  undertaken  by  order  of  his  Curaca,  or 
"  Superiour,  what  Trade  he  had  exercifed ,  all  which  was  placed  to  his  Account, 
"  in  difcharge  of  his  Tribute.  Then  they  readily  made  appear  to  the  Judges  and 
"  Governours  every  thing  diftin&ly  by  it  felf,  as  how  much  Provifion  was  laid  up 
"in  the  Stores,  and  what  was  the  quality  of  them,  as  Pepper,  Cloths,  Shoes, 
"Arms,  and  other  things,  which  were  matters  of  Tribute,  together  with  the  Gold, 
B  Silver,  pretious  Stones,  and  Copper  ;  and  what  thereof  appertained  to  the  Imas 
"  and  what  proportion  unto  the  Sun.  They  alfo  accounted  for  the  Stores  of  every 
■  Province-,  and  farther  the  Law  ordained,  that  every  Inca,  Governour  of  a  Pro- 
"  vince,  mould  keep  a  Copy  of  the  Accounts  or  Tally  in  his  own  pofleffion,  as  a 
"  means  to  avoid  and  prevent  all  fraud  and  cheats  in  the  Minifters.  A  Ninth  Law 
8  was,  that  what  overplus  remained  of  Tribute  after  the  occafions  of  the  Inca  were 
"  fupplied,  were  to  be  tranfported  to  the  common  Magazines  of  the  Countrey,  and 
"  there  lodged  for  common  fupport  and  maintenance  of  the  Natives  in  the  times  of 
"  fcarcity  and  famine,  As  to  Jewels,  and  pretious  Stones,  Gold,  and  Silver,  Fea- 
"  thers  of  Birds ,  with  various  Colours  for  Painting ,  and  Miniature ,  with  divers 
"  other  Curiofities,  which  the  Curaca*  every  year  prefented  to  the  Inca ;  they  were 
"  all  taken,  and  difpofed  of  for  adornment  of  the  King,  and  his  near  Relations?  and 
"  then  afterwards,  in  cafe  any  overplus  remained,  or  that  there  was  more  than  the 
"  occafions  of  the  Royal  Family  required,  they  were  in  grace  and  favour  to  the  Cap- 
"  tains,  and  Lords,  who  prefented  them,  returned  again  to  them  j  for  though  they 
"  were  the  goods  and  product  of  their  own  Countrey,, and  that  they  could  not  make 
"  ufe  of  them-,  yet  being  reftored  with  fuch  obliging  circumftances  from  the  Inca, 
"  the  favour  and  honour  was  highly  efteemed :  from  all  which  it  is  evident,  that  the 
"  Incas  enjoyed  the  fmalleft  part  of  all  the  Tribute,  and  that  the  Taxes  and  Impofi- 
"  tions  were  more  for  the  benefit  of  the  People ,  than  of  the  King.  The  Tenth 
"  Law  enumerated,  and  particularized  the  feveral  Works  and  Employments  which 
"  were  to  be  performed  by  way  of  Tribute,  for  fervice  of  the  King  and  Countrey  5 

*  as  making  and  plaining  the  High- ways,  building  or  repairing  the  Temples  of  the 
"  Sun,  and  other  Idolatrous  Sanctuaries,  erecting  publick  Houfes,  as  Store-houfes, 

*  and  places  for  the  Tribunals  of  Juftice ,  and  feats  for  the  Governours,  making 
"  Bridges,  or  taking  the  Employment  of  MeiTengers,  whom  they  called  Chafqui,  til- 
"  ling  the  Grounds,  and  inclofing  Orchards ,  feeding  Flocks  and  Herds  of  Gattel, 
"  watching  the  PoflefTions,  and  fowed  Lands,  building  Inns,  and  places  ofHofpi- 
'  tality  for  Strangers  and  Travellers ,  and  giving  their  attendance  there  for  fuccour, 


158  Royal  Commentaries.  Book  V. 

"  and  help  of  fuch  as  were  in  their  journey.  Moreover  they  had  fome  farther  charge 
"  and  duty  laid  upon  them,  for  the  common  good  and  benefit,  and  which  had  re- 
"  lation  to  the  fervice  of  the  King,  and  of  the  Curacas,\m.  in  regard  there  were  at 
"  that  time  great  numbers  of  Indians,  which  were  obliged  to  take  their  turns  in  that 
"  Office,  the  which  was  obferved  without  partiality  or  favour  to  any,  the  time  of 
"  the  trouble  was  fo  fhort,  that  no  perfon  could  be  fenfible  of  the  inconvenience. 
"  It  was  alfo  farther  provided  by  this  Law,  that  care  iliould  be  taken  for  the  amend- 
"  ment  of  the  High- ways,  and  that  theOverfeers  mould  repair  the  Bridges,  and 
"  clear  the  Aquedu&s  and  Chanels  by  which  the  Lands  were  watered ,  all  which 
'c  being  for  the  common  good  and  advantage,  was  to  be  performed  without  any 
?  charge  or  expence  whatfoever. 

Thefewere  the  principal  Laws  which  had  any  relation  to  the  Tribute;  there 
were  other  Orders  of  lefs  confideration,  which  for  brevity  fake  we  omit;  thus  far 
being  the  words  of  Bias  Valera.  And  now  I  mould  gladly  demand  of  a  certain 
Miftorian  this  one  queftion;  Wherein  did  the  feverity  of  thofe  Laws,  relating  to 
Tribute  confift  ?  which  he  charges  on  the  Incas  ;  and  indeed  I  would  the  more  wil- 
lingly be  refolved  herein,  becaufe  I  find  that  the  Kings  of  Spain,  of  glorious  me- 
mory, did  afterwards  confirm  the  fame,  which  they  would  never  have  done,  had 
they  been  blameable,  and  fevere  to  that  high  degree  which  he  pretends;  and  in  this 
opinion  Bias  Valera  concurs  with  me.  And  thus  let  us  now  return  to  the  Prince 
Viracocha,  whom  we  left  embroiled  in  a  thoufand  difficulties  to  defend  his  own 
Reputation,  and  the  Honour  of  his  Anceftours. 


The  Inca  Viracocha  receives  intelligence  of  the  approach 
of  the  Enemy,  and  of  the  Recruits  and  Succours  coming 
to  him. 

THE  noble  Actions  of  the  Inca  Viracocha,  do  now  call  upon  us  to  omit  other 
Relations,  and  return  to  the  Hiftory  of  his  Wars  and  Bravery.  We  left 
him  towards  the  end  of  his  Father's  Reign  at  Muyna,  from  whence  (as  we  faid)  he 
returned  to  Cozco,  rallying,  and  gathering  in  his  way  the  People  into  a  body,  who 
were  wandring,  and  difperfed  through  the  Fields  and  Countrey ;  and  that  when 
he  departed  from  the  City,  he  intended  to  march  towards  the  Enemy  with  refo- 
lution  to  dye  with  Honour,  rather  than  live  with  Infamy,  and  bafely  to  behold 
his  City  made  captive  by  the  violence  of  Rebels,  and  the  Temple  of  the  Sun, 
and  the  Convent  of  the  pure  Virgins,  and  all  that  was  efteemed  facred  by  them, 
prophaned  and  unhallowed  by  the  infolence  of  polluted  Hands.  Now  we  rauft 
know ,  that  about  half  a  League  Northward  from  the  City,  there  is  a  certain 
slain,  where  the  Prince  Viracocha  appointed  his  general  rendezvous;  that  the  Peo- 
ple both  from  Cozco,  and  other  parts  might  there  meet,  and  join  in  a  Body,  which 
neing  in  a  fhort  time  affembled,  formed  an  Army  of  about  eight  thoufand  Men, 
who  were  all  Incas,  and  refolved  to  dye  before  the  face  of  their  Prince,  and  in 
defence  of  their  Countrey.  During  this  flay  news  came  to  the  Camp,  that  the 
Enemy  was  within  nine  or  ten  Leagues  of  the  City,  having  already  palled  the 
great  River  oiApurimac;  but  this  ill  news  was  the  next  day  followed  by  a  more 
comfortable  Meflage,  which  was,  that  from  the  parts  of  Contifuyu  an  Army- of 
twenty  thoufand  Men  were  marching  for  relief  of  the  Prince ,  being  compofed 
of  the  Nations  of  guechua,  Cotapawpa,  Cotanera,  Tmara,  and  other  parts,  borde- 
ring on  the  revolted  Provinces,  and  that  they  were  come  near,  and  not  many 
Leagues  diftant. 


Book  V.  Royal  Commentaries.  159 

The  guechms ,  who  were  the  neareft  Neighbours  to  the  Chaaeat ,  were  the 
firft  that  difcovered  the  Confpiracy,  and  in  regard  the  urgency  of  the  Affair  ad- 
mitted of  no  delay,  nor  time  to  advife  the  Ma,  and  receive  his  orders,  they  imme- 
diately complied  with  the  prefent  necetfity,  and  putting  all  their  People  into  arms,, 
they  marched  directly  towards  the  City,  refolving  to  evidence  their  Loyalty  to- 
wards their  King  with  the  laft  drop  of  their  Bloud.  Thefe  People  were  of  thole, 
who  in  the  time  of  the  Ma,  Capac  Yxpa»qxi,  (as  we  have  already  declared)  volun- 
tarily fubmitted  themfelves  to  the  Obedience  of  the  Ma ,  and  therefore  being 
moved  by  a  Principle  of  Love  and  Affe&ion  towards  his  Government ,  did  rea- 
dily give  a  teftimony  thereof,  by  the  feafonable  Succours  they  brought  to  his  ier- 
vice$  and  alfo  the  ancient  hatred  they  bore  towards  the  Chancat  was  a  farther  in- 
centive hereunto  •,  for  being  jealous,  and  fearfull,  that  in  cafe  the  Chancat  Ihould 
prevail,  they  were  in  danger  of  falling  again  under  their  Tyranny,  and  the  Yoke 
of  that  Servitude,  from  whence  they  had  been  lately  refcued  by  the  power  of  the 
-Jncas  •,  diey  took  a  refolution  to  march  with  all  expedition  imaginable ,  that  fo 
they  might  arrive  at  the  City  before  the  Enemy  could  attempt  ir,  and  croffing  the 
neareft  way  towards  the  Northward,  the  Enemy  was  not  fooner  come,  than  they 
appeared  alfo  to  bid  them  defiance. 

The  Prince  Viracocha,  and  his  People,  were  much  furprifed  with  the  news  of 
this  unexpected  Succour,  admiring  from  whence  it  ihould  come  -?  untill  at  length 
recollecting  themfelves,  they  called  to  mind  the  Apparition  of  his  Uncle  Tlraco- 
cha,  who  in  a  Dream  promifed  his  favour  and  affiftence,  at  times  of  his  greateft 
Extremity,  and  that  he  being  of  his  Bloud  and  Flefh,  would  in  all  occaf  ions  of 
lecefTky  perform  the  Office  of  a  faithfull  Kinfman :  from  the  remembrance  here- 
if  they  certainly  concluded,  that  thefe  Forces  and  Recruits  were  effe&s  andac- 
omplilhments  of  this  Promife,  and  were  fent  in  an  extraordinary  manner,  as  it 
vere,  from  Heaven  •-,  the  which  being  often  mentioned  by  the  Prince,  and  incul- 
ated  into  his  People,  it  took  fuch  deep  impreflion  in  their  minds,  that  being  eir 
outraged  thereby,  they  refolved  with  full  aflurance  of  Victory  to  meet  the  Ene- 
y,  and  attack  them  within  the  Hills,  and  difadvantageous  Paftes,  which  are  be- 
•een  the  River  Apurlmac  and  the  Mountains  of  VUla-cmca,  which  being  high 
drugged,  are  not  to  be  attempted  without  hazard  and  difficulty.  Howfoever 
it  was  refolved  firft  to  attend  the  arrival  and  conjunction  of  the  Recruits  with 
hem,  and  that  then  afterwards  they  ihould  allow  fome  day  of  repofe  and  refreilr 
nent  to  the  Forces  wearied  with  their  long  march,  and  (hould  likewife  give  time 
to  the  Enemy  to  diflodge  themfelves  out  of  their  advantageous  pods,  and  lhevv 
themfelves  in  a  more  equal  field  :  It  was  likewife  agreed  by  the  Prince  and  his 
Council,  that  confidering  the  increafe  of  their  Army,  their  belt  and  wifeft  courfe  ' 
was  to  continue  their  Camp  in  their  prefent  ftation,  where  they  were  not  onely 
enabled  to  relieve  the  City,  but  alfo  more  eafily  fupplied  with  Provifions  and 
Ammunition  for  their  numerous  Army :  with  this  refolution  the  Prince  remained  * 
quietly  expecting  his  additional  fuccours,  which  lhortly  after  arrived,  to  the  num- 
ber of  twelve  thouland  Souldiers.  The  Prince  received  them  with  all  the  grati- 
dus  Expreflions  of  Thanks  and  Acknowledgments  for  their  Loyalty  towards  the 
Inca,  and  rewarding  the  Captains  and  Curacas  of  each  Nation,  together  with  the 
Souldiery,  with  fuch  Gifts  and  Prefents,  as  then  offered-,  he  highly  applauded 
:heir  Loyalty ;  promifing  for  the  future  fome  more  fignal  rewards  for  fuch  emi- 
\  lent  and  feafonable  fervices.  The  Curacas  having  performed  their  Complements 
md  Refpe&s  towards  the  Ma  VWacocha,  acquainted  him  that  about  two  days 
march  off,  were  other  five  thoufand  Men  coming  •,  which  for  hafte  and  expedition 
fake  they  thought  not  fit  to  expecl,  but  leave  them  to  follow  with  what  conve- 
nient fpeed  they  were  able-  The  Prince  having  returned  them  thanks  for  the 
iffiftence  of  both  Annies,  and  confuking  with  his  Kindred  in  the  cafe,  gave  or- 
ders to  the  Curacas,  immediately  to  difpatch  an  Expreis  to  thofe  who  were  co- 
ning, advifing  them,  that  the  Prince  was  encamped  with  his  Army  in  the  plains, 
ind  that  they  {hould  march  towards  certain  hollows,  and  clofe  places  in  a  moun- 
tain not  far  diftant  from  thence,  where  they  Ihould  lie  in  ambuih,  expecting  the 
Enemy,  where,  in  cafe  the  Enemy  ihould  offer  Battel,  he  with  his  Forces  would 
ae  ready  to  enter  into  the  heat  of  the  fight,  and  they  might  them  (ally  forth,  and 
attacking  one  wing  of  them,  might  make  the  victory  eafie  and  fecure  5  and  in  cafe 
:hey  declined  the  engagement,  they  had  ftill  performed  the  Office  of  good  Soul- 
diers, according  to  the  Rule  of  Martial  Difcipline.    Two  days  after  thefe  Recruits 


i5o  Royal  Commentaries.  Book  V. 

came,  the  Van-guard  of  the  Enemy  appeared  on  the  top  of  the  Mountain  called 
Rimtc-tamfH  5  where  having  notice  that  the  Inca  lay  encamped  about  five  Leagues 
off,  they  made  a  halt,  and  palled  the  Word  to  the  Rere,  that  both  the  Main  Body 
and  Rere-guard  fhould  haften  to  come  up  and  joyn  with  the  Van  of  the  Army. 
In  this  manner  arid  order  having  marched  the  whole  day,  they  came  at  length  and 
1  joined  at  Sacfahuana,  a  place  diftant  about  three  Leagues  and  a  half  from  the  Quar- 
ters of  the  Prince  Viracocha  -,  where  afterwards  that  famous  Battel  was  given  be- 
tween Gonc-alo  Picarro,  and  de  la  Gafca.  __ 


Of  the  Bloudy  Battel  which  followed ,  and  the  Courage  with 
which  the  Prince  overcame  his  Enemies. 

THE  Prince  Viracocha  fent  his  Ambafladours  to  the  Enemy  then  encamped  at 
Sacfahuana,  with  offers  of  peace  and  friendlhip,  promifing  to  them  Pardon, 
and  an  Aft  of  Oblivion  for  all  that  was  part.  But  the  Chancas  being  well  infor- 
med that  the  Inca  Tahuar-huacac  had  left  his  City,  and  retired  into  feme  remote 
part  ■-,  they  were  fo  encouraged  thereby,  that  though  they  knew  that  the  Prince  his 
Son  was  in  Arms,  and  in  a  pofture  to  defend  the  City  •-,  yet  they  fo  flighted  his 
Ambafladours,  that  they  would  not  fo  much  as  hear  them,  or  give  them  Audi- 
ence •,  for  being  puft  up  with  the  vain  opinion,  that  the  Father  being  fled,  the 
Son  would  fpeedily  give  place ,  promifed  to  themfelves  an  afliirance  of  Victory, 
with  thefe  hopes  •,  next  day  following  they  removed  their  Camp  from  Sacfahuana, 
and  marched  towards  C*uo  •-,  and  though  they  made  what  hafte  they  were  able  -, 
yet  in  regard  they  were  to  March  in  order  of  Battel ,  the  night  came  on  before 
they  could  arrive  at  the  Prince's  Camp,  and  therefore  they  pitched  about  half  a 
League  fhort  of  the  Enemies  Quarter :  Notwithff  anding  which,  the  Inca  Viracocha 
difpatched  other  Meflengers  to  them  with  Tenders  of  Peace  and  Pardon  5  but  the 
Chamas  ftuT  continued  obftinate,  not  vouchsafing  other  Anfwer,  than  with  great 
fcorn  and  difdain ;  laying ,  That  to  morrow  it  fhould  be  determined  who  de- 
ferved  the  Title  of  King,  and  in  whofe  power  it'was  to  offer  Peace,  and  Condi- 
tions of  Pardon. 

This  Anfwer  being  given,  both  Armies  remained  the  whole  night  upon  their 
Guard,  with  Centinels  fet  on  each  fide ;  and  in  the  morning,  by  break  of  day, 
the  Squadrons  Arming  themfelves,  with  great  Noife  and  Shouts,  with  found  of 
Trumpets,  and  Timbrels,  and  Cornets,  they  began  the  on-let.  The  Inca  Viracocha 
marching  in  the  head  of  his  Army,  was  he  that  threw  the  firft  Dart  at  the  Enemy, 
with  which  the  Battel  began.  The  Chancas  in  hopes  of  Victory,  of  which  they 
feemed  to  be  aflured ,  fought  with  great  refolution :  And  the  Incus,  who  did  not 
defpair  neither  of  fuccefs,  adventured  to  refcue  the  Life  of  their  Prince,  and  re- 
venge the  affront  which  the  Rebels  offered.  The  Fight  continued  untill  Noon, 
being  maintained  with  equal  Courage  on  both  fides  •,  the  flaughter  was  great,  and 
not  as  yet  determined  to  which  party  the  Victory  inclined  :  At  length  the  <rooo 
Indians  which  lay  in  Ambufh  made  their  {ally,  and  with  extraordinary  refolution 
and  fhouts  attacking  the  right  Wing  of  the  Enemy,  began  to  give  a  turn  to  For- 
tune •-,  for  being  frelh,  they  fo  prefied  thz-Chancat,  that  they  were  forced  to  give 
way,  and  retreat  with  great  lois  and  flaughter :  Howfbever,  animating  one  the 
other,  they  engaged  a  fecond  time,  endeavouring  to  recover  the  Ground  which 
they  had  loft,  being  enraged  to  meet  that  oppofition  which  they  never  expected, 
and  fo  much  difficulty  in  attaining  a  Victory  which  they  promifed  to  themfelves 
with  fo  much  eafe  and  afliirance. 


Book  V.  Royal  Commentaries.  i5i 

After  this  fecond  onfet  they  fought  two  hours  longer,  the  advantage  ftill  conti- 
nuing doubtfull  and  uncertain :  At  length  the  Chancas  growing  tired  and  weary, 
began  to  faint  •,  and  oblerving  that  fre(h  recruits  continually  re-inforced  the  Army 
of  the  tons,  the  Chancas  became  diicouraged,  and  defperate  of  Victory  :  For 
thole  people,  who  before  were  fled  from  the  City  with  fear,  and  the  Neighbour- 
ing Countries  thereabouts,  having  received  intelligence,  that  the  Prince  fW^.* 
was  returned,  and  made  head  againft  the  Enemy,  in  defence  of  the  Temple  of  the 
Sun  -,  they  joined  together  into  finall  Bodies  of  fifty,  and  a  hundred  in  a  Com- 
pany 5  and  in  fuch  Troops  ruined  into  the  Battel  with  more  noife  than  numbers. 
The  lncas  obferving  thefe  unexpected  fuccours  to  come  in ,  cried  out,  that  the 
Sun  and  the  God  Viracocha  had  converted  the  Rocks  and  Stones  of  the  Countrey 
into  Men,  and  had  raifed  them  up  to  fight  in  defence  of  his  own  caufe  and  peo- 
ple •■,  the  which  report  took  the  eafier  impreflion  in  the  minds  of  that  people  5 
who  being  accuftomed  to  the  belief  of  fuperflitious  Fables,  were  willing  in  this 
exigence  to  fupport  their  courage^  with  the  power  of  a  Miracle.  The  Chancas  al  fo, 
who  were  a  people  of  the  like  fuperflitious  fancy,  giving  ready  credence  to  this 
rumour,  were  flrook  and  affrighted  with  a  ftrange  amazement  •,  and  this  belief  fo 
far  dilated  and  radicated  it  felf  afterwards  in  the  minds  of  the  fimple  people  of  the 
whole  Kingdom ,  that  it  was  accounted  an  Impiety,  and  a  piece  of  Atheifin  and 
Prophanenefs  to  diftruft,  or  queftion,  the  truth  of  this  report.  Of  which  Geronlmo 
Roman  writing  in  his  Treadle  of  the  weft-Indies,  and  in  die  1 1  th  Chapter  of  his 
fecond  Book,  fpeaking  particularly  of  this  Battel ,  hath  thefe  very  words. 

"  It  is  certain,  according  to  the  report  of  all  the  lndians,viho  difcourfe  of  that  fa- 
"  mous  Battel,  that  the  to  a  remained  Mafter  of  the  Field,  and  won  the  day ;  and 
"  they  farther  believe,  that  by  a  miraculous  power  of  the  Sun,  the  Stones  of  the 
c  Field  were  Metamorphofed,  or  transformed  into  Men ,  and  arofe  up  in  Battel 
'c  againft  the  Enemy  •,  and  that  this  was  done  in  accomplifhment  of  thar  promile 

*  which  was  given  to  the  Valiant  Vachacuti  lnca  Yupmqui  •?  for  fo  alfo  they  give 
"  this  Title  to  the  Prince  Viracocha.  Thefe  are  the  Words  of  that  curious  Au- 
thour  of  the  aforementioned  Book,  who  in  the  faid  Chapter  touches  many  points 
in  brief,  of  which  we  have  recited  fome ,  and  lhall  farther  have  occafion  to 
touch  on  others  in  the  Sequel  of  this  Hiftory  of  the  Kings  of  Peru.  In  like  man- 
ner Acofta  mentions  the  Vifion  which  appeared  to  Viracocha,  though  there  be  fome 
difference  in  the  proper  Names  belonging  to  the  Kings  of  that  Age.  And  indeed 
both  he  and  other  Writers  mention  this  Battel,  as  other  matters,  with  fuch  bre- 
vity, that  they  feem  almoft  to  pals  it  by,  as  a  matter  inconfiderable  :  And  indeed, 
for  the  moft  part,  all  the  Relations  which  the  Spaniards  give  of  the  Indians  are  very 
intricate  and  confufed ;  the  which  we  may  lawfully  attribute  to  the  little  know- 
ledge they  had  of  their  Language,  and  the  lofs  of  thofe  Knots,  which  were  the  Mo- 
numents and  Characters  of  their  Hiftory  $  howfoever,  they  deliver  the  fubftance 
of  them  without  any  regard  either  to  time  or  order  •,  but  in  what  manner  or  me- 
thod foever  that  they  are  wrote,  I  am  yet  pleafed  to  recite  the  paflages  which  they 
deliver,  that  fo  by  their  Authority  I  may  be  acquitted  of  the  Scandal  of  writing 
Fables  -,  for  if  they  prove  fuch ,  they  ought  to  be  efteemed  the  Fi&ions  of  my 
Parents,  and  fuch  as  the  Spaniards  themfelves  have  heard ,  and  perhaps  believed , 
though  not  with  fuch  Faith  as  I  have  done ,  who  fucked  in  thofe  Stories  with 
my  Milk,  and  received  a  deep  impreflion  of  them  in  the  time  of  my  tender  In- 

This  Acofta  farther  proceeds  in  thefe  words,  which  I  have  copied  from  the  2 1  ft 
Chapter  of  his  fixth  Book.  "  Vachacmi  to  a  Tuptmqm  reigned  70  Years,  and  made 
"  great  Conquefls ;  the  principal  caufe  and  original  of  his  fuccefs  was  occalioned 

by  his  Elder  Brother,  who  taking  upon  him  the  Government  by  confent  of  his 
-  Father,  was  overthrown  in  a  Battel  by  the  Chancas,  who  are  a  Nation  which 

inhabit  in  the  Vally  of  Andaguaylas,  which  is  about  thirty  Leagues  diftant  from 

Cozco,  in  the  way  to  Lima .-  His  Younger  Brother  Yupanqm  taking  advantage  of 
"  this  difgrace,  feigned  a  report,  that  he  being  at  a  certain  time  penfive  and  me- 

*  lancholy  in  a  folitary  retirement,  a  ftrange  Apparition  under  the  Name  of  Vi- 
"  racocki  prefented  it  felf  before  him  •,  complaining,  that  he  being  the  Univerfal 
^  Creatour,  and  Lord  of  all  things,  who  had  made  Heaven ,  and  the  Sun ,  the 

t  World,  and  Men,  and  placed  them  under  his  feet ,  and  in  fubje&ion  to  him, 
"'(  had  not  received  that  due  refped  and  obedience  which  was  owing  to  him  ;  but 
''  in  lieu  thereof,  Mankind  was  become  fo  blind  as  to  divide  their  Service  and 

Y  •  Worftiip, 

i^2  Royal  Commentaries.  Book  V. 

"  Worfliip,  and  to  {hare  a  proportion  of  the  veneration  which  was  owing  to 
"  him  the  onely  God,  unto  the  Sun,  to  the  Thunder,  and  other  Creatures  who 

*  had  no  other  Being ,  Venue  and  Beauty,  but  foch  as  they  received  from  him ; 
"  and  that  therefore  he  was  now  come  to  make  known  to  him ,  that  his  Habita- 
"  tion  was  in  Heaven  where  he  was  Worlhipped  under  the  Title  of  Viracocha  Pa- 
"  chayachachic,  which  fignifies  the  Univerfal  Creatour  of  all  things.  And  that 
"  they  might  be  allured  of  the  truth  hereof,  and  that  it  was  no  Dream,  or  idle 
"  fancy,  he  promifed  to  raife  him  People  and  Armies  by  his  Omnipotent  power; 
"  and  that  though  the  Chmcas  were  numerous  and  victorious,  yet  he  would  fend 
"  him  invifible  Troops,  and  fuch  as  (hould  not  be  known  from  whence  they  came, 
"  mould  aid  and  fuccour  him  againft  his  Enemies.  With  this  aflurance  and  belief 
"  he  raifed  his  Men,  which  flocked  to  him  in  thofe  Numbers,  that  he  obtained 
"  a  Victory  5  and  afterwards  depofing  both  his  Father,  and  his  Elder  Brother,  he 
"  made  himfelf  Abfolute  and  Sovereign  Prince  of  the  Empire.  From  the  time 
"  of  which  Victory  he  Eftablimed  a  Law,  that  Viracocha  mould  be  Worshipped 
"  and  Adored  as  the  fole  and  Supreme  Lord  of  the  Univerfe  ^  and  that  the  Ima- 
"  ges  of  the  Sun  and  Thunder  mould  bow  before  his  Idol,  and  doe  him  reverence ; 
"  and  irom  that  time  afterwards  the  Image  of  Viracocha  was  exalted  above  thofe 
"  of  the  Sun  and  the  Thunder,  and  the  other  Minor  Gnacas,  or  Little  Deities. 

*  And  though  this  lnca  Tupan^ui  did  afllgn,  and  fet  out  Lands  and  Flocks  for  the 
"  maintenance  of  the  Sun  and  Thunder  5  yet  he  made  no  Eftablimment  for  the 
"  Viramha,  by  reafon  that  he  being  the  Univerfal  Lord,  and  Creatour  of  all,  con- 
"  tained  All-fufficiency  within  himfelf,  having  no  need  of  fupplies  from  the  Crea- 
"  tures  which  his  Power  had  made. 

"  After  this  Battel  was  ended  with  Signal  Victory  over  the  Chancas,  he  decla- 
"  red  to  his  Souldiers,  that  it  was  not  by  their  Force  and  Valour  that  their  Ene- 
"  mies  were  fubdued,  but  it  was  by  the  Aid  and  Afliftence  of  Numbers  of  Men 
"  with  great  Beards,  which  the  Viracocha  had  fent  to  fight  for  them,  and  that  they 
"  were  invifible  to  all,  but  to  himfelf:  And  that  now  their  Work  being  finilhed, 
u  they  were  returned  again  to  their  former  invifible  Beings,  and  Nature  of  Stones: 
"  Howfoever,  it  feemed  neither  decent,  nor  convenient  to  omit  due  acknowledg- 

*  ments,  even  to  thofe  infenfible  Beings,  which  none  but  he  could  know  ;  and 
"  therefore  going  into  the  Mountains,  he  caft  up  heaps  of  Stones,  which  he  cul- 
"  led  and  feparated  with  his  own  hands  from  the  rel\  fetting  them  up  for  Gnacas, 
"  or  Demi-gods,  commanding  Adoration  and  Sacrifices  to  be  offered  to  them, 
"  calling  them  by  the  Name  of  Pururancas,  the  which  they  carried  with  them  to 
"  the  Wars  with  great  devotion .  And  fuch  credit  did  this  Fable  gain  in  their 
"  minds,  that  by  force  of  this  fuperftitious  impreflion,  this  lnca  obtained  many 
"  great  and  fignal  Victories.  Thus  far  are  the  Words  ofAcofta,  which  agree  in  the 
fubftance  with  what  we  have  before  related  -,  but  as  to  what  he  alledges  concern- 
ing the  Image  of  Viracocha,  that  it  was  exalted  above  the  Idol  of  the  Sun ;  it  was 
a  novelty,  and  new  manner  of  Worlhip  introduced  by  the  Indians,  in  compliance 
with  the  Spaniards :  For  it  is  a  miftake  to  conceive,  that  they  apprehended  any  no- 
tion of  the  Name  of  God,  with  a  peculiar  refpedl  of  his  Supreme  and  Omnipo- 
tent ElTence ,  for  they  had  no  conceit  of  any  but  of  two  Deities,  one  was  the 
invifible  and  unknown,  which  was  the  Pachacamac,  the  other  was  the  Sun,  which 
was  clear  and  apparent  to  the  fight  of  the  Univerfe  -,  but  as  to  Viracocha,  and 
other  Incas,  they  efteemed  them  as  Children,  and  Off-fpring  of  the  Sun. 


Book  V.  Royal  Commentaries.  163 

CHAP.     XIX. 

Of  the  Gratuities  which  the  Prince  Inca  Viracocha  beftoned 
on  his  Souldiers  after  the  Vitlory. 

TH  E  heat  finding  their  Enemies  to  faint,  and  retreat,  cried  out  the  more 
violently,  invocating  the  Name  of  Sutlo  Inca  Viracocha,  which  was  the  Vi- 
fion  that  appeared  to  the  Prince ,  and  therewith  ftrenuoufly  invaded  the  Enemy, 
fubduing  them  with  mere  violence  and  dint  of  Sword  ■-,  great  numbers  and  heaps 
were  (lain,  and  thrdwn  one  on  the  other  5  the  remainder  turned  their  backs,  and 
fled,  not  being  able  to  make  farther  refiftence.  The  Prince  hiving  purfued  the 
Enemy  a-while,  caufed  a  retreat  to  be  founded ,  and  Command  given  to  defift 
from  farther  (laughter,  the  Vi&ory  being  already  evident  and  complete  ?  and  then 
the  Prince  in  Perfon  ran  through  the  Plain  where  the  Battel  was  fought,  giving 
order  to  bury  the  dead,  and  to  take  care  that  the  wounded  and  difabled  mould  be 
cured :  To  the  Prifoners  he  freely  gave  liberty  and  licence  to  return  into  their  ow-n 
Countries,  proclaiming  Mercy  and  Pardon  unto  all!  The  Battel  continued  for  the 
fpaceof  eight  hours,  being  fought  withfuch  courage  and  refolution,  that  the  Bloud 
did  not  onely  Dye  the  Fields,but  the  ftreams  of  it  overflowed  the  Banks  of  a  Brook 
which  ran  through  the  Plains  •,  for  which  caufe  they  gave  the  Name  of  Tahmr 
Pampa  to  that  place,  which  fignifies  as  much  as  the  Field  of  Bloud.  In  this  Fighc 
there  were  thirty  thoufand  India/is  (lain,  eight  thoufand  of  which  were  of  the  fide 
of  the  Mas,  the  reft  were  'fuch  as  took  part  with  the  Rebels,  confifting  of  feve- 
ral  Nations '  of  Cbanca ,  viz.  Hancbohuaku,  Vramarca,  Villca  and  Vntmfulla,  with 

Hanchohuallu  having  received  a  flight  wound,  \vas  carefully  cured  •,  and  being  ta- 
ken Prifoner  with  two  others  of  his  chief  Officers,  were  referved  for  the  greater 
glory  and  oftentation  on  the  day  of  Triumph ,  which  was  afterwards  with  great 
Solemnity  performed.  But  fome  few  days  after  this  Battel,  an  Uncle  of  the  Prince 
with  much  gravity  reproved  the  bold  infolence  of  thofe  Prifoners,  for  daring  to 
raife  themfelves  up  againft  the  Family  of  the  Sun ;  who,  that  they  might  appear 
invincible,  the  very  Stones  and  Trees,  by  virtue  of  the  Sun  were  transformed  in- 
to Men,  as  was  apparent  in  the  laft  Battel,  and  would  again  be  made  manifeft  fo 
often,  as  Enemies  and  Rebels  fhould  dare  to  lift  up  their  hands  and  armes  againft 
the  Divine  Race.  Many  other  Stories  and  Fables  he  recounted  in  favour  of  the 
Incase  concluding  as  the  fum  of  all,  that  they  were  obliged  in  duty  to  render  a 
thoufand  thanks  to  the  Sun  for  fending  his  Gratious  Children  into  the  World, 
commanding  them  to  ufe  compafficn  and  mercy,  and  to  receive  the  Rebellious 
Indians  unto  pardon  \  for  which  reaibn  the  Prince  did  not  onely  confer  upon  them 
their  Lives  as  a  gift,  but  reftore  them  alfo  to  their  Eftates  and  Dwellings,  and 
their  Caracas  to  their  Dominion  and  Government ,  though  the  crimes  they  had 
committed  deierved  no  lefs  than  Death  •,  conditionally,  that  for  the  future  they 
behave  themfelves  as  good  Subje&s,  left  by  a  fecond  offence  they  provoke  the 
Sun  to  avenge  the  firft,  and  caufe  the  Earth  to  open  its  bowels,  and  fwallow  them 
alive.  After  this  Ledure  the  Caracas  with  profound  humility  acknowledged  the 
favour,  prorailing  all  Loyalty,  Duty  and  Obedience  for  the  future. 

After  this  Victory  the  Inca  VWatocha  immediately  difpatched  away  three  Ex- 
preffes  •,  One  of  them  was  fent  to  the  Temple  of  the  Sun,  to  inform  him  of  the 
good  news  of  this  Victory,  which  by  his  aid  and  fuccour  they  had  obtained  ■■,  for 
though  they  efteemed  the  Sun  for  a  God,  yet  in  all  refpeds  they  treated  him  as  a 
Man,  and  as  one  who  had  need  of  intelligence  and  information  of  matters  which 
fucceeded  •,  befides  which,  they  formed  other  grofs  conceptions  of  him  •,  as  to 
drink  to  him-,  and  that  he  might  pledge  them  again  on  their  Feftival-days,  they 
filled  a  Golden  Cup  with  Liquour,  which  they  fet  in  a  part  of  the  Temple, 
which  was  mod  open  to  the  Sun-beams  =,  and  what  was  exhaled  by  that  heat, 

Y  i  they 

!#4  Royal  Commentaries.  Book  V. 

they  judged  to  be  drank  up  by  the  Sun  5  they  alfo  fet  meat  for  him  to  eat,  and 
when  any  novelty  occurred,  they  fent  him  the  advices  of  it  by  Meflengers,  and 
when  they  were  victorious,  they  returned  him  Thanks  for  their  Succefles.  In 
purfuance  of  this  ancient  cuftome  the  Prince  Viracocha  fent  advice  to  the  Sun  of 
this  his  Victory  ■-,  and  commanded  thePriefts,  that  having  recalled  thofe  others, 
which  for  fear  were  fled  away,  they  mould  join  together  in  offering  new  Sacri- 
fices, with  Praifes  and  Thankfgivings,  to  the  Sun.  Another  Meflenger  he  dis- 
patched to  the  Houfe  of  the  Select  Virgins,  giving  them  to  underftand,  that  by 
means  of  their  Prayers  and  Interceflions,  the  Sun  had  beftowed  that  Favour  and 
Victory  upon  him.  A  third  Meflenger,  whom  they  call  Chafqui,  he  difpeeded 
to  his  Father  the  Inca,  giving  him  the  particulars  of  all  the  late  Succefles,  defiring 
him  to  continue  in  the  fame  ftation  where  he  was,  untill  he  (hould  in  perfon  pre- 
sent himfelf  before  him. 

CHAP.    XX. 

The  Prince  purfues  his  Conquefl,  returns  to  Cozco,  fees  his 
Father,   and  difpo/fefes  him  of  his  Empire. 

HAving  made  thefe  difpatches,  he  felefted  fix  thoufand  Souldiers  to  accompa- 
ny him  in  the  purfuit  of  his  Enemies-,  the  reft  of  his  Army  he  disbanded,  gi- 
ving them  licence  to  return  unto  their  own  homes-,  the  Body  which  he  referved 
was  commanded,  befides  other  inferiour  Officers,  by  two  Major  Generals,  who 
were  his  Uncles-,  and  with  this  Force  two  days  after  the  Battel,  he  marched  in 
the  purfuit  of  his  Enemies,  not  with  intention  to  treat  them  ill,  but  to  cure  them 
of  their  fears,  afluring  them  of  pardon  for  their  late  Offence-,  fo  that  as  many  as 
they  overtook,  in  cafe  they  were  wounded,  he  ordered  them  to  be  cured  ,  and  as  were  whole  and  found,  he  treated  them  with  gentlenefs  and  kind  ufage ; 
fending  likewife  Meflengers  to  the  refpe&ive  Provinces  and  People,  to  aflure  them 
of  the  pardon  and  favour  of  the  Inca,  and  that  he  was  coming  in  perfon  to  give 
them  farther  teftimonies  thereof.  Having  by  thefe  pre-advices  comforted  and 
encouraged  the  people,  he  marched  with  great  expedition,  and  being  come 
to  the  Province  of  Antahuaylla,  which  belongs  to  the  Chancas,  all  the  Women  and 
Children  aflembled  together ,  and  came  forth  to  meet  him,  and  carrying  green 
branches  in  their  hands,  went  crying,  O  thou  undoubted  Child  of  the  Sun,  who  an  the 
Lcrver  and  Favourer  of  the  Poor,  have  companion  upon  us,  and  pardon  us. 

The  Prince  received  thefe  people  with  grace  and  favour,  telling  them,  that  it 
was  not  they,  but  their  Fathers,  and  Husbands,  who  were  guilty  of  the  crime  •-,  and 
that  even  them  alfo  he  had  pardoned  for  their  actual  Rebellion  ^  and  to  aflure 
them  hereof,  and  confirm  them  in  this  belief,  he  was  come  in  perfon  to  pronounce 
their  pardon  with  his  own  mouth.  He  ordered  likewife  that  they  fliould  give 
them  fuch  provifions  as  their  necefllties  required,  treating  them  with  all  civility 
and  affection  imaginable,  and  that  efpecial  care  mould  be  taken  of  the  Widows 
and  Orphans  of  thofe  who  were  (lain  in  the  Battel  ofTahuar  Pampa. 

In  this  manner  he  over-ran  all  the  revolted  Provinces,  constituting  his  Gover- 
nours  with  fufficient  Guards  over  them ,  and  made  fuch  expedition ,  that  in  a 
months  time  (as  the  Indians  report,  who  count  their  Months  by  their  Moons,)  he 
finilhed  his  march,  and  returned  again  to  his  City  of  The  Indians,  as  well  thofe 
who  were  loyal,  as  thofe  who  had  rebelled,  were  wonderfully  furprized  with  this 
ftrange  gentlenefs  of  the  Prince,  whofe  Humour  and  Difpofition  being  fowre  and 
fevere,  promiled  nothing  but  Revenge  and  Deftrudlion  to  the  lafr  drop  of  his  Ene- 
mies bloud-,  but  finding  his  Nature  otherwife  changed,  they  concluded  that  the 


BookV.  Royal  Commentaries.  165 

command  of  the  Sun  had  altered  his  Difpofition,  and  reduced  him  to  the  natural 
temper  of  his  Fore-fathers.  But  the  truth  is,  that  Ambition  and  thirft  of  Honour 
which  makes  great  changes  in  the  minds  of  Men,  had  fo  miraculoufly  operated  on 
his  rough  and  hard  temper,  that  his  Nature  feemed  entirely  to  be  altered,  and  to 
have  put  on  that  gentle  and  fweet  humour,  which  was  Royal  and  natural  to  his 

This  being  done,  the  Inca  VtrMocha  made  his  entry  into  Couo  on  foot,  that  he 
might  appear  more  a  Souldier  than  a  King-,  he  defcended  thither  by  the  way  of 
Caramenta,  and  in  triumphant  manner,  being  encompafted  by  his  Souldiers,  and  on 
each  hand  fupported  by  his  two  Uncles,  that  were  Major-Generals,  caufing  the 
prisoners  to  be  conducted  behind,  with  great  joy  and  loud  acclamations  he  was 
received  into  the  City.  The  grave  Incas  aged,  and  ftricken  in  years  came  forth 
to  meet  him,  and  with  due  reverence  having  ialuted  and  adored  him  and  acknow- 
ledged him  for  a  true  Child  of  the  Sun,  entred  amongft  the  ranks  of  the  Souldie- 
ry,  to  partake  of  the  glory  of  this  Triumph  5  adding  farther  this  complement  to 
their  Courtfhip,  That  they  wifhed  themfelves  youthfull  again  for  no  other  reafon, 
than  that  they  might  be  Souldiers ,  and  ferve  in  the  Wars  under  his  fortunate 
and  aufpicious  Conduct.  His  Mother  alfo  Coy  a.  Mama,  chic-ya ,  with  her  Wo- 
men, and  others  nearly  allied  in  Bloud  to  the  Prince,  being  attended  alfo  with  a 
multitude  of  Pallat,  or  Ladies,  went  forth,  with  Songs  and  Dancings,  to  meet 
and  receive  him  •,  fome  embraced  him,  others  wiped  off  the  fweat  from  his  Brows, 
others  fwept  the  duft  from  his  Feet,  ftrewing  the  ways  with  Flowers,  and  odori- 
ferous Herbs,  in  which  joyfull  and  folemn  manner  the  Prince  firft  vifited  the 
Temple  of  the  Sun,  in  which  making  his  entry  on  his  bare  Feet,  according  to 
their  ufual  cuftome,  he  returned  thanks  for  the  Victory,  which  his  Father  the  Sun 
had  given  him.  Then  he  vifited  the  Select  Virgins,  Wives  of  the  Sun ;  and  af-. 
ter  thefe  two  Offices  were  performed,  he  departed  from  the  City  to  fee  his  Fa- 
ther, who  all  this  while  conierved  himfelf  within  the  Straits  of  Mttyna,  and  in 
the  fame  place  where  he  had  formerly  left  him. 

The  IncaTahuar-Hnacac  received  the  Prince  his  Sun  with  all  the  expreflions  of  joy 
and  contentment  imaginable,  congratulating  his  Succels,  and  victorious  Atchieve- 
merrts,  but  yet  his  Countenance  appeared  fo  melancholy  and  referred,  that  he 
feemed  thereby  to  teftifie  more  of  Emulation  and  Envy,  than  of  real  Satisfaction  -y 
for  the  (hame  and  confufion  he  conceived  in  feeing  his  Son  victorious  feemed  to 
upbraid  his  Cowardife  $  nor  can  it  well  be  determined,  whether  the  Envy  of  his 
Son's  Honour,  or  the  fenfe  he  had  for  bafely  forfaking  the  Temple  of  the  Sun,  or 
the  fear  of  being  depofed  for  his  mean  and  pufillanimous  Behaviour,  was  moft 
prevalent  in  his  confufed  mind.    But  certain  it  is,  that  at  this  publick  interview 
Few  words  pafled  between  them  -,  what  afterwards  happened  in  private  is  not  cer- 
tainly known,  but  it  is  believed  by  the  Indians,  that  the  whole  Difcourie  was  in 
reference  to  the  Government,  which  of  the  two  mould  reign,  and  which  appea- 
red by  the  fequel,  it  being  refolved  between  them,  that  the  Father  having  fbrfa- 
ken  and  abandoned  the  City,  was  no  more  worthy  to  return  unto  it.    For  Am- 
bition, and  defire  of  Government,  is  fo  prevalent  in  the  minds  of  Princes,  that 
they  are  willing  to  take  any  pretext  to  cover  their  afpiring  thoughts  ^  and  indeed 
this  imputation  of  Cowardife  feemed  the  more  plaufible  reafon,  in  that  it  was  fe- 
conded  by  the  fuflfrages  of  the  people,  and  the  confent  of  the  Courts  to  which 
the  Father  condefcended,  being  conftrained  thereunto  by  force,  and  by  an  abhor- 
rence he  naturally  had  to  War,  efpecially  to  Civil  DilTentions.    Upon  which 
agreement  the  draught  of  a  Palace  was  immediately  defigned,  and  intended  to  be 
built  between  the  Straits  of  Muyna  and  £>uefpicancha ,  where  was  an  excellent 
Air,  and  plea fant  Situation,  and  eafily  improveable  by  Gardens,  and  Orchards; 
and  all  the  Divertifements  of  Hunting,  Fifhing,  and  other  Royal  Paftimes-,   be- 
ing much  advantaged  therein  by  the  benefit  of  the  River  Tucay,  into  which  many 
Streams  and  Brooks  fall,  on  the  Eaft-quarter  of  the  Houfe-    The  Foundation  of 
thisHoufe  being  laid,  (fome  ruines  of  which  do  to  this  day  remain)  the  Prince 
returned  to  Cozco,  where  he  changed  his  yellow  for  the  crimfon  Wreath,  and  vet 
was  contented  that  his  Father  mould  (till  conferve  his  Royalty  in  the  colour  of  his 
Ribbon,  on  condition  that  he  renounced  the  fubftantial  parts  of  Government } 
for  proud  and  ambitious  Men  can  endure  punctilio's,  and  immaterial  circumftances 


1 66  Royal  Commentaries.  Book  V. 

in  others,  whilft  Power  and  Greatnefs  is  referved  for  themfelves.  This  Fabrick 
being  completed,  it  was  furnillied  with  all  things  neceflary,  and  fuch  attendance 
allowed,  as  was  agreeable  to  the  State  and  Magnificence  of  a  King,  fo  that 
Tahuar-haacac  found  no  difference  in  his  living,  unlefs  it  were  fn  being  freed  and 
eafed  from  the  Burthen  of  Government.  In  this  folitary  manner  this  poor 
King  palled  the  remainder  of  his  unhappy  days,  depofed  from  his  Kingdom,  and 
confined  to  the  Countrey,  having  exchanged  his  condition  with  his  Son,  who 
now  lived  and  governed  in  the  City,  whilft  the  Father  lived  an  Exile  in  the  fields, 
having  his  Converfation  with  Beafts  rather  than  Men. 

This  unhappy  Fortune  (as  the  Indians  believe)  was  the  effecT:  of  that  direful! 
Omen  of  weeping  bloud ;  but  yet  in  their  political  reflexions  on  fome  paflages, 
they  concluded,  that  in  cafe  the  l»ca,  in  the  time  of  the  obftinacy  and  perverfe- 
nefs  of  his  Son,  had,  inftead  of  a  confinement  to  a  Countrey  Life,  given  him  a 
fmall  Dofe  of  that  Poifon  which  was  in  practice  amongft  the  Tyrants  and  Ma- 
gicians of  that  Empire,  he  might  eafily  have  diverted  that  fad  Fate,  which  his 
Tears  of  Bloud  portended.  But  others,  better  inclined  to  fpeak  favourably  of 
the  Prince,  for  though  they  could  not  wholly  acquit  him  of  Crime  towards  his 
•Father,  yet  they  moderated  it  in  fome  manner,  by  alledging,  that  his  Father's 
Fate  might  have  beenworfe,  in  cafe  his  Enemies  had  prevailed-,  for  having  for- 
faken  the  Protection  of  his  City,  and  Empire,  out  of  mere  Cowardife,  it  was 
fome  Happinefs  to  have  his  Defaults  repaired  by  the  Valour  of  his  Son,  under 
whom  the  Succeflion  was  fecured,  and  his  own  Life  fpared  and  defended.  O- 
thers,  fpeaking  of  the  general  Praife  of  their  Kings,  faid  to  this  effect,  That  this 
unhappy  Inca  had  no  thought  or  imagination  of  Poifon ,  for  that  all  other  his 
Predeceflors  having  made  it  their  bulinefs  to  prohibit  the  practice  of  it,  and  de- 
ftroy  the  ufe  of  it  in  the  World,  he  himfelf  was  ready  to  have  checked  any  fuch 
motion  within  'his  own  Mind ,  in  cafe  either  his  Thoughts ,  or  perfuafion  of 
others  had  fuggefted  fuch  a  remedy  to  him.  Others  herein  applauded  the  Reli- 
gion and  Generality  of  the  Iwas,  who  fcorned  to  acl  that  which  their  own  De- 
crees had  made  unlawfully  it  being  unfeemly,  and  beneath  the  Dignity  of  the 
Sun's  Race,  to  allow  that  in  themfelves,  Which  they  had  made  illegal  in  their 

Many  fuch  Difcourfes  and  Reflexions  pafled  on  this  matter,  according  to  eve- 
ry Man's  particular  fancy  and  opinion  •,  with  which  we  mall  conclude  our  Hifto- 
ry  otTahuar-Huacac,  and  not  farther  mention  other  particulars  of  his  Life,  leaving 
him  at  his  Countrey  retirement  to  die  with  obfcurity. 


Book  V.  Royal  Commentaries. 

CHAP.    XXI. 

Of  the  word  Viracocha,  and  why  they  called  the  Spaniards 
by  that  Name, 

BUT  to  return  now  to  the  Prince,  to  whom  they  gave  the  Name  oi  Viracocha, 
by  reafon  that  the  Vifion  which  appeared  to  him  in  a  Dream,  fo  called  himfelf. 
And  in  regard  this  Phantafm  was  defcribed  by  the  Prince  to  appear  with  a  long 
Beard,  and  Garments  trailing  on  the  ground,  which  was  a  much  different  habit 
to  the  fafhion  of  the  Indians,  who  naturally  have  little  Hair  in  their  Faces,  and 
by  cuftome  wear  Coats  not  reaching  farther  than  their  knees  3  fo  foon  as  they  had 
a  fight  of  the  firft  Spaniards  that  invaded  Peru,  and  obferved  their  long  Beards  and 
Garments  which  clothed  all  parrs  of  their  Bodies ;  and  that  their  firft  Action  was 
to  take  and  kill  Atahualpa,  their  Tyrant  King,  who  not  long  before  had  murthe- 
red  Buafcar,  the  lawfull  Heir  and  Succeflour,  and  deftroyed  all  thofe  of  the  Royal 
Bloud,  which  might  endanger  his  Title  to  the  Government ,  without  any  regard 
to  Age  or  Sex,  with  many  other  Cruelties,  which  we  (hall  recount  in  their  due 
place.  When,  I  fay,  they  obferved  that  the  Spaniards  revenged  the  Bloud  of 
their  Incas,  and  punimed  the  enormous  Crimes,  they  called  to  mind  the  Appari- 
tion Viracocha,  and  comparing  the  punifhment  which  he  executed  on  the  chancas 
for  their  rebellion,  with  the  Juftice  which  the  Spaniards  performed  on  Atahualpa 
in  revenge  of  the  Murthers  he  committed  on  the  Royal  Family ,  they  prefently 
concluded,  that  the  God  Viracocha  was  the  Parent  of  the  Spaniards,  for  which  rea- 
fon they  received  and  welcomed  them  to  their  Countrey,  and  worfhipped  and 
adored  them  with  the  Name  of  Viracocha ;  and  hence  it  was,  that  the  Conqueft 
of  Peru  became  fb  eafie,  that  fix  Spaniards  onely,  of  whom  Hernando  de  Soto,  and 
Pedro  de  Barco  were  two,  adventured  to  travell  from  Cajfamarca  to  Coze 0,  which  is 
a  Journey  of  two  hundred  and  thirty  Leagues,  by  which  they  made  a  difcovery  of 
the  Riches  of  that  City,  and  other  places-,  and  to  (hew  their  great  kindnefs  and 
civility  they  carried  them  over  the  Countries  in  Chairs ,  or  Sedans  -,  giving  them 
the  Title  of  Incas,  and  Children  of  the  Sun,  in  the  fame  manner,  as  they  did  their 
own  Kings.  Now  had  the  Spaniards  taken  the  advantage  of  this  credulity  of  the 
Indians,  perfuading  them,  that  the  true  God  had  fent  them,  for  their  deliverance 
from  the  tyrannical  Ufurpations  of  the  Divel,  which  enflaved  them  more  than 
all  the  Cruelties  of  Atahualpa;  and  had  preached  the  Holy  Gofpel  with  that  fan&i- 
ty  and  good  example,  which  the  innocence  of  that  Doctrine  requires,  they  had 
certainly  made  great  Progrefles  in  the  advancement  of  Religion.  But  the  Spanijh 
Hiftories  report  things  in  a  different  way  of  proceedings,  to  which,  for  the  truth 
thereof,  I  refer  the  Reader,  left  being  an  Indian  my  felf,  I  fhould  feem  partial  in 
the  relation :  But  this  truth  we  may  confidently  aver,  that  though  many  were 
blameable,  yet  the  greater  number  difcharged  the  Office  and  Duty  of  good  Chri- 
ftians-,  howfoever  amongft  a  people  fo  ignorant  and  fimple,  as  thefe  poor  Gentiles, 
one  ill  man  is  able  to  doe  more  mifchief ,  than  the  endeavours  of  a  hundred 
good  Men  are  able  to  repair. 

The  Spanijh  Hiftorians  farther  fay,  that  the  Indians  gave  this  Name  to  the  Spani- 
ards, becaufe  they  came  over  the  Sea,  deriving  Viracocha  from  the  composition  of  two 
words,  namely,  VWa,  which  is  vaft,  immenfe,  and  Cocha,  which  fignifies  the  Sea  or 
Ocean.  But  the  Spaniards  are  much  miftaken  in  this  compofition,  for  though  Co- 
cha is  truly  the  Name  for  the  Sea,  yet  Vira  fignifies  fatnefs  •,  and  is  no  other  than 
the  proper  Name  which  that  Apparition  gave  to  it  felf  j  the  which  I  more  confi- 
dently aver,  becaufe  that  Language  being  natural  to  me,  and  that  which  I  fucked 
in  and  learned  with  my  Mother's  Milk,  I  may  more  reafonably  be  allowed  to  be 
a  Judge  of  the  true  Idioms  of  that  Tongue,  rather  than  Spaniards,  who  are  Stran- 
gers and  Aliens  to  that  Countrey.  But  befides  what  we  have  already  mentioned, 
there  may  yet  be  another  reafon  for  it,  which  is,  that  the  Indians  gave  them  that 


ggg  Royal  Commentaries.  Book  V. 

Name  from  the  Cannon  and  Guns  they  ufed,  which  they  taking  to  be  Lightning 
and  Thunder,  believed  them  Gods,  by  whofe  hands  they  were  ufed.  Bias  Vakra 
interpreting  this  word ,  fays ,  that  it  Signifies  a  Deity,  which  comprehends  the 
Will  and  Power  of  a  God  ■-,  not  that  the  word  doth  properly  iignifie  fo  much, 
but  that  it  is  a  Name  which  the  Indians  found  out  to  give  to  this  Apparition  5 . 
which  they  Worshipped  in  the  fecond  place  to  the  Sun,  and  after  that  they  Ado- 
red their  Kings  and  Incas,  as  if  they  had  been  Gods. 

It  is  disputable  whether  the  Inca  Viracocha  was  more  admired  for  his  Victory,  or 
for  his  Dream  ■-,  but  certain  it  is ,  that  he  was  fo  reverenced  for  both,  that  they 
efteemed  him  for  a  God,  and  adored  him  as  one  exprefly  fent  from  the  Sun  to 
fave  his  Family,  and  the  Divine  OfF-fpring  from  utter  mine;  and  becaufe  that 
by  him  the  Imperial  City,  the  Temple  of  the  Sun,  and  the  Convent  of  the  Select 
Virgins  were  preferved  •,  he  was  afterwards  Worfhipped  with  greater  oftentation 
and  honour,  than  any  other  of  his  Ancient  Progenitors.  And  though  this  Inca 
endeavoured  to  perfuade  his  Subjects  to  transfer  the  Honour  which  they  gave  to 
him,  unto  his  Uncle,  the  Vifion  which  appeared  to  him  ■-,  yet  fo  far  was  this  de- 
votion infixed  in  their  minds,  that  they  could  not  be  diverted  from  performing 
Divine  Honours  towards  him,  untill  at  length  they  compounded  for  their  fuper- 
ftition,  and  agreed  to  impart  and_  divide  their  Worfhip  equally  between  them  5 
and  whereas  they  had  both  the  fame  Name,  they  mould  Adore  them  together 
under  the  fame  Title  and  Notion  :  And  for  this  reafon  the  Inca  Viracocha  (as  we 
mall  hereafter  mention )  erected  a  Temple  in  Honour  and  Memory  of  his  Qncle 
Viracocha ;  in  which  alio  his  own  Fame  was  celebrated. 

We  may  believe  that  the  Devil,  who  is  a  cunning  Sophifter,  did  appear  to  the 
Prince  either  Heeping  or  waking  in  that  Figure  •,  though  the  Indians  confidently 
report  that  the  Prince  was  waking,  and  that  this  Apparition  prefented  it  felf  to 
him  as  he  lay  repoiing  himfelf  under  the  ihadow  of  a  Rock :  We  may  imagine 
alio  that  this  Enemy  of  Mankind  played  this  trick  to  delude  the  World,  and  con- 
firm the  Authority  of  that  Idolatrous  fuperftition,  which  he  had  already  planted 
in  the  minds  of  this  people :  the  which  feemed  the  moft  plaufible  way  that  he 
could  proceed  -,  for  that  in  regard  a  foundation  was  already  laid  of  the  Indian  Em- 
pire, and  that  by  the  Conftitutions  of  it,  the  Incas  were  to  be  the  Lawgivers,  and 
the  Oracles  of  their  Religion  •-,  and  that  they  were  to  be  believed,  and  efteemed, 
and  obeyed  for  Gods  •,  whatfoever  contributed  to  this  end,  and  to  augment  the 
reputation  and  fanctity  of  the  Incas,  was  a  point  gained  towards  the  advancement 
of  this  Gentilifm  •,  of  which,  though  there  go  many  Stories,  yet  none  is  recounted 
by  them  with  that  admiration,  as  this  Apparition  of  Viracocha,  who  coming  with 
the  popular  character  of  an  Allye  to  the  Sun,  and  Brother  to  the  Incas  .•  And  ha- 
ving the  good  fortune  to  have  his  Dream  confirmed  with  the  fuccefs  of  a  Victor}', 
carried  fo  much  force  of  belief  with  it,  that  on  all  occafions  afterwards  of  their 
diftrefs,  they  had  recourfe  to  his  Temple,  where  the  Oracle  was  confulted,  and 
directions  taken  for  the  management  of  their  affairs.  This  is  that  imaginary 
God  Viracocha,  of  which  fome  Writers  report,  that  the  Indians  efteemed  him  for 
their  principal  God,  to  whom  they  were  more  devoted  than  to  the  Sun :  But  this 
is  certainly  a  miftake,  and  ferved  onely  for  a  piece  of  flattery  to  the  Spaniards,  that 
they  might  believe  they  gave  them  the  fame  Title  and  Name,  as  they  did  to  their 
chiefeft  God :  but  in  reality  they  Adored  no  God  with  fuch  devotion  as  they  did 
the  Sun,  ( unlefs  it  were  the  Pachacamac )  which  they  called  the  unknown  God  : 
For  as  to  the  Spaniards,  they  gave  them  at  firft  the  Title  of  Children  to  the  Sun , 
in  fuch  manner  as  they  did  to  the  Apparition  Viracocha. 


Book  V*  Royal  Commentaries.  i6g 

■ .  ■  ■ 

C  H  A  P.    XXII. 

The  Inca  ViraCOcha  gives  Order  for  Building  a  Tern  fie 
in  Memory  of  his  Vncle ,   who  appeared -to  him  in  a 


■  ■ ; 

TH  E  hca.  tlracocha,  that  he  might  the  better  perpetrate  the  Memory' of  his 
Dream,  and  keep  the  Honour  of  it  up  in  the  efteern  of  the  people,  com- 
manded that  a  Temple  mould  be  ere&ed  in  Honour  of  his  Uncle,  who  appeared 
to  him,  and  placed  in  the  Countrey  called  Cacha,  which  is  about  fixteen  Leagues 
diftant  from  the  City  to  the  Southward.'  He  ordered,  that  the  Fa  brick  and  Mo- 
del of  it  mould,  as  near  as  could  be  poilible,  imitate,  or  referable  the  place  where 
the  Vifion  preiented  it  felf  -?  which 'was  like  .the  open  Field,  without  covering  5 
joining  unto  which  there  was  to  be  a  littleChapel  with  the  roof  of  Stone,  refem- 
bling  the  hollow  of  the  Rock,  under  whkH  he  repofed  himfelf :  The  whole  Fa- 
brick  was  made  of  Stone  rarely  poliihed,  as  are  all  the  Buildings  of  the  Indies 5 
it  had  four  Doors  correfponding  to  the'  four  Quarters  of  the  Heavens  v  three  of 
them  were  ihut,  being  rather  Portals,  than  Gates,  ferving  for  Ornament  more 
than  Ufe.  The  Gate  which  looked  Eaftward,  was  that  alone  by  which  they  en-' 
tied,  and  by  which  they  went  out,  being  placed  exactly  in  the  middle-,  and  be- 
caufe  the  Indians  were  not  arrived  to  fuch  Excellency  in  Archite&ure,  as  to  lay 
the  weight  of  their  Building  on  Arched  Work ;  they  fupplied  that  defect  by 
ftrong  and  deep  foundations  of  Stone  Walls,  which  were  more  lafting  than  Tim- 
ber, and  for  ever  durable.  Thele  Walls  were  laid  three  Foot  in  thicknefs,  and 
feven  Foot  diftant  each  from  the  other,  making  twelve  feveral  Rows,  or  Ifles  5 
the  top  was  not  covered  with  Boards,  but  paved  Stone,  for  about  ten  Foot  in 
length,  and  half  a  Yard  in  thicknefs  I  At  the  Entrance  to  this  Temple,  turning 
to  the  right  hand,  they  walked  to  the  end  of  the  firft  Ifle  •,  thence  turning  to  the 
left,  they  went  forward  to  the  end  of  this  Walk,  and  then  faced  again  to  the  right, 
and  fo  winding  about  again  through  the  feveral  rows  •-,  they  came  at  length  to  the 
end  of  the  twelfth  Ifle,  where  was  a  Stair-cafe,  by  which  they  afcended  to  the 
top  of  the  Temple.  At  the  Front  of  every  Ifle,  on  each  hand,  there  was  a  Win- 
dow, like  a  Port-hole,  to  let  in  the  light  5  and  below  every  Window  there  was 
a  Nich  made  in  the  Wall  for  a  feat,  where  the  Porter  might  fit,  without  incum- 
bring,  or  Hopping,  the  paflage.  The  Stair-cafe  had  two  paflages,  one  to  go  up, 
and  the  other  to  come  down  5  that  to  go  up  fronted  a  top  with  the  High  Altar : 
The  Floor  above  was  paved  with  a  kind  of  black  Marble,  rarely  poliihed ,  that 
it  looked  like  Jett,  brought  from  fome  Quarry,  far  diftant.  In  place  of  the  High 
Altar  there  was  a  Chapel  of  about  twelve  Foot  fquare,  covered  with  the  fame 
fort  of  black  Stone,  in-laid  in  divers  Figures,  in  form  of  Mofaick  Work,  which 
was  the  moft  excellent  piece  of  Art  in  the  whole  Fabrick :  Within  this  Chapel 
was  the  Image  of  the  Apparition  placed  within  the  hollow  of  the  Wall ,  as  in  a 
Tabernacle,  with  which  two  other  Tabernacles  were  made  to  correfpond  on  each 
fide  for  ornament  and  better  uniformity.  The  Walls  of  this  Temple,  from  the 
top  to  the  bottorcywere  but  three  Yards  in  height,  without  any  Window,  the 
Cornilh  of  which' on  all  fides,  both  within  and  without,  was  made  of  poliihed 
Stone  ;  and  within  the  Tabernacle  of  the  Chapel  was  placed  a  Pedeftal,  on  which 
an  Image  of  Stone  was  erected ,  reprefenting  the  Image  of  the  Apparition ,  in 
fuchfhape  and  figure  as  the  Inca  Viracocha  had  directed.  This  Image  reprefented 
the  figure  of  a  Man,  with  a  Beard  of  about  a  fpan  long,  his  Cloaths  reaching  to\ 
his  feet,  not  very  wide,  but  fomething  fcanty,  like  a  Caflock  :  About  his  Neck 
a  ftrange  kind  of  creature  was  chained, .  with  Claws  like  a  Lion ,  the  Image  hold- 
ing one  of  the  links  of  the  Chain  in  his  hand  5  all  which  was  framed  and  engra- 
ven out  of  Stone :   And  left  the  Workmen,  who  had  never  feen  this  Figure, 

2  fhould 

i  jQ  Royal  Commentaries.  Book  V. 

fhould  miftake  any  thing  of  giving  it  the  due  form  •,  it  is  reported,  that  the  Inca 
himfelf  did  oftentimes  fit,  and  fhew  himfelf  to  them  in  the  fame  habit  and  figure, 
in  which,  he  faid,  the  Apparition  prefented  it  felf :  Nor  would  he  permit,  that 
the  Image  of  the  God  Viracocha  fhould  be  undervalued  by  any  form,  or  other  fliape 
than  that  of  a  King ,  fuch  efteem  and  fuperftition  did  they  conceive  of  their  Idol 

This  Statue  did  fomething  refemble  the  Images  we  make  of  our  Blefied  Apo- 
ftles,  particularly  that  of  St.  Bartholomew,  whom  they  paint  with  the  Devil  at  his 
feet,  as  they  did  this  Figure  o{  Viracocha,  with  fome  unknown  Beaft  couching  be- 
neath him.  The  Spaniards  obferving  this  Temple,  and  the  form  and  fafhion  of 
this  Statue,  will  have  it,  that  the  Apoftle  St.  Bartholomew  came  as  far  as  Peru  to 
Preach  the  Gofpel  to  thefe  Gentiles,  and  that  in  Honour  and  Memory  of  him 
the  Indians  had  erected  this  Temple  and  Image.  And  fuch  as  were  Natives 
of  Coaco,  and  of  the  Mongrel  breed  between  Spanifh  and  Indian  Bloud,  have  for  a- 
bove  thirty  years  paft  Aftociated  themfelves  into  a  Fraternity,  or  Community,  in- 
to which  they  would  not  fuffer  any  Spaniard  to  enter.  Thefe  upon  their  Solemn 
days  are  at  great  Expences,  taking  Si.  Bartholomew  for  their  Apoftle,  and  in  defpight 
of  all  contradiction,  they  will  have  it,  that  he  came  and  preached  in  Peru ,  and 
for  that  reafon  will  own  no  other  than  him  for  their  Patron ;  which  feemeth  a  ri- 
diculous fancy  to  fome  Spaniards,  who  laughing  at  the  bravery  and  fine  Veftments 
they  produce  on  that  day,  tell  them,  that  thisFeftival  and  Proceffion  is  not  defin- 
ed in  Honour  of  the  Apoftle,  but  of  the  Inca  Viracocha. 

But  why  the  Inca  Viracocha  fhould  build  this  Temple  in  Cacha,  rather  than  in 
Chita,  where  the  Spirit  appeared  to  him ,  or  in  Tahuarpampa,  where  the  Victory 
was  fought ;  the  Indians  cannot  well  affign  any  more  probable  and  juft  reafon  for 
it,  than  the  free  will  and  pleafure  of  the  Inca,  unlefs  it  were  fome  fecret  and  hid- 
den caufe,  not  revealed  or  made  known  to  any.  This  Temple  being  of  fuch  an 
odd  and  ftrange  Model,  as  we  have  declared,  was  demolifhed  by  the  Spaniards,  as 
many  other  ftately  Fabricks  in  Peru  have  been  deftroyed  by  them  •,  which  in  my 
opinion  ought  rather  to  have  been  conferved  and  kept  in  good  repair,  that  Ages 
to  come  might  fee  and  know  the  Grandeur  and  Valour  of  their  Anceftours,  who 
were  able  by  their  good  fortune  and  conduit  to  fubdue  a  Nation  which  was  capa- 
ble to  erect  fuch  Buildings  and  Monuments  of  their  Art  and  Wifedom  •,  but  per- 
haps envy  or  feorn  of  that  people  might  have  moved  the  Spaniards  to  deftroy  their 
Works,  not  allowing  them  the  Honour  to  be  maintained  in  repair ;  and  indeed 
the  Dilapidation  hath  been  fo  great',  that  fcarce  one  Stone  remains  on  another? 
the  which  deftruction,  Men  of  Curiofity,  and  Lovers  of  Antiquity,  do  much  la- 
ment. But  the  reafon  which  they  give  for  it  is,  that  they  could  not  be  perfua- 
ded,  but  that  much  Treafure  lay  buried  under  the  Foundation  of  thofe  Buildings, 
which  could  not  be  difcovered,  but  by  a  totaj  Aibverfion  of  the  Fabrick.  The  firft 
thing  demolilhed  in  this  Temple  was  the  Statue,  they  having  an  opinion,  that 
much  Gold  was  buried  under  the  Pedeftal  on  which  it  was  erected :  other  parts  of 
the  Temple  they  digged  up,  fometimes  in  one  place,  and  then  in  another,  untill 
at  length  they-defaced^or  deftroyed  the  whole  Pile  and  Mafs  of  Building :  How- 
foever,  the  Image  of  Stone  is  ftill  in  being  unto  this  day,  though  much  broken  and 
battered  by  the  Stones,  which  they  threw  at  it. 


Book  V.  Royal  Commentaries.  171 


Of  a  famous  Piclure  ;  and  of  the  Reward  which  was  given 
to  thofe  who  affified  the  Prince. 

IN  this  our  difcourfe  concerning  Viracocha,  we  muft  not  omit  to  add  how  much 
joyed  and  pleafed  he  was  with  the  new  Adoration  and  Worlhip  which  the 
Indians  gave  him  •,  fo  that  he  did  not  think  fit  to  terminate  the  Magnificence  of 
his  Royal  Mind  with  the  ftately  Structure  of  this  Temple  onely ,  but  to  extend 
his  A&s  and  Monuments  with  greater  glory  to  pofterity  ;  and  to  this  purpofe  he 
caufed  an  Emblem  to  be  drawn,  representing  the  low  and  mean  fpirit  of  his  Fa- 
ther, and  the  generofity  of  his  own  mind ,  ordering  it  to  be  painted  on  one  of 
thofe  many  Rocks ,  amongft  which  his  Father  abfconded  himfelf ,  when  for  fear 
of  the  Cbaricas,  he  abandoned  and  forfook  his  City.  The  Emblem  was  of  two 
Birds ,  which  the  Indians  call  Cumur ,  which  are  Fowl  of  fuch  large  fpreading 
Wings,  that  they  meafure  five  Yards  from  the  end  of  one  Pinion,  to  the  tip  of 
the  other :  they  are  Birds  of  prey,  and  fo  very  fierce,  that  Nature  denied  them 
Talons  to  their  feet,  giving  them  onely  Claws,  like  thofe  of  a  Herj  ■,  but  their 
Beak  is  fo  ftrong  and  (harp,  that  with  one  nip  they  are  able  to  tear  out  the  Skin 
of  a  Bullock  j  and  two  of  them  are  fufficient  to  kill  an  Ox,  as  if  they  were 
Wolves.  They  are  of  a  brownifh  colour,  with  white  Spots,  like  Pyes.  Two 
Birds  of  this.fort  he  ordered  to  be  painted ,  one  of  them  with  his  Wings  clofe 
clapped  together,  his  Head  fhrung  in,  and  drooping,  like  an  affrighted  Hen,  which 
hides  it  felf,  with  its  Beak  turned  towards  Collafuyu,  and  its  Tail  towards  Cozco  .• 
the  other  Bird  was  on  the  contrary  painted  in  a  Rampant  manner,  with  its  Wings 
extended,  hovering  on  the  Wing ,  and  ready  to  ftoop  at  its  Prey.  The  Indians 
fay,  that  the  firft  of  thefe  reprefented  the  Father  in  his  timorous  and  deje&ed  con- 
dition 5  and  the  other  was  the  Emblem  oiViracocha,  under  the  covering  of  whofe 
Wings  the  City  and  Empire  was  fecured  and  defended. 

This  Picture,  in  the  Year  i  j  8  o,  was  in  being,  and  very  perfect  •,  and  in  the  Year 
i  S9  S>  I  asked  a  certain  Prieft  which  was  born  there,  and  who  came  from  Peru  in- 
to Spain,  if  he  had  feen  it,  and  in  what  condition  it  was?  and  he  told  me,  that  it 
was  fo  defaced  by  Rain,  and  the  weather,  none  taking  care  to  preferve  it,  that  it 
was  fcarce  difcernible  what  it  was  $  the  which  was  the  fate  and  misfortune  alio 
of  divers  other  Antiquities  in  that  Countrey. 

The  Inca  Viracocha  having  in  this  manner  obtained  a  fupreme  and  abfolute  Do- 
minion over  all  his  Subjects,  being  infinitely  beloved,  and  reverenced,  and  adored 
by  them  as  a  God ;  his  great  Work  at  the  beginning  of  his  Reign,  was  to  Eftablifh 
his  Dominions  in  perfect  peace  and  tranquillity  for  the  good  and  benefit  of  all  his 

In  order  unto  which,  the  firft  thing  he  did  was  to  gratifie  and  reward  all  fuch 
with  Favours  and  Honours  who  had  ferved  him  in  the  late  War,  and  taken  Arms 
in  his  affiftence  againft  his  Rebellious  Subjects ;  and  herein  a  more  particular  no- 
tice was  taken  of  the  Sluechua*,  who  belonged  to  the  Countries  of  Cotapampa,  and 
Cotanera ;  for  in  regard  that  they  had  been  very  active  in  promoting  the  intereft 
of  the  l»ca,  and  unanimoufly  arofe  in  Arms  for  his  Aid  and  Defence  •,  he  beftowed 
on  them  the  privilege  of  wearing  their  Hair  {horn ,  and  their  Heads  bound  with 
the  Wreath,  and  of  having  their  Ears  boared  after  the  manner  of  the  Inca*,  though 
the  holes  of  the  Ears  were  not  to  be  fo  wide  as  theirs,  but  proportioned  to  fuch  a 
fee  as  the  firft  Inca,  Manco  Capac,  had  ordained. 

To  other  Nations  he  beftowed  Privileges  of  different  Natures,  as  were  moft 
agreeable  to  their  Countrey,  and  Conditions  •,  and  in  fine,  every  one  remaining 
entirely  fatisfied  and  contented ,  he  vifited  his  feveral  Kingdoms,  affording  to  his 
people  the  fatisfadion  of  beholding  his  Perfon,  which  their  Eyes  fo  much 
longed  to  fee  •,  and  of  whom  fo  many  Wonders  and  Miracles  were  recounted, 

Z  7.  that 

ij2  Royal  Commentaries.  Book  V. 

that  nothing  could  come  more  defirable,  and  nothing  more  welcome  than  his 
Prefence.  Having  in  this  manner  fpent  fome  Years,  he  returned  to  Cozco,  where 
by  advice  of  his  Council ,  he  refolved  to  conquer  thofe  great  Povinces,  which 
are  called,  Caranca,  Vllaca,  Lit  ft  and  Chkha;  the  Subjection  of  which  was  omit- 
ted by  his  Father,  who  was  diverted  from  that  defign  by  the  jealoufie  and  fear 
he  conceived  of  this  his  Son ,  as  we  have  already  mentioned ;  but  now  in  or- 
der to  this  Expedition,  the  Inc*  Viracocha  commanded  that  thirty  thoufand  Soul- 
diers  mould  be  raifed  in  ColLtfuyu ,  and  Cnntifuyu ,  and  put  in  a  readinefs  againft 
the  next  Spring  -,  one  of  his  Brothers,  called  Pahuac  Mayta  Inca ,  he  made  his 
General,  or  Commander  in  Chief  •,  the  Sirname  ot  Pahuac  (which  fignifies  fly- 
ing) was  given  him  for  his  admirable  iwiftnefs,  being  nimble  and  aftive,  beyond 
any  Man  in  his  time. 

For  the  afliftence  of  his  Brother  he  ordained  four  Incas  to  be  Counfellours,  and 
Major-Generals  ,  who  departing  from  Co«e,  collected  their  numbers  and  increa- 
fed  their  Army  in  the  way,  as  they  marched.  At  length  they  arrived  at  the  afore- 
faid  Provinces,  two  of  which,  called  Chica,  and  Ampara,  adored  the  lofty  top  of 
a  fnowy  Mountain  for  their  God-,'  for.  they  admiring  the  Beauty  and  Heighc 
thereof,  from  whence  thofe  Streams  proceeded  which  refrefhed  their  Lands,  and 
made  their  grounds  fruitfull,  they  were  eafily  perfuaded  in  natural  gratitude  to 
own  that  for  their  Deity,  from  whence  they  received  fuch  benefit  and  bleffing. 
In  thefe  proceedings  they  encountred  fome  light  Skirmifhes  with  the  Enemy, 
who  rather  defigned  to  give  a  proof  of  their  warlike  Difpofition ,  than  fight  in 
hopes  of  prevailing  againft  the  Mas,  whofe  Reputation  was  exalted  fo  high  by 
the  Valour  and  Atchievements  of  Viracockt  ;  that  their  power  feemed  invinci- 
ble, and  not  to  be  fubdued  by  humane  force.  For  this  reafon ,  thefe  great  Pro- 
vinces fubmitted  to  the  Dominion  of  the  Incas  yielding  with  more  readinefs,  and 
with  Iefs  danger,  and  lols  of  bloud  than  was  expected  from  a  people,  efteemed 
numerous,  and  of  a  warlike  Temper.  Howfoever  three  years  paft  in  this  expe- 
dition, before  the  Conqueft  was  completed,  and  the  Nations  reduced  to  an  ab- 
folute  and  entire  fubmifuon. 


Of  the  New  Prov'mces,  fubdued  by  the  Inca,  and  of  the 
Chanels  they  made  to  water  their  Paflures. 

THE  Inca  Pahuac  Mayta,  and  his  Uncle  having  concluded  this  War,  and  pla- 
ced Governours  and  Officers  to  rule  and  inftrucl:  their  new  Subje&s,  they 
returned  to Cozco,  where  they  received  from  the  Inca  a  hearty  wellcome,  being 
rewarded  by  him  with  fuch  Honours  and  Favours,  as  their  Services  and  Labours 
had  deferved.  And  now  it  feemed  as  if  the  Inca  Viracocba  had  extended  his 
Territories  to  the  utmoft  limits  of  the  Univerfe,  for  to  the  Eaftward  they  reached 
as  far  as  the  foot  of  the  fnowy  Mountain  5  to  the  Weftward  they  were  bounded 
by  the  Sea;  to  die  Southward  they  extended  to  the  utmoft  parts  of  the  Pro- 
vince of  the  Charcot,  which  are  above  two  hundred  Leagues  diftant  from  the 
City,  fo  that  on  all  thefe  three  Quarters  there  remained  no  farther  Land  to  con- 
quer •,  for  on  one  fide  the  Sea  bounded  their  proceedings,  and  the  Snows,  and 
inacceffible  places  of  the  Mountains  of  Amis  on  the  other  •,  and  to  the  South- 
ward the  Delarts  and  Sands  between  Pern,  and  the  Kingdom  of  Chili,  made  die 
way  impaflable  for  the  march  of  an  Army.  Howfoever  the  Defire  of  Rule,  and 
the  unfatiable  thirft  of  Dominion  moved  the  mind  of  this  Inca  to  bend  his  forces 
towards  the  Northern  Countries,  which  are  in  the  DiviCion  otcbinchafuyu,  and 


Book  V.  Royal  Commentaries.  173 

having  communicated  his  refolution  to  thofe  of  his  Council,  he  appointed  that 
an  Army  mould  be  raifed,  intending  himfelf  in  perfon  to  command  it,  with  the 
afliftence  of  fix  others,  who  were  men  of  Valour  and  Experience.  During  the* 
abfence  of  Viracocha  the  City  was  governed  by  his  Brother  Pahuac-Miyta,  whom 
he  left  Deputy  in  his  place-,  and  all  things  being  provided,  and  in  a  readinefs,  the 
Army  marched  towards  the  parts  of  Chincafiyu,  and  came  to  the  Province  Anta- 
httylla,  which  belongs  to  the  Chancas ,  a  people  branded  with  the  infamous  Epi- 
thete  of  falfe ,  and  treacherous ,  by  realon  of  their  Rebellion  againft  die  Inca, 
which  imputation  hath  fo  clofely  cleaved  to  them  even  to  this  day,  that  (carce  at 
any  time  are  the  Chancas  mentioned  without  the  addition  of  Anca,  wliich  is  as 
much  as  falfe,  or  treacherous;  this  word  alfo  fignifies  a  Tyrant,  a  breakerof  his 
Faith,  and  every  thing  which  denotes  Falfenefs  and  Treachery  :  Moreover  it  may 
ferve  to  exprefs  Contentions,  and  Battels,  by  which  variety  of  fignifications,  we 
may  obferve  how  copious  and  full  this  Language  of  Pern  is,  which  comprehends 
fuch  variety  and  diverfity  of  fenfes  in  one  word. 

The  yoox  Chanca*  confcious  of  their  former  crimes,  feared  greatly  the  approach 
of  the  lnca.  Vlrococha,  left  he  fhould  now  revenge  their  offence  upon  them  5  buc 
then  finding,  contrary  to  all  expectation ,  nothing  but  Mercy  and  Gentieneff  ia 
their  Prince,  they  prefently  quitted  their  Fears,  receiving  him  with  all  the  De- 
monftrations  of  Joy  and  Feftivity,  that  an  afflicted  people  was  capable ,  to  ex- 
prefs. And  to  confirm  them  in  this  good  humour,  he  not  onely  treated  them 
with  gratious  Words,  but  conferred  on  them  Prefents  of  Garments,  and  other 
curiofities.  He  alfo  vifited  the  feveral  Provinces,  taking  care  to  provide  what 
was  wanting,  and  to  amend  that  which  was  amifs;  and  then  appointing  a  Gene- 
ral rendezvous  for  the  whole  Army ,  he  marched  forwards  to  thofe  Countries, 
which  were  not  as  yet  reduced  to  Obedience.  The  firft  and  neareft  province, 
rich  and  populous,  was  Huaytara,  a  people  warlike  and  mutinous,  fuch^as  had 
mewed  themfelves  in  the  Head  and  Van  of  the  Rebels.  But  how  flout  foever 
they  had  been,  fo  foon  as  the  Inca  Viracocha  had  fent  them  a  fummons  by  his  Am- 
bafTadours,  they  with  readinefs  fubmitted  and  obeyed,  coming  forth  with  all  hu- 
mility to  receive  and  acknowledge  him  for  their  Lord  •,  for  as  yet  the  Battel 
of  Tahaar-pampa  was  frefh  in  their  memory ,  and  the  fuccefs  thereof  confirmed 
them  in  a  belief,  that  the  Inca  was  invincible  c  this  humble  Submiffion  met  a 
like  Generofity  in  the  Inca,  who  received  them  with  .a  gratious  acceptance  agree- 
able to  their  Humility,  onely  charging  them  to  live ,  quietly  and  in  peace,  as  be- 
ing moft  for  the  common-  good ,  and  moft  acceptable  to  himfelf. 

Thence  he  marched  forwards  to  another  Province  called  Pocra,  known  fbme- 
times  by  the  name  of  Huamanca;  thence  he  proceeded  to,  Parco, 
Piety  and  Acos,  all  which  chearfully  fubmitted,  efteeming  it  a  great  honour  to  re- 
main under  the  Empire  and  Protection  of  the  Inca,  whole  mighty  Actions  had 
acquired  him  Renown  in  all  Quarters  of  that  new  World.  And  having  thus  gai- 
ned this  people  to  his  power,  he  difpeeded  his  Army  away,  left  they  ihould  be 
burthenfome  to  the  Countrey,  and  then  employed  his  Thoughts  and  Endeavours 
for  fecuring  his  Government ,  and  performing  thofe  matters  wliich  might  con- 
duce to  the  common  Good  and  Welfare  of  the  people  j  particularly  he  opened 
and  made  a  Chanel  of  water ,  of  about  twelve  Foot  in  depth,  running  for  about 
one  hundred  and  twenty  Leagues  in  lengdi :  the  fource  or  head  of  it  arofe  from 
certain  Springs  on  the  top  of  a  high  Mountain,  between  Pare*  and  Piety,  which 
was  fo  plentifull ,  that  at  the  very  head  of  the  Fountains  they  feemed  to  be  Ri- 
vers. This  Current  of  Water  had  its  courfe  through  all  the  Countrey  of  the 
Rucanas,  and  ferved  to  water  the  Pafturage  of  thofe  uninhabited  Lands,  which 
are  about  eighteen  Leagues  in  breadth,  watering  almoft  the  whole  Countrey  of 


There  is  another  Aqueduct  much  like  this,  wliich  traverfes  the  whole  Pro- 
vince of  Cuntijiytt,  running  above  one  hundred  and  fifty  Leagues  from  South  to 
North;  its  Head  or  Original  is  from  the  top  of  high  Mountains,  the  which  Wa- 
ters falling  into  the  Plains  of  the  guechuas,  greatly  refrefli  their  Pafturage,  when 
the  heats  of  the  Summer  and  Autumn  have  dried  and  burnt  up  the  moifture  of  the 
Earth.    There  are  many  Streams  of  like  nature,  which  run  through  divers  parts 


174  Royal  Commentaries  Book  V. 

of  the  Empire,  which  being  conveyed  by  Aqueducts,  at  the  charge  and  expenfe 
of  the  Incus,  are  works  of  Grandeur  and  Oftentation,  and  which  recommend  the 
•  Magnificence  of  the  Incus  to  all  pofterity.  For  thefe  Aqueducts  may  well  be 
compared  to  the  miraculous  Fabricks  which  have  been  the  works  of  mighty 
Princes,  who  have  left  their  prodigious  Monuments  of  Oftentation  to  be  admired 
by  future  Ages-,  for  indeed  we  ought  to  confider,  that  thefe  Waters  had  their 
fourceand  beginning  from  vaft  high  Mountains,  and- were  carried  over  craggy 
Rocks,  and  inacceflible  paiTages-,  and  to  make  thefe  ways  plain,  they  had  no 
help  of  Inftruments  forged  of  Steel  or  Iron,  fuch  as  Pick-axes,  or  Sledges,  but 
ferved  themfelves  onely  of  one  ftone  to  break  another  •,  nor  were  they  acquainted 
with  the  invention  of  Arches,  to  convey  their  Water  on  the  level  from  one  pre- 
cipice to  the  other-,  but  traced  round  the  Mountain,  untill  they  found  ways  and 
paflages  at  the  fame  height  and  level  with  the  Head  of  the  Springs.  The  Ci- 
fterns ,  or  Confervatories,  which  they  made  for  thefe  Waters  at  the  top  of  the 
Mountain,  were  about  twelve  Foot  deep  5  the  paflage  was  broken  through  the 
Rocks,  and  Chanels  made  of  hewen  Stone  of  about  two  yards  long,  and  about 
a  yard  high 5  all  which  were  well  cemented  together,  and  rammed  in  with  earth, 
fo  hard,  that  no  Water  could  pafs  between  to  weaken  or  vent  it  felf  by  the  holes 
of  the  Chanel. 

This  Current  of  Water,  which  pafles  through  all  the  Divifion  QiCumlfuyu,  \ 
have  feen  in  the  Province  of  guechm,  which  is  part  of  that  Divifion,  and  confi- 
dered  it  as  an  extraordinary  Work,  and  indeed  furpafling  the  Defcription  and 
Report  which  hath  been  made  of  it:  But  the  Sfmiards ,  who  were  Aliens  and 
Strangers,  little  regarded  the  convenience  of  thefe  works,  either  to  ferve  them- 
felves of  the  ufe  of  them,  or  keep  them  in  repair-,  nor  yet  to  take  fo  much  no- 
tice of  them,  as  to  mention  them  in  their  Hiftories  -,  but  rather  out  of  a  feorn- 
full  and  difdaining  humour ,  have  fuflered  them  to  run  unto  mine,  beyond  all 

The  fame  fate  hath  befallen  the  Aquedu&s,  which  the  Indians  made  for  wa- 
tering their  Corn-lands,  of  which  two  thirds  at  leaft  are  wholly  deftroyed,  and 
none  kept  in  repair,  unlefs  fome  few,  which  are  (b  ufefull,  that  without  them 
they  cannot  fuftain  themfelves  with  Bread,  nor  with  the  neceflary  provisions  for 
Life.  All  which  works  are  not  fo  totally  deftroyed,  but  that  there  ftill  remain 
fome  mines  and  appearances  of  them. 


Book  V.  Royal  Commentaries. 

CHAP.    XXV. 

The  Inca  vifits  the  remote  parts  of  his  Emfire ,  dnd  Am- 
baffadours  come  thither  to  him  *  offering  the  Subjection, 
and  Vaffalage  of  their  People. 


HE  tic*  Yiracockt  having  provided  all  tilings  towards  the  work  of  this  great 
Aqueduct,  which  was  neceflary  for  watering  the  Herbage  of  thofe  Coun- 
tries, he  palled  from  the  Province  of '  Chinchafuyu,  to  Omfipau,  with  intention  to 
vifit  all  the  parts  of  his  Empire.  The  firft  Provinces  which  offered  in  this  Jour- 
ney,  belonged  to  guechua,  two  of  which  being  of  greater  note,  than  others* 
were  Cotapampa,  and  Cot aner a -,  to  which  the  hca.  made  extraordinary  demonftra- 
tions  of  Honour,  out  of  refpect  to  the  Service  they  had  done  him ,  in  his  late 
War  againft  the  Chancat.  Thence  he  travelled  forwards  through  all  the  other 
Provinces  of  Cmtifttyu,  as  well  the  Mountainous  Countries,  as  the  Plains  and  Val- 
lies,  and  Lands  along  the  Seacoft,  that  fo  no  place  or  Region  might  complain  of 
disfavour,  or  want  of  the  Inca's  pretence,  which  was  the  moft  welcome  and  defi- 
rable  object  to  them  in  the  whole  Univerfe. 

In  all  the  places  where  he  came ,  he  made  ftrid  inquifition  concerning  die  be- 
haviour of  his  Officers  and  Ministers,  and  in  what  manner  they  difcharged  their 
Duty  and  Truft;  fuchaswere  found  guilty  of  any  neglect,  orinjuftice,  he  puni- 
fhed  with  the  utmoft  rigour  and  feverity,  faying,  that  thofe  who  had  made  ufe  of 
the  Royal  Authority  to  pillage  or  opprefs  his  Subjects,  were  more  criminal  than 
thofe  common  Robbers,  who  in  contempt  of  the  Imperial  Ordinances  and  Laws, 
and  by  force  of  their  own  private  power,  invaded  the  Rights  and  Properties  of 
the  People.  From  Cttntifuyu  he  entred  into  the  Provinces  of  ColLtfuyu ,  paffing 
from  one  unto  the  other,  as  they  offered  in  his  way,  all  which  he  comforted  with 
the  Rays  of  his  Favours,  which  he  imparted  in  their  refpe&ive  degrees,  as  well 
to  the  Commonalty,  as  to  the  Curacas  -7  and  on  the  Sea-coaft  he  journyed  as  far  as 

to  Taracapa. 

During  the  flay  which  the  l»ca  made  in  the  Countrey  of  the,  Am- 

bafladours  came  to  him  from  the  Kingdom  o{  Tucma,  which  the  Spaniards 

call  Tucuman ,  being  diftant  about  two  hundred  Leagues  Southwell  from  the 

Chancass  addreffing  themfelves  unto  him  after  this  manner.     "  Moft  mighty 

"  Prince,  Capa  Inca  Vlracocha,  The  Report  of  your  famous  Deeds,   the  Equity 

"  and  Juftice  of  your  Proceedings,  the  Excellency  of  your  Laws ,  inftituted  for 

u  the  fole  Benefit  and  Welfare  of  your  Subjeds ,  the  Purity  of  your  Religion, 

''  Clemency  and  Mercy,  and  the  wonderfull  Miracles  which  your  Father  the  Sun 

'  hath  performed  in  your  favour,  and  for  your  affiftence,  hath  reached  the  utmoft 

"  Confines  of  our  Dominions,  and  is  yet  carried  farther  on  the  Wings  of  Fame  5 

'  the  which  Report  hath  made  fuch  impreflion  on  the  Hearts  of  all  the  Cnrac<u: 

*  of  Tuonan,  that  they  have  fent  us  hither  to  implore  the  powerfull  Protection  of 
u  your  facred  Empire,  and  that  you  would  vouchfafe  to  own  them  for  your  peo- 
'  pie,  and  that  as  fuch  you  would  appoint  Inca*  of  the  Royal  Bloud  to  prefide 
x  over  them,  who  may  not  onely  adminifter  Juftice  to  them,  but  likewife  inftruct 
'  them  in  thofe  Laws,  and  Cuftoms,  and  Religion,  which  they  are  to  obferve ; 
"  in  hopes  and  expectation  of  which,  we  do  here  in  the  name  and  behalf  of  all 
"  our  Kingdom,  proftrate  our  felves  before  you,  as  die  undoubted  Off-fpring  and 

*  Iffue  of  the  Sun,  acknowledging  you  for  our  King,  and  Lord,  and  in  teftimo- 
"  ny  thereof,  we  do  here  offer  our  Perfons,  with  the  Fruit  of  our  Lands,  as  Li- 
'  very  and  Seifin,  and  in  token  and  evidence  that  we  furrender  our  Perfons  and 

Lands  into  your  pofteffion.  Having  faid  thus  much,  they  kid  open  dieir  Pre- 
fents  of  Garments,  made  of  Cotton,  Pots  of  excellent  Honey,  asalfoCorn,  and 
clivers  forts  of  Pulfe ;  but  as  to  Gold,  or  Silver,  they  produced  none,  being  not 


•gn£  Royal  Commentaries.  Book  V. 

of  the  Growth  of  their  Countrey  ■-,  and  which  the  Spaniards,  notwithftanding  the 
fearch  and  purfuit  which  they  made  after  it,  have  not  difcovered  in  thofe  Quar- 

The  Ambaffadours  ha\|ng>made  thefe  Prefents,  they  proftrated  themfelves  with 
profound  reverence  before  the  Inca,  who  received  them  with  a  gratious  acceptance, 
according  to  his  accuftomed  goodnefs  5  and  in  farther  token  of  his  favour,  he  com- 
manded the  Incas,  who  iwere  his  Kindred,  to  drink  with  them,  which  was  the 
greateft  Honour  he  could  confer.  At  this  entertainment  they  were  farther  allu- 
red of  the  Good- will  of  theVw-*,  and  how  much  he  took  this  voluntary  fubmif- 
fion  and  refignation  of  themfelves  and  Countrey  in  good  part ;  in  return  where- 
unto,  they  aflured  them  of  all  the  kind  treatment  imaginable ,  and  that  the  lnca 
diftinguithed  between  thofe,  who  out  of  good-will  and  affe&ion,  freely  became 
his  Subjects ,  and  thofe  who  by  force  of  Arms  were  compelled  to  Obedience. 
Then  they  gave  them  for  Prefents  to  xheir  Curacas,  Veitments  of  fuch  fort  as  were 
made  for  the  lnca,  woven  by  the  hands  of  the  Seled  Virgins,  and  which,  for  that 
reafon,  were  accounted  Divine  and  Sacred  5  and  to  the  Ambaffadours  many  other 
Prefents  were  made  of  different  qualities.  Then  the  Inch  of  the  Royal  Bloud 
were  appointed ,  who  were  to  inftruft  them  in  Religion ,  and  prelide  over  them 
asGovernours  5  that  leaving  their  beftial  and  brutifli  courfe  of  living,  they  might, 
receive  and  obferve  the  Laws  and  Ordinances  of  the  Incas  .-  And  in  company 
with  thefe  Minifters,  feveral  Artifts  and  Workmen  were  fent,  who  were  skilfull 
in  making' Aqueducts,  and  cultivating  die  Lands,  that  fo  by  good  husbandry  the 
Eftate  of  the  Sun,  and  of  the  King,  might  be  improved  and  increafed. , 

The  Ambaffadours  having  been  thus  entertained  for  fome  days  at  the  Court 
of  the  lnca,  where  they  obferved  the  good  Order,  and  Rule,  and  Excellent  Laws 
of  his  Government :  They  confeffed,  that  fuch  Conftitutions  as  thofe  could  have 
no  other  Original  than  from  the  Sun,  or  fomething  Divine  i  and  that  their  own 
Cuftoms  and  Laws  did  partake  of  nothing  but  what  was  brutifh,  and  without  any 
Morality.  And  with  this  confederation  being  made  zealous  for  the  Ws  Service 
and  Glory,  they  expreffed  themfelves  in  this  manner  to  the  lnca:  Sir,  (aid  they,  we 

are  greatly  fenpble  that  the  World  is  made  happy  by  your  Laws  and  Government ;  of  which 
that  every  fart  may  partake  fome  fhare  and  proportion,  we  are  to  make  known  unto  yon,  that 
not  far  from  our  Countrey,  to  the  South- We fi  from  us,  there  lyes  a  Kingdom  called  Chili, 
which  is  very  rich  and  populous  ;  and  though  we  our  f  elves  have  had  no  Commerce,  or  cor- 
refpondence  therewith,  by  reafon  of  thofe  fnowy  Mountains,  and  inacceffible  Paffages,  which 
divide  mfrom  them  •-,  yet  we  have  received  by  an  undoubted  Tradition  from  our  Forefathers ■ 
that  there  is  fuch  a  Nation  worthy  the  Employment  of  your  Arms,  and  of  your  Dominion  : 
Tloe  which  we  the  more  willingly  difcover,  that  fo  they  a/fo  with  m  may  Adore  your  Father 
the  Sun,  and  enjoy  the  fame  common  Benefits  and  Laws  which  are  made  and  defigned  to  civi- 
lize and  improve  the  Nature  of  Mankind.  The  Inca  having  taken  notice  of  this  ad- 
vice, ordered  the  Ambaffadours  to  be  difpatched,  that  they  might  return  again- 
into  their  own  Countrey. 

Thence  he  proceeded  forward  on  his  progrefs  through  all  the  Provinces  of  Col- 
lafuyu,  difperfing  his  Favours  and  Rewards  to  the  Curacas  and  Captains,  not  neg- 
lecting the  Commonalty,  and  people  of  low  degree  and  condition  -,  fo  that  all 
forts,  from  the  higheft  to  the  loweft,  received  particular  fatisfa<5rion  and  content- 
ment from  the  prefence  of  the  Inca  •  For  fo  much  had  the  Fame  of  his  Divine 
Dream,  and  his  Viftory  at  Tahuarpampa,  raifed  his  Efteem  in  the  minds  of  the  peo- 
ple, that  they  not  onely  received  him  with  Joy  and  Acclamations,  but  paid  him 
Divine  Honours  and  Veneration,  as  if  he  had  been  fome  New  God  -,  though 
now  by  the  Mercies  of  the  true  God  they  have  quitted  that  Idolatry ,  and  being 
difabufed,  and  rightly  informed  in  Religion,  they  onely  conferve  a  gratefull  Me- 
mory of  that  King,  who  was  fo  fortunate  and  propitious  to  them  both  in  War 
and  Peace. 

From  Collafuyu  he  paffed  into  Antifuyu,  where  the  people  being  poor  and  mean,  < 
were  not  able  to  demonftrate  fuch  Oftentation  and  Magnificence  as  others  had 
done ;  howfoever,  according  to  their  degree  and  quality,  they  (hewed  as  joyfull  \ 
hearts,  as  their  fimplicity  was  capable  to  exprefs :  In  evidence  of  which,  they  erec- 
ted Triumphal  Arches  in  the  way  by  which  he  was  to  pafs  •>  the  which  being 
formed  of  Timber,  they  covered  withRufhes,  and  crowned  with  Garlands,  (trow- 

Book  V.  Royal  Commentaries.  \nn 

ing  all  the  ways  with  Flowers,  expreffing  the  joyfulnefs  of  their  hearts,  after  the  cu- 
ftome  of  their  Countrey,  and  as  was  Ufual  at  their  greateft  Feftivals.  In  thefe  vifits 
the  inca  fpent  three  years,  not  omitting  at  the  due  feafons  to  celebrate  the  Feafts  of 
the  Sun,  which  they  called  Raymi,  and  Citua .-  And  though  they  could  not  be  per- 
formed with  fuch  Solemnity  as  at  Cozco,  yet  in  compliance  with  their  Religion, 
they  exprefled  their  Devotion  with  fuch  Rites  and  Ceremonies,  as  the  circumftan- 
ces  of  time  and  place  would  admit. 

And  now  having  accomplifhed  his  Progrefs,  he  returned  to  the  City,  where 
his  Prefence  was  greatly  defired,  as  the  Prote&our  and  Defender  of  it,  or  rather 
as  he  who  had  laid  a  new  foundation  of  an  abandoned  and  ruined  place :  And 
therefore  the  Court  and  City  aflbciated  together  with  new  Sonnets  and  Panegy- 
ricks,  compofed  in  his  praife,  to  meet  and  conduct  their  Adored  King  to  his  place 
of  Refidence. 


The  Valiant  Hanco-huallu  flies  out  of  the  Empire  of  the 

THus,  in-the  manner  which  we  have  declared,  this  Inca  travelled  twice  through 
all  Quarters  of  his  Dominions ,  and  when  that  in  his  fecond  Progrefs  he 
palled  through  the  Province  of  the  chkhas,  which  is  the  mod  remote  part  of 
Peru  to  the  Southward,  News  was  brought  him  of  the  flight  of  the  brave  Hanco- 
huallu;  at  which  he  was  greatly  concerned,  wondring  at  the  reafon,  or  caufe,  for 
fuch  a  refolution. 

This  Man,  it  feems,  was  King  of  the  Chancas ;  and  though  for  nine  or  ten 
Years  he  had  proved  the  gentle  Government  of  the  Incas,  who  in  revenge,  or  pu- 
nifhment,  of  his  late  offence,  had  not  diminifhed  the  lead  point  of  his  Power  or 
Jurifdidiion  -,  but  rather,  on  the  contrary,  treated  him  with  due  honour  and  re- 
fpeft  -,  yet  in  regard  that  he  and  his  Forefathers  had  reigned  as  abfolute  Lords 
and  Princes  over  many  Nations,  whom  they  had  fubdued  by  their  Arms  and 
Power  -7  his  generous  fpirit  could  not  yield  to  any  Subordination,  or  hold  his 
Countrey  in  feud  to  a  Superiour :  He  alfo  envied  the  guechuas  for  the  Efteem 
they  had  gained  in  the  favour  of  the  Inca,  by  the  Services,  which  in  the  late  War 
they  had  performed  •,  and  by  whole  means  and  afliftence  the  Vidlory  was  wrefted 
from  himfelf :  Nor  could  he  endure  to  behold  that  people  which  was  Inferiour,  and 
once  truckled  to  him,  to  ftand  now  in  equality,  and  in  competition  with  him  for 
Honour  and  Power :  the  which  unpleafing  imaginations  fo  poflefled  his  difquiet 
mind,  that  contrary  to  the  fenfe  and  opinion  of  the  Lords  and  Nobles  of  his 
Countrey,  he  refolved  to  purchafe  his  own  Liberty,  and  abfolute  Power,  though 
with  the  lofs  and  refignation  of  the  Eftate  he  poflefled  in  his  own  Dominions. 
In  order  hereunto  he  imparted  his  Refolutions  to  certain  Indians,  who  were  his 
Friends,  and  faithfull  to  his  Intereft  •,  giving  them  to  underftand,  that  he  could 
not  fupport  a  Subjection  to  the  Will  and  Dominion  of  another  •-,  and  therefore 
was  refolved  to  Abandon  his  Native  Patrimony  and  Inheritance,  to  recover  an 
Abfolute  Sovereignty  in  remote  parts,  or  dye  in  profecution  of  it.  This  defign 
of  Hanco-huaUu  being  rumoured  abroad  amongft  his  people ,  it  was  agreed,  that 
fuch  Men  as  inclined  to  his  party,  fhould,  with  their  Wives  and  Children,  depart 
privately  in  fmall  Companies,  left  Numbers  of  People  and  Troops  fhould  make 
a  noife,and  give  jealoufie  to  the  Inca  •,  and  that  at  length  they  fhould  aflemble  and 
meet  at  a  general  Rendezvous  in  fome  place  beyond  the  Dominions  of  the  Inca, 
where  he  himfelf  would  follow  after  tnem,  and  appear  in  the  Head  of  them  as 

A  a  their 

j«8  Royal  Commentaries.  Book  V. 


their  King  and  Leader.  This  feemed  to  he  the  rr.oft  agreeable  couniei,  and  beft 
expedient  to  recover  their  Liberty  $  for  that  it  were  a  folly,  and  rafhnefs,  to  en- 
deavour it  by  force,  or  to  fet  op  their  Power  againft  the  Fu;  (lance  of  the  Inc*  i 
Nay,  though  fuch  a  defign  Ihould  feem  feafibie,  and  practicaole,  yet  coniidering 
the  gentlenets  of  the  hca,  and  with  what  kindnefs  and  humaniry  he  had  returned 
the  Acts  of  HoftUities  which  they  had  offered  him,  it  would  feem  a  part  of  in- 
gratitude and  perfidioufnefs,  which  could  not  enter  into  the  Breaft  of  a  Gene- 
rous Prince  to  rife  again  in  Arms  againft  him :  But  then  to  recover  their  Li- 
berty by  a  peaceable  furrender  of  their  Eftates  and  Power,  was  not  onely  inno- 
cent and  inoftenfive,  but  allowable  alio  under  the  ftrifteft  circumftances  and  ob- 
ligations by  which  they  were  bound  to  the  Inca,  than  whom  there  could  not  be 
a  more  benign,  and  more  indulgent  King  in- the  whole  Univerfe. 

With  thele  Arguments  and  Reafons  the  brave  Hjmca-huallu  prevailed  on  the 
minds  of  thofe  to  whom  he  firft  communicated  his  defign  •-,  and  they  whifpering 
it  one  to  the  other,  it  became  the  common  difcourfe  •■,  and  found  fuch  a  general 
approbation  and  concurrence,  that  the  Chancas,  who  naturally  loved  their  Lord 
and  Sovereign,  were  eafily  perfuaded  to  run  the  fortune  of  their  Prince  •-,  fo  than 
in  a  fhort  time  they  numbred  8000  fighting  Men ,  which  in  a  Body  marched  out 
of  theirCountrey,  befides  Women  and  Children,  under  the  Command  and  Con- 
duel  of  the  Valiant  Hamo-huallu  -7  the  fame  of  whofe  Courage,  and  the  fiercenefe 
of  the  Chancas,  who  were  always  reputed  for  a  fighting  and  warlike  Nation,  (truck 
fuch  terrour  in  all  places  and  regions  through  which  they  marched,  that  none  durft 
oppofe ,  or  interrupt  them  in  their  paflage :  The  fear  likewiie  of  them  caufed 
the  Inhabitants  to  furnilh  them  with  Provifions  untill  they  came  to  the  Provinces 
of  Jarma  &nd'Pnmpu,  which  are  about  70  Leagues  diftant  from  their  own  Coun- 
trey.  And  though  in  this  March  they  encountred  certain  inconfiderable  Skir- 
mifiies,  and  could  eafily-have  overcome  the  Natives,  and  planted  themfelves  in 
their  pofleftions  5  yet  they  Teemed  as  yet  to  have  too  near  a  Neighbourhood  with 
the  Empire  of  the  Inca,  whofe  ambition  might  foon  arrive  them,  and  bring  them 
under  the  fame  fubje&ion  from  which  they  fled,  and  endeavoured  to  avoid  :  For 
which  reafon  they  marched  forward,  removing  themfelves  as  far  as  it  was  poffible 
from  the  reach  of  die  Inca,  at  leaft  to  fuch  a  diftance,  as  during  his  life,  it  was 
not  probable  that  his  Arms  could  extend.  With  this  intention  they  travelled, 
bending  on  the  right  hand  towards  the  great  Mountains  of  Amis,  with  defign  to 
inhabit  there,  and  people  thofe  places  which  were  moft  commodious  for  Humane 
life.  Thofe  of  this  Nation  of  the  Chancas  report,  that  they  removed  200  Leagues 
from  their  own  Land,  but  at  what  place  they  entred,  or  what  parts  they  peopled,  it 
is  not  certain-,  onely  that  they  entred  by  a  great  River,  and  planted  their  Colonies 
by  the  banks  of  a  great  Lake,  where  it  is  faid,  they  encreafed  in  fuch  Riches,  and 
performed  fuch  mighty  Acts,  that  they  feem  rather  Romances ,  than  Reports  fie 
for  a  true  Hiftory.  And  though  we  may  believe,  or  fanfie  nothing  too  great  for 
the  Courage  and  Wifedom  of  Hanco-hmHu  ;  yet  his  Actions  not  falling  within  the 
fubjeft  of  our  Hiftory,  we  (hall  put  a  period  to  a  Relation  of  them  in  this  place, 
as  impertinent  and  foreign  to  our  prefent  difcourfe. 


■        y 

Book  V.  Royal  Commentaries.  s  17^ 

C  H.A  P.    XXVII. 

Of  the  Colonies  fent  to  inhabit  the  Lands  of  Hanco-huallu ; 
and  the  Defer  iption  of  the  Valley  of  Yucay. 


TH  E  Inca  Viracocha  was  much  furprifed  With  the  News,  that  Hanco-huallu  wa? 
fled-,  and  had  abandoned  his  Countrey,  which  he  would  have  prevented 
had  he  been  pre-advifed  of  his  Intention  •,  but  fince  now  there  was  no  remedy, 
and  that  no  caufe  was  given  to  move  or  force  his  departure,  the  hca  was  the  lefs 
concerned,  though  the  people  were  generally  rejoyced  at  his  Flight,  to  whom 
the  Humour  and  haughty  Difpofition  of  a  Prince,  like  him,  was  never  pleafant. 
The  News  of  the  flight  o{  Hanco-huallu,  with  all  the  particulars  of  it,  being  made 
known  and  confirmed ;  the  Inca  commanded  his  Brother  Pahuac  Mayta,  whom  he 
had  left  Governour  at  Cozco,  with  two  others  of  his  Council,  to  pais  with  a  con- 
siderable number  of  Souldiers,  into  the  Countrey  of  the  Chance,  there  to  fee  and 
inform  themfelves  of  the  true  ftate  of  that  remaining  people,  whom  they  were  to 
treat  andcarefs  with  all  gentlenefs,  giving  them  comfort  and  aflurance  of  Protec- 
tion 5  for  that  though  their  Prince  was  fled,  yet  they  mould  not  want  the  care  of 
the  Inca,  who  was  both  more  able  to  defend  them,  as  alfo  more  mild  and  loving 

than  their  fierce  Hanco-huallu. 

Thefe  Twos'  having  vifited  all  the  Provinces  belonging  to  the  Chancas,  and  dif- 
pofed  them  to  a  quiet  and  fatisfied  condition,  they  went  to  the  two  famous  For- 
trefles  of  Hanco-huallu,  built  by  his  AnceftourS  called  Cha/lcu  marca,  and  Sura  mar' 
ca;  Marca  in  that  Language  Signifying  a  Caftle  or  Fortrefs.   In  thefe  places  Hanco- 
huallu  palled  fome  days  before  his  departure,  which  (as  the  Indians  report)  he  was 
more  troubled  to  leave,  than  all  the  other  pofleffions  he  enjoyed  in  his  Domini- 
ons. The  difturbance  which  the  flight  of 'Hanco-huallu  had  caufed,  and  die  confter- 
nation  in  the  minds  of  the  People,  being  in  fome  manner  quieted  and  appeafed  5 
and  all  other  matters  of  the  Empire  being  well  ordered  and  eftablifhed,  the  lnca 
returned  again  to  Coz,co  to  enjoy  the  fruits  of  Peace,  and  employ  his  time  in  the 
adminiftration  of  Juftice,  and  performance  of  matters  beneficial  to  the  wellfare  of 
his  Subjects  •,  hoping  that  with  time  the  fears  artti  jealoufies  which  Hanco-hu*llu 
had  raifed,  would  blow  over,  and  vanifh.    The  firft  thing  therefore  that  he  did 
was  to  publiih  certain  Laws,  which  in  that  conjuncture  of  Affairs  werefeafona- 
ble  and  convenient,  and  which  ferved  to  prevent  infurre&ions  of  the  like  nature 
for  the  furure.    Next  he  fent  a  Colony  of  about  ten  thoufand  Perfons,  under  the 
Command  (tineas,  into  the  Countrey  of  the  Chancas,  to  fupply  the  places  of  thofe 
who  were  flam  in  the  Battel  oiTahuar-pampu,  and  of  thofe  who  had  deferted  their 
Countrey  in  company  with  Hanco-huallu.    Then  he  appointed  feveral  fumptuous 
Houfes  to  be  built  in  all  places  of  his  Empire,  particularly  in  the  valley  otTucay, 
which  is  lower  than  Tampu.    For  this  Valley  is  the  moft  pleafant  and  delightful! 
place  in  all  Peru  •,  having  for  that  reafon  been  chofen  by  all  the  Kings,  fince  the  time 
of  Manco  Capac,  for  their  Garden,  and  place  of  Recreation  •-,  to  which  they  often 
retired,  to  refrefh  and  divertife  themfelves  after  the  toils  and  labours  which  are 
incident  to  Government.    The  fituation  of  it  is  about  four  Leagues  diftant  North- 
eaft  from  the  City,  in  a  moft  fweet  and  healchfull  Air,  where  the  Climate  is  fo 
temperate,  that  neither  cold  or  heat  are  in  excefs  •,  the  Waters  are  excellent  and 
cool,  nor  are  the  Flies  or  Gnats  troublefome,  or  any  other  infect  there  poifonous 
or  vexatious.    Ic  is  placed  between  two  Mountains,  that  to  the  Eaft  is  the  fnowy 
Mountain,  an  arme  of  which  extends  to  the  plain,  and  fupplies  it  with  continued 
ftreams,  from  which  they  draw  feveral  Branches,  and  convey  it  by  Chanels  to  wa- 
ter their  Grounds.    Though  the  middle  of  this  Mountain  be  lofty,  rugged  and  af- 
perous  -,  yet  at  the  foot  and  skirts  of  it  are  verdant  Paftures,  and  Lands  abounding 
with  Fruits:    where  alio  are  all  forts  of  Game ,  fuch  as  Stags ,  and  Fallow-Deer, 

A  a  2  the 

180  Royal  Commentaries.  Book  V. 

the  Httanacws  and  Vicunna,  (which  is  a  Mountain  Goat,  from  whence  they  have 
the  Bezar-ftone,)  asalfo  Partridges,  and  all  forts  of  other  Fowl*  and  though  the 
havock  which  the  Spaniards  have  made  hath  deftroyed  all  the  Game  in  thofe 
parts,  yet  in  the  place  thereof  they  have  planted  Vines,  and  Fruit-trees,  and  Su- 
gar-canes, which  is  the  improvement  they  have  maderin  that  quarter.  The  other 
Mountain  to  the  Weft  is  not  fo  high,  or  lofty,  being  not  above  a  League  in  the 
afcent.  At  the  foot  thereof  runs  the  plentifull  River  ofYucay,  deep,  and  not  ra- 
pid, but  parting  with  a  fmooth  and  gentle  Current,  and  therefore  abounds  with 
great  quantities  of  excellent  fi(h ,  and  is  frequented  with  Hearns,  Wild-Ducks, 
and  all  forts  of  Water-fowl.  Thofe  that  were  fick  at  Cozco,  which  is  a  cold  and 
iharp  Air,  and  therefore  not  fo  proper  for  infirm  Bodies  ufually  reforted  thither  to 
recover  their  healths-,  fo  that  there  is  now  no  Spaniard  who  lives  at  Cozco,  and 
efteemed  a  Man  of  an  Eftate,  but  who  hath  a  Country-houfe,  or  fome  pofleffion 
in  that  Valley.  This  lma  Viracocha  had  a  particular  delight  and  afte&ion  for  that 
places  and  therefore  built  feveral  Houfes  there,  both  for  oftentation,  andforplea- 

He  enlarged  the  Temple  of  the  Sun,  both  in  the  Building,  and  alfo  in  the  num- 
ber of  Servants  and  Officers,  endowing  it  with  a  Revenue  agreeable  to  the  En- 
largement. And  as  all  the  Incas  conceived  a  particular  Veneration,  and  Devotion 
for  that  Temple,  fo  Viracocha  feemed  more  fenfibly  affe&ed  from  his  religious  fer- 
vour to  that  Spirit  which  appeared  to  him. 


The  Name  which  Viracocha  gave  to  his  E/deft  Son ;   and 
his  Prophecy  concerning  the  Inuafion  of  the  Spaniards. 

WE  have  feen  already  by  what  hath  preceded,  in  what  manner  Viracocha  paf- 
fed  fome  years,  and  in  what  tranquillity  and  profperity  he  governed  his 
Empire.    We  are  now  to  fpeak  of  his  Children  and  Family  •,  his  Elded:  Son  was 
born  of  Coya  Mama  Runtn,  who»was  his  Sifter,  and  true  and  lawfull  Wife  -,  he  was 
at  firft  called  Tim  Manco  Capac,  though  afterwards  by  the  laft  Will  and  Appoint- 
ment of  his  Father,  his  Name  was  changed  to  Pachacutec,  which  fignifies  as  much 
as  one  who  fubverts  the  World,  or  turns  it  upfide  down  5  and  though  it  was  com- 
monly taken  in  the  worft  fenfe,  for  fome  alteration  from  bad  to  worfe,  yet  it  is 
faid  he  was  fo  affected  with  this  Word,  that  he  was  defirous  to  have  called  him- 
lelf  by  that  Name  j  but  in  regard  that  the  Name  of  Viracocha  was  ft»  dilated  over 
all  Countries,  and  the  Voices  of  the  people  fo  accuftomed  to  it-,  that  he  could 
not  aflume  that  Appellation  to  himfelf,  yet  he  was  defirous  to  communicate  it  to 
his  Son,  being,  as  he  believed,  a  means  to  keep  alive  the  memory  of  the  Appa- 
rition, and  the  renowned  A&ions  of  his  Father.  Acofta  in  the  zoth  Chap,  of  his  6th 
Book  faith,   "  That  the  people  were  fo  much  fcandalized  at  the  Name  of  Viracocha, 
"  which  this  lma  took  to  himfelf,  becaufe  it  was  the  proper  name  of  God,  that 
"  he  was  forced  to  clear  himfelf  of  this  prophanation ,  by  faying  that  the  Spirit 
"  which  appeared  to  him  in  his  Dream,  had  commanded  him  to  take  that  Name 
"  and  Title  upon  himfelf:    And  that  the  lma  Pachacuti,  who  fucceeded  him,  was 
"  a  great  Souidier  and  Politician,  having  invented  many  fuperftitious  rites,  which 
"  he  introduced  into  the  Worfhip  of  their  Religion  $  which  are  the  words  with 
which  Acofta  concludes  that  Chapter:    All  which  is  in  confirmation  of  what  I 
have  faid,  namely,  that  a  Vifion  appeared  to  him  in  his  Dream ,  that  he  took 
the  Name  of  that  Apparition,  and  that  afterwards  he  gave  the  Name  of  Pachacu- 
tec to  the  Son  who  fucceeded  him. 


Book  V.  Royal  Commentaries.  \%i 

The  Name  of  the  Queen  was  Mama  Rimh  ,  which  Word  Runtu  fignifies  an 
Egg,  fo  called,  becaufe  of  the  whiteneis  of  her  Face  being  perhaps  fairer  than  the 
Women  commonly  are  of  that  Countrey. 

The  Indians  report,  that  ilm  Viracocha  was  the  Authour  of  the  Prophecy  which 
foretold  the  Invafion  of  the  Spaniards,  and  was  conferved  amongfr  the  Archives 
of  the  Kings  of  Peru:  which  was,  "  That  at  a  certain  period  of  Years  after  the 
"  fucceffion  of  fuch  a  number  of  Kings,  there  fhould  come  a  fort  of  people  from 
u  far  remote  Countries,  never  feen,  or  known  before  in  thofe  Regions,  who  fliould 
"  take  away  their  Religion,  and  fubvert  their  Empire.  The  fubftance  of  which 
Prophecy  was  contained  in  two  fuch  obfcure  Sentences,  as  were  difficult  to  be  ex- 
plained or  interpreted.  The  Indians  fay,  that  this  Inca,  after  the  fuccefs  and  veri- 
fication of  his  Dream ,  became  the  Oracle  of  Mankind  3  for  that  the  Amatttas , 
who  were  the  Philofophers  of  thofe  times,  as  alfo  the  High  Prieft,  and  the  moft 
Ancient  Elders  of  the  Temple  of  the  Sun,  who  were  the  Magicians ,  that  preia- 
ged  of  things  to  come,  did  often  interrogate  him  concerning  his  Dream,  and  of 
Comets  feen  in  the  Heavens,  as  alfo  of  Divinations  by  the  flying  and  finging  of 
Birds,  and  of  feveral  other  fuperftitious  Prognoftications  which  they  made  from 
their  Sacrifices,  and  Entrails  of  Beafts;  and  to  all  theRefponfes  which  Viracocha 
made  to  their  Enquiries,  they  yielded  entire  Faith  and  Credence,  efteeming  him 
the  Oracle,  and  chief  in  Divination:  What  he  delivered  in  this  manner,  was 
judged  worthy  to  be  conferved  by  Tradition  in  the  memory  of  their  Kings  onely  ■-, 
and  that  the  knowledge  of  fuch  divine  Revelations  was  not  to  be  made  com- 
mon, or  prophaned  by  the  Difcourfe  of  the  People;  for  that  it  was  not  fit  for 
them  to  be  pre-acquainted  with  the  times  and  feafons,  when  their  Idolatrous  Wor- 
fhip  mould  nave  an  end,  and  the  Empire  be  overthrown,  and  the  Divinity  of  the 
Mm  queftioned,  and  changed  into  the  ftate  and  common  condition  of  humane 
kind.  For  which  reafon  there  was  no  farther  mention  made  of  this  Prophecy, 
untill  the  time  ofHuajna  Capac,  who  revealed  it  openly  a  little  before  his  Death , 
as  we  fhall  hereafter  declare  more  at  large;  though  fome  Hiftorians  make  but  a 
fhort  tale  of  it,  and  fay,  that  a  God  which  the  Indians  worihipped,  called  Tied 
Wracocha,  delivered  this  Prophecy.  But  for  what  I  have  delivered  herein,  I  have 
the  authority  of  an  old  tea,  whom  I  have  often  heard  recount  the  Fables  and 
Antiquities  of  their  Kings  in  prefence  of  my  Mother. 

And  in  regard  the  coming  of  the  Spaniards  into  Peru,  and  the  Conqueft  of 
it  by  them  •-,  the  deftruction  of  their  Idolatry,  and  the  preaching  of  the  Gofpel  of 
Chrift  in  thofe  parts,  did  correfpond  with  the  Prophecy  of  Viracocha;  the  Indians 
did  therefore  give  the  Name  of  Viracocha  to  the  Spaniards ,  fanfying  them  to  be 
,  Sons  of  that  imaginary  God,  whom  he  had  purpofely  fent  (as  we  have  already 
laid)  to  relieve  the  Incas  from  Ae  Opprefiion  and  Violence  of  the  cruel  Tyrant, 
Thus  we  have  curforily  touched  on  this  wonderfull  Prophecy ,  which  for  many 
years  had  been  revealed  to  the  toa-l&ngs--,  and  which  was  afterwards  accomplim- 
ed  in  the  Reigns  ofHuafcar,  and  Jtahualpa,  which  were  great  Grandchildren  to 
the  third  Generation  to  this  Inca  Viracocha. 


jg2  Royal  Commentaries.  Book  V. 


Of  the  Death  0/ Viracocha;  and  how  the  Authour  [aw  his 

AT  length  the  Inca  Viracocha,  in  the  Height  of  Majefty,  and  Zenith  of  his 
Profperityl,  fubmitted  to  the  common  fate  of  Mankind  •,   he  was  gene- 
rally lamented,  and  bewailed  by  all  the  Empire,  and  adored  afterwards  as  a  Child 
of  the  Sun,  to  whom  they  offered  Prayers  and  Sacrifices.    He  left  to  Pachacmec, 
his  Eldeft  Son,  the  Inheritance,  befides  whom  he  had  many  legitimate  Sons  and 
Daughters  of  the  Royal  Bloud,  with  others  born  to  him  by  his  Concubines:  he 
conquered  and  reduced  Eleven  Provinces,  four  of  which  were  to  the  South  of 
Cozco,  and  feven  towards  the  North.    It  is  not  certainly  known  to  what  age  he 
lived,  nor  how  long  he  reigned,  though  according  to  common  report,  he  gover- 
ned above  fifty  Years  ;  and  fo  he  feemed  to  me  to  have  been  an  ancient  Man,  when 
I  faw  his  Body  at  Cozco,  about  the  beginning  of  the  Year  1 570.  which  was  the 
time  when  I  was  upon  my  departure  for  Spain;  and  then  I  remember,  that  going 
to  take  my  leave  of  the  Governour',  or  Chief  Juftice  of  the  City ,  called  Paul 
Ondegardo,  a  Native  of  Salamanca;  amongft  other  Favours  which  he  did  me,  he 
was  pleafed  to  lead  me  into  an  inward  room,  and  there  tell  me,  that  before  I  de- 
parted it  would  be  convenient  for  me  to  have  a  fight  of  fome  of  my  Relations, 
that  fo  I  might  have  another  Story  to  tell  of  them  in  Spain  %  with  that  he  (hewed 
me  five  Bodies  of  Incas,  three  of  Men,  and  two  of  Women;  one  of  which 
the  Indians  report  to  have  been  the  Body  of  Viracocha,  which  feemed  to  be  ve- 
ry aged,  the  Hairs  of  the  Head  being  as  white  as  Snow :    The  fecond  they  fay 
was  the  Great  Tupac  Tupanqui,  who  was  great  Grandfbn  to  Viracocha:    The  third 
was  Huajna  Capac,  the  Son  of  Tupac  Tupanqui;   and  Grandfon  of  the  »Fourth 
Generation  to  Viracocha ;  the  two  laft  were  Men  with  gray  Hairs,  yet  did  not 
(eem  fo  aged  as  Voracocha.    One  of  the  Women  was  laid  to  be  the  Body  of 
the  Queen  Mama  Runtu,  Wife  of  Viracocha;  the  Other  of  Coya  Mama  Occlo,  Mo- 
ther of  Huayna  Capac;  and  it  is  probable  that  thej  might  be  Husband  and  Wife, ! 
confidering  that  the  Bodies  were  laid  and  found  fo  clofe  together;  and  what  is 
more  ftrange,  thefe  Bodies  were  more  entire  than  the  Mummies,  wanting  nei- 
ther Hairjon  the  Head,  nor  Eye-brows ,  and  even  the  very  Eye-lafhes  were  vi- 
fible.    They  were  clothed  with  the  fame  fort  of  Garments  which  they  wore 
in  their  Life  time-,  the  Lift  or  Wreath  appeared  about  their  Heads,  which  was 
all  the  Badg  or  Ornament  they  (hewed  of  their  Royal  Dignity.  The  pofture  they 
were  in  was  fitting,  after  the,  manner  of  the  Indians,  their  Hands  crofted  on  their 
Breafts,  with  the  right  hand  upon  the  left,  their  Eyes  caft  downwards  looking 
towards  the  Earth.    Acofta  it  feems  had  feen  one  of  thefe  Bodies ,  of  which  dii- 
courfing  in  the  2 1  ft  Chap,  of  his  6th  Book,  faith,    "  That  it  was  fo  well  con- 
"  ferved  by  a  certain  fort  of  bituminous  matter,  with  which  they  embalmed  it,  j 
"  that  it  feemed  to  be  alive;  die  Eyes  were  fo  well  counterfeited  by  a  mixture  of 
"  Gold,  that  they  feemed  lively  and  natural.    I  muft  confefs,  that  my  want  of  | 
Curiofity  did  not  move  me  to  make  fo  narrow  a  fcrutiny  into  this  matter,  as  I  \ 
fliould  have  done,  had  I  believed  that  I  (hould  have  had  occafion  to  write  of  them ; : 
for  then  I  (hould  not  onely  have  viewed  and  confidered  the  Bodies  them  (elves 
more  exactly,  but  alio  have  made  enquiry  of  the  Natives  concerning  the  manner  j 
and  receipt  of  this  way  of  embalming-,  which  perhaps  they  might  rather  have  im- 
parted to  me,.,  who  am  a  Native,  and  one  of  their  Relations,  than  to  the  Spam* 
hrds,  who  are  Strangers  and  Aliens  to  them,  unlets  perhaps  the  Art  and  Secret  isj 
loft  amongft  them,  as  many  other  things  are,  of  the  like  nature.    For  my  part,  if' 
could  not  difcover  any  thing  of  this  bituminous  matter,  of  which  Acofta  (peaks, 
though  certainly  there  muft  have  been  fome  excellent  Secret ,  without  which 
it  was  impoffible  to  have  conferved  Bodies,  with  their  Flefli  fo  plump  and  full! 


Book  V.  Royal  Commentaries.  183 

as  thefe  were.  This  Acofta  treating  farther  of  thefe  Bodies,  in  the  6th  Chapter 
of  his  jth  Book,  hath  thefe  Words  which  follow.  "  In  the  firft  place,  faith  he, 
"  they  had  an  Art  fo  conferve  the  Bodies  of  their  Kings,  and  Great  Men,  with- 
"  out  ftinking  or  corruption,  for  the  fpace  of  above  two  hundred  Years  •-,  in  which 
"  manner  the  Bodies  of  the  /w*-Kings  were  found  at  Cczco,  erefted  in  their  Cha- 
"  pels  and  Oratories,  where  they  were  adored ;  which  the  Marquefs  of  Camete, 
"  when  he  was  Vice-roy  of  the  Indies,  caufed  to  be  removed  from  thence,  that  lie 
"  might  abolith  the  Idolatrous  Worftiip,  which  they  performed  towards  them, 
"  and  tranfported  three  or  four  of  them  to  a  place  called  the  King's  Town  5  which 
*  appeared  very  flrange  and  ftupendious  to  the  Spaniards,  to  fee  Bodies  after  fo 
"  many  years  fo  firm  and  found  as  they  were.  Thefe  are  the  Words  of  Acofta, 
from  whence  I  obferve,  that  thefe  Bodies  had  been  removed  to  the  King  s  Town 
almoft  twenty  years  before  he  had  a  fight  of  them  •-,  which  being  a  hot  and  moift 
Air,  was  more  apt  to  taint  and  corrupt  Fleih,  than  the  cold  and  dry  Air  of  Cozco 3 
and  yet  notwithstanding  he  faith ,  That  twenty  Years  after  their  removal  they 
were  flill  firm  and  uncorrupt,  as  formerly,  and  appeared  with  iuch  Life,  that  they 
wanted  onely  Speech  to  make  them  feem  to  be  living.  I  am  of  opinion,  that  the 
way  to  conferve  Bodies,  is  after  they  are  dead  to  carry  them  to  the  Mountains  of 
Snow,  where  being  well  dried,  and  congealed  by  the  cold,-  and  all  humours  con- 
fumed  and  digefted  •■,  then  afterwards  to  apply  that  bituminous  matter,  which  may 
plump  up  the  Flelh ;  and  render  it  full  and  folid  as  the  Living.  But  I  onely  ad- 
venture on  this  conjecture,  from  what  I  have  feen  the  Indians  doe ,  when  they 
have  carried  a  piece  of  raw  Flelh  into  the  cold  Mountains,  where  after  it  hath 
been  well  dried  by  the  Froft ,  they  have  kept  it  as  long  as  they  pleafed  with- 
out {alt,  or  any  other  prefervative*  and  this  was  the  manner  which  the  Incas  ufed, 
for  drying  and  keeping  all  the  flelli  Provifions  which  they  carried  for  Food  to 
maintain  their  Army.  I  remember  that  I  once  touched  a  ringer  ■  of  Huayna 
Capac,  which  feemed  to  me  like  a  flick  of  wood-,  and  fo  light  were  thefe  Bodies, 
that  an  Indian  could  eafily  carry  one  of  them  in  his  Armes,  or  on  his  Shoulders, 
to  the  Houfes  of  Spanijb  Gentlemen,  who  defired  to  fee  them.  When  they  car- 
ried them  through  the  Streets ,  they  covered  them  with  white  Linen  ,  and  the 
Indians  falling  down  on  their  knees  before  them,  fighed,  and  wept,  Ihewing  them 
all  the  reverence  imaginable  ^  and  fome  of  the  Spaniards  alfo  would  take  off  their 
Ops,  and  uncover  their  Heads  to  them,  as  they  patted,  in  teflimony  of  the  re- 
fped:  they  bore  to  the  Bodies  of  Kings  ■-,  with  which  the  Indians  were  fo  pleafed, 
and  overjoyed,  that  they  knew  not  in  what  manner  to  exprefs  their  thankfulnefs 
to  them. 

This  is  all  that  we  have  been  able  to  deliver  concerning  the  Actions  ofPlraco- 
cha  in  particular  -,  the  other  Monuments  and  Sayings  of  this  famous  King  are  loft, 
for  want  of  Letters  and  Learning  to  record  them  to  poflerity,  and  have  incurred 
the  Fate  of  many  famous  Men,  whofe  glorious  Exploits  and  Deeds  have  been 
buried  in  the  Graves  with  them. 

Onely  Bias  Vakra  reports  one  memorable  Saying  of  this  Viracocha,  which  being 
often  repeated  by  him,  was  obferved  by  three  Mai,  who  kept  it  in  remembrance 5 
as  alfo  the  Sayings  of  fome  other  Kings,  which  we  fhall  hereafter  fpecifie.  That 
which  this  Inca  delivered,  had  reference  to  the  education  of  Children,  of  which 
he  was  made  the  more  fenfible ,  by  that  Severity  and  Disfavour  with  which  he 
was  treated  by  his  Father  in  the  time  of  his  Minority  -,  bis  Saying  was  this,    That 

Parents  are  oftentimes  the  caufe  of  mine  to  their  Children,  when  either  they  educate  them 
with  fuch  fondnefs,  that  they  never  crofs  them  in  their  Wills,  or  de fires,  but  fujfer  them  to 
all  and  doe  whatfoever  they  pleafe,  whereby  they  become  fo  corrupt  in  the  manners  of  their  in- 
fancy-, that  Vice  grows  ripe  with  them  at  the  Tears  of  Manhood.  Others ,  on  the  contrary , 
are  fo  fevere  and  cruel  to  their  Children,  that  they  breaks  the  tender nefs  of  their  Spirits,  and 
affright  them  from  learning ,  difcouraging  them  in  that  manner  by  menaces  and  leEtxres 
of  a  fupercilious  Pedant ,  that  their  Wits  are  abafed,  and  defpair  of  attaining  to  knowledge 
and  vert  ue.  The- way  is  to  keep  an  indifferent  mean  between  both,  by  which  Touth  becomes 
valiant  and  hardy  in  War,  and  wife  and  political  in  the  time  of  Peace.  With  which  Blot 
Valera  concludes  the  Reign  of  this  Inca  Viracocha. 



Royal  Commentaries, 


C  H  A  P.    I. 

Of  the  Buildings ,    Ornament  and  Furniture  of  the  Royal 

THE  Services  and  Ornaments  of  the  Royal  Palaces  belonging  to 
the  Kings  of  Peru,  were  agreeable  to  the  Greatnefs,  Riches  and 
Majefty  of  their  Empire,  with  which  alfo  correfponded  the  Mag- 
nificence of  their  Court  and  Attendance-,  which,  ifwellconlid'e- 
red,  might  equal,  if  not  exceed  the  State  and  Grandeur  of  all  the 
Kings  and  Emperours  of  the  Univerfe.  As  to  their  Houfes  and 
Temples,  Gardens  and  Baths,  they  were  all  built  of  Free  Stone,  rarely  well  po- 
liced, and  fo  well  joined  together,  and  fo  clofe  laid,  that  they  admitted  no  kind 
of  Cement-,  the  truth  is,  if  any  were  ufed,  it  was  of  that  fort  of  coloured  Mor- 
tar which  in  their  Language  they  call  Llancac  Allpa,  which  is  a  fort  of  (limy  Ce- 
ment, made  up  like  a  Cream,  which  fo  united  and  clofed  the  Stones  together, 
that  no  feam  or  crevife  appeared  between  them  -,  for  which  reafon  the  Spaniards 
were  of  opinion,  that  they  worked  without  Mortar  •-,  others  faid,  that  they  ufed 
Lime,  but  both  are  miftakes ;  for  the  Indians  of  Peru  neither  knew  the  manner 
or  ufe  of  Lime,  Mortar,  Tile  or  Brick. 

__  In  many  of  the  Royal  Palaces ,  and  Temples  of  the  Sun ,  they  clofed  up  the 
Seams  of  their  Building  with  melted  Gold,  or  Silver,  or  Lead.  Pedro  de  Cieca,  a 
Spani/h  Hiftorian,  faith,  That  for  greater  Magnificence  they  filled  the  joints  be- 
tween the  Stones  with  Gold  or  Silver,  which  was  afterwards  the  caufe  of  the  to- 
tal deftruction  of  thofe  Buildings  5  for  the  Spaniards  having  found  thefe  exteriour 
appearances  of  Gold,  and  fome  other  heaps  of  Metall  within ,  have  for  farther 
Difcovery  fubverted  the  very  Foundations  of  thofe  Edifices,  in  hopes  of  finding 
greater  Treafure,  which  otherwife  were  fo  firmly  built,  as  might  have  continued 
for  many  Ages.  Pedro  de  Cie$a  confirms  the  fame  at  large,  and  faith  farther,  That 
the  Temples  of  the  Sun  were  plated  with  Gold,  as  alfo  all  the  Royal  Apartments. 
They  alfo  framed  many  Figures  of  Men  and  Women,  of  Birds  of  the  Air,  and 
Fifties  of  the  Sea  -,  likewife  of  fierce  Animals,  fuch  as  Tygers ,  and  Lions ,  and 
Bears,  Foxes,  Dogs  and  Cats,  in  ihorr,  all  Creatures  whatsoever  known  amongft 
them,  they  caft  and  moulded  into  true  and  natural  Figures ,  of  the  fame  lhape 
and  form  ofthofe  Creatures  which  they  reprefented,  placing  them  in  corners  or 
cones  of  the  Walls,  purpofely  made  and  fitted  for  them. 

B  b  They 

j  g5  Royal  Commentaries.  Book  VI. 

They  counterfeited  the  Plants  and  Wall- flowers  fo  well,  that  being  on  the  Walls* 
they  feemed  to  be  Natural:  The  Creatures  which  were  fhaped  on  the  Walls, 
fuch  as  Lizards,  Butter- flyes,  Snakes  and  Serpents,  fome  crawling  up,  and  fome' 
down,  were  fo  artificially  done,  that  they  feemed  Natural,  and  wanted  nothing 
but  Motion.  The  Inca  commonly  fate  on  a  Stool  of  Maffie  Gold ,  which  they 
called  Ttana,  being  about  three  quarters  of  a  Yard  high,  without  Armes  or  Back, 
and  the  feat  fomething  hollow  in  the  middle  *  this  was  fet  on  a  large  fquare  Plate 
of  Gold,  which  ferved  for  a  Pedeftal  to  raife  it.  All  the  Veflels  which  were  for 
the  fervice  of  the  Inca,  both  of  the  Kitchin,  and  of  the  Buttery,  were  all  made 
of  Gold  or  Silver ;  and  thefe  were  in  fuch  quantities,  that  every  Houfe,  or  Palace, 
belonging  to  the  Inca,  was  furnifhed  in  that  manner  with  them,  that  there  was 
no  occafion,  when  he  Travelled,  to  remove  them  from  one  place  to  the  other. 
In  thefe  Palaces  alfo  there  were  Magazines,  or  Granaries,  made  of  Gold  and  Sil- 
ver, which  were  fit  to  receive  Corn,  or  Grane,  but  they  were  rather  places  of  State 
and  Magnificence,  than  of  ufe. 

The  Inca  had  his  Palace  well  furnifhed  with  Bedding ,  and  fo  many  changes  of 
Apparel,  that  having  worn  a  Suit  twice,  he  gave  it  to  his  Kindred,  or  his  Ser- 
vants.   Their  Bed-cloaths  were  Blankets ,  like  our  Freezes  made  of  Goats  Wool, 
and  fo  foft  and  fine,  that  amongft  other  curiofities  of  that  Countrey,  they  car- 
ried over  fome  of  the  Blankets  for  the  Beds  of  Philip  the  Second  King  of  Spain  .- 
thefe  Blankets  ferved  them  for  Beds  to  lye  on,  as  well  as  Coverings :  But  they 
would  by  no  means  be  reconciled  to  Quilts,  or  be  perfuaded  to  fleep  upon  them  5 
perhaps  becaufe,  that  having  feen  them  in  the  Chambers  of  the  Spaniards,  they 
feemed  too  effeminate  and  foft  for  Men,  who  made  profeflion  of  a  more  hardy 
life  i  and  who  had  not  created  to  themfelves  fo  many  fuperfluous  neceflities  as 
Men,  who  ranged  both  Sea  and  Land  for  Riches  and  Treafure.    They  had  no 
occafion  of  Hangings  for  their  Walls,  which  ( as  we  have  faid  )  they  Adorned 
with  Plates  of  Gold  or  Silver :  The  Diflies  of  Meat  provided  for  the  Inca's  Ta- 
ble, were  many,  becaufe  many  Incas  of  his  Kindred  were  his  frequent  Guefts, 
and  his  Servants  were  veiy  numerous,  being  all  to  be  fed  at  the  charge  and  care 
of  the  Inca.    The  ufual  hour  of  Eating,  for  all  forts  of  people,  was  from  eight, 
to  nine  in  the  Morning  •,  in  the  Evening  they  fupped  by  Day-light,  making  no 
more  than  thefe  two  Meals.    In  Drinking  they  were  more  intemperate ;  for 
though  they  did  not  Drink  during  the  time  of  their  Meal,  yet  afterwards,  when 
,  they  fate  to  it,  they  drank  commonly  till  Night.  But  this  was  a  cuftome  amongft 
the  Rich,  and  Men  of  Ef fates,  and  not  amongft  the  Poor,  whofe  poverty  obliged 
them  to  a  neceflky  of  being  abftemious :  And  the  common  cuftome  and  prac- 
tice amongft  all  in  general,  was  to  retire  betimes  to  their  repofe,  and  to  rife  early 
in  the  Morning  to  follow  their  Employments. 


Book  VI.  Royal  Commentaries.  l<&7 

CHAP.    II. 

How  all  the  Ornaments  and  Curiofities,  which  Beautified  the 
Royal  Palaces^  were  made  of  Gold  and  Silver. 

ALL  the  Royal  Palaces  had  their  Gardens,  and  Orchards,  and  places  of  Plea- 
fure,  wherein  the  faca  might  delight,  and  divertife  himfelf-,  and  thefe 
Gardens  were  planted  with  Fruit- trees  of  the  greateft  beauty,  with  Flowers,  and 
Odoriferous  Herbs,  of  all  forts  and  kinds  which  that  Climate  did  produce.  In 
refemblance  of  thefe  they  made  Trees,  and  Flowers  of  Gold  and  Silver,  and  fo 
imitated  them  to  the  life,  that  they  feemed  to  be  natural :  fome  Trees  appeared 
with  their  Fruit  in  the  bloflom,  others  full-grown,  others  ripe  according  to  the 
feveral  feafons  of  the  year  •,  they  counterfeited  alfo  the  Mayz,  or  Stalk,  of  the 
Indian  Wheat,  with  all  its  Grane  and  Spikes :  Alfo  the  Flax  with  its  Leaves  and 
Roots  as  it  grows  in  the  Fields  •,  and  every  Herb  and  Flower  was  a  Copy  to  them, 
to  frame  the  like  in  Gold  and  Silver. 

They  fafhioned  likewife  all  forts  of  Beads  and  Birds  in  Gold  and  Silver ;  name- 
ly, Conies,  Rats,  Lizards,  Serpents,  Butterflyes,  Foxes,  Mountain  Cats,  for  they 
had  no  tame  Cats  in  their  Houfes  •,  and  then  they  made  Sparrows,  and  all  forts 
of  lefler  Birds,  fome  flying,  others  perching  on  the  Trees  ^  in  fhort,  no  Creature, 
that  was  either  Wild,  or  Domeftick,  but  was  made  and  reprefented  by  them  ac- 
cording to  its  exact  and  natural  fhape. 

In  many  Houfes  they  had  great  Cifterns  of  Gold  in  which  they  bathed  them- 
felves,  with  Cocks  and  Pipes  of  the  fame  Metal  for  conveyance  of  the  Water. 
And  amongft  many  other  pieces  of  State  and  Magnificence,  they  had  heaps,  or 
ftacks,  of  Faggots  and  Billets  made  of  Gold  and  Silver,  piled  up  in  their  Store- 
houfes,  as  if  they  had  been  there  laid  for  fervice  of  the  Inca. 

The  greateft  part  of  thefe  Riches,  when  the  Spaniards  came  in,  were  thrown 
into  Wells,  and  deep  waters,  by  the  Indians,  who  obferving  their  Enemies  to  be 
covetous,  and  thirfty  of  Gold ,  out  of  Malice  to  them,  concealed,  or  deftroyed 
them  in  fuch  unrecoverable  places,  where  they  could  never  be  again  retrieved , 
that  fo  the  Memory  and  Tradition  of  the  hidden  treafures  might  be  designedly  loft 
to  their  pofterity,  becaufe  they  thought  it  a  Prophanation  to  have  that  Wealth 
and  Subftances  which  was  Dedicated  to  their  Kings,  to  be  converted  to  the  com- 
mon benefit  and  ufe  of  Strangers.  Whatfoever  we  have  related  concerning  the 
Riches  of  the  Mas,  is  confirmed  by  all  the  Hiftorians  who  write  oiPeru,  with  a 
more  enlarged  report  of  the  prodigious  Treafures.    Thofe  Writers  who  treat. of 

thefe  matters  moft  fully,  are  Pedro  de  Cieca  de  Leon,  and  Attguftin  de  Carate,  who 

was  Accountant- General  in  thofe  parts  •,  which  latter,  in  the  14th  Chapter  of  his 

firft  Book,  hath  thefe  words :    '"  Gold  was  a  Metal  of  great  efteem  amongft 

them,  becaufe  the  principal  Veflels  for  fervice  of  their  Kings  were  made  there- 

*  of,  and  the  Jewels  of  his  Dignity  and  State  were  fet  in  it :  Likewife  they 

'  made   Offerings   of   it  in  their  Temples :    And   the  King  Ttgaya   made 

a  Chair  of  Gold,  in  which  he  fate  weighing  twenty  five  Quilats ,  and  which 

was  worth  twenty  five  thoufand  Ducats,  and  was  the  fame  which  Don  Francifce 

de  Picarro  challenged  for  his  own  prize ;  becaufe  it  was  agreed,  at  the  time  of 

the  Conqueft,  that  befides  his  own  (hare  and  proportion  with  the  reft,  he  might 

claim  that  Jewel  which  he  fhould  chufe  and  efteem  of  the  greateft  value, 

Guaynacava,  at  the  Birth  of  his  Eldeft  Son,  made  a  Chain  of  Gold  fo  big  and 

\  weighty,  that  200  Indians  having  feized  the  Links  of  it  to  the  Rings  in  their 

'  Ears,  were  fcarce  able  to  raife  it  from  the  ground :  And  in  memory  of  this  joy 

'  at  his  Birth ,  and  of  this  great  Chain ,  they  gave  him  the  Name  of  Guafca, 

1  which  is  as  much  as  Chain,  or  Cable,  with  the  Addition  of  Inca. ,  which  was 

the  Title  of  all  belonging  to  the  Royal  Family.    The  which  particular  I  pur- 

B  b  2  pofely 

1 8g  Royal  Commentaries.  Book  VI. 

pofely  alledge  in  this  place  to  confute  the  opinion  of  thole  who  living  in  Spain, 
and  being  ignorant  of  the  affairs  of  the  Indies ,  believed  that  the  Indians  had  no 
efteem  of  Gold,  nor  knew  the  value  or  price  of  it :  Befides  which,  they  had 
Veflels  made  of  Gold  wherein  to  lodge  their  Corn,  alfo  the  Figures  of  Men,  of 
Trees,  and  Plants,  and  Herbs  made  in  Gold ,  as  all  Animals  of  what  fort  ibever : 
which  are  the  Words  of  that  famous  Authour  in  his  Hiftory  of  Peru. 

That  rich  Prize  which  fell  to  the  lot  of  D.  Francifco  Picarro,  was  part  of  that 
which  Atahuciba  gave  for  his  Ranfome,  and  which  Picarro  juftly  claimed  as  his 
due  by  Military  Right,  being  General  of  the  Army  :  He  might  moreover  chal- 
lenge, by  agreement,  the  beft  Jewel  from  the  great  heaps  of  Riches :  And  though 
there  were  others  perhaps  more  valuable,  fuch  as  Jars,  and  Veflels  of  Gold  3  yet 
in  regard  that  this  had  been  the  Seat  of  a  King,  and  the  feizure  of  it  prefaged 
the  Dominion  of  the  Spanijh  Monarchy,  it  feemed  a  prize  more  Angular,  and 
worthy  the  choice  of  Picarro  before  any  other  of  greater  eftimation.  In  the  Life 
of  Huayna  Capac,  who  wfes  the  laft  of  all  the  Incas,  we  (hall  Ipeak  more  at  large 
of  this  Gold  Chain,  which  was  a  thing  incredible. 

What  Pedro  de  Cieca  writes  of  the  Riches  of  Peru ,  and  how  the  Indians  made 
them  away,  and  concealed  them,  is  that  which  he  fpecifies  in  the  21ft  Chapter  of 
his  Book ,  as  follows :  "  If,  fays  he,  all  that  which  was  buried  in  Peru,  and  in 
"  thefe  Countries,  were  difcovered,  and  brought  toufeand  light,  the  value  of  it 
"  would  be  ineftimable,  and  all  the  poflefllons  of  the  Spaniards  inconfiderable  in 
"  companion  of  the  hidden  treafures :  For,  fays  he,  I  being  at  Cozxo,  in  prefence 
"  of  many  Perfons  of  Quality,  heard  Paulo  the  lnca  difcouriing  of  this  matter, 
"  and  faying ,  That  if  all  the  Treafures  which  belonged  to  the  Provinces  and 
"  Temples,  which  are  now  loft,  fliould  be  again  recovered  and  amafled  toge- 
"  ther,  they  would  be  fo  immenfe  and  great,  that  all  the  Riches  which  the  Spa- 
"  niards  poftefs,  would  be  no  more  in  comparifon  of  them,  than  a  drop  of  water 
"  is  to  a  whole  Bucket :  And  to  make  the  iimilitude  more  clear  5  the  Indians  ta- 
"  king  a  handfull  of  Grane  from  a  whole  meafure,  faid,  Thus  much  the  Chri- 
"  ftians  have  gained  ■-,  and  the  remainder  is  lodged  there,  where  neither  we,  nor 
a  any  elfe  is  able  to  aflign :  Whatsoever  this  Treaiure  may  have  been,  though 
"  the  Spaniards  had  not  been  Mailers  of  it,  would  certainly  have  been  offered  to 
"  their  Devils,  and  Temples,  and  Sepulchres  of  their  Dead  •,  for  the  Indians,  who 
"  neither  purchafe  Lands,  nor  Houfes,  nor  Cities  with  it,  nor  efteem  it  the  finews 
"  and  nerves  of  War,  do  onely  Adorn  themfelves  with  it,  being  alive,  and  bury 
"  it  with  them  in  their  Graves,  being  dead  :   Howlbever,  in  my  opinion,  it  was 

'  our  duty  to  have  advifed  the  Indians  of  thefe  Errours,  and  to  have  made  it  our 
"  bufinefs  to  inftrucl:  them  in  the  knowledge  of  the  Gofpel,  and  our  Holy  Faith, 
"  rather  than  our  profefflon  and  whole  concernment,  to  fill  our  Furies,  and  en-t 
"  rich  our  Coffers :  Thefe  are  the  Words  of  Pedro  de  Cieca,  in  the  z 1  ft  Chaptq 
of  his  Book,  which  I  have  copied  Verbatim  from  thence.  This  lnca,  which  was 
called  Paulo,  or  by  them  Paullu,  of  whom  all  the  Spanijh  Hiftorians  make  mention, 
was  one  of  the  many  Sons  of  Huayna  Capac,  being  a  Man  of  Courage,  who  took 
the  King  of  Spain's  fide  in  liis  Wars  againft  the  Spaniards  •-,  at  his  Baptifm  he  took 
the  Name  of  Chriftopher  Paullu,  to  whom  my  Mafter  Garcilafo  de  la  Vega  was  God- 
father, as  alfo  to  his  Brother  Titu  Aqui,  who  afterwards  was  Baptized  by  the 
Name  of  Philip,  in  refpect  to  Philip  the  Second,  then  Prince  of  Spain ;  I  was  well 
acquainted  with  them  both,  as  alfo  with  their  Mother  called  Annas',  though  the 
two  Sons  died  foon  afterwards. 

Lopen  de  Gomara  writing  of  the  Riches  of  the  Kings  of  Peru,  in  the  1  zid  Chap- 
ter of  his  Book,  hath  thefe  very  words :  "  All  the  Utenfils  of  tea's  Houfe; 
"  Table  and  Kitchin,  were  all  of  Gold  and  Silver,  at  leaft  of  Silver  and  Coppen- 
"  In  the  with-dravving  Rooms  and  Antichambers,  were  Statues  of  Gold  caft  ir# 
"  the  form  of  Giants,  and  the  Figures  of  all  kinds  of  Animals  in  a  like  large  pro- 
"  portion,  as  alfo  Trees  and  Herbs,  Fifhes  of  the  Sea,  and  frefh  Waters  of  all 
"  forts,  which  their  Kingdom  produced :  they  had  alfo  Ropes  and  Chains,  Bis- 
"  kets  and  Hampers  of  Gold  and  Silver,  and  Faggots  of  Gold,  piled  up  in  Stacks, 
"  as  if  they  were  intended  for  fewel:  In  fhort,  there  was  no  Figure  of  any  Crea* 

'  ture  in  the  whple  Kingdom,  which  they  did  not  imitate,  and  reprefent  in  Gold: 
"  They  report  alio  that  the  Incas  had  a  Garden  fituated  in  an  Ifland  near  to  PunA\ 
"  where  being  defirous  to  enjoy  the  Air  of  the  Sea,  they  pafled  over  to  divertile, 
"  and  recreate  themfelves  •■,  and  therein  were  Trees,  and  Plants,  and  Flowers  made 

"  all  i 

Book  VI.  Royal  Commentaries.  189 

"  all  of  Gold  and  Silver,  with  rare  Art  and  Invention :  On  the  other  fide  of  this 
"  Ifland  were  vaft  ;'heaps  of  Gold  and  Silver  laid  up,  with  intention  to  carry  it 
*  to  Cozxo,  that  it  might  be  worked  there ;  all  which  was  loft  by  the  Death  of 
"  Guafcar  •.  For  the  Indians  obferving  that  the  Spaniards  thirfted  after  Gold,  and 
,c  tranfported  all  into  Spain,  that  they  could  feize,  and  lay  their  hands  upon  ■■,  they 
"  made  it  away,  and  concealed  as  much  of  it  as  they  were  able.  Thus  far  are 
the  Words  of  Lopez,  de  Gomara.  As  to  the  Garden,  which  he  fays,  the  Kings  of 
Peru  had  near  Puna,  in  which  all  Creatures  were  reprefented  in  Gold  and  Silver-; 
he  particularly  fpecifies  that  place,  becaufe  that  when  the  Spaniards  came  in,  ic 
was  the  onely  Garden  which  continued  in  its  Beauty  and  Ornaments  •■,  for  the  In- 
dians, in  defpight  of  their  Enemies ,  deftroyed  all  the  reft,  and  confounded  the 
Riches  of  them  in  fuch  manner,  as  are  never  to  be  recovered ;  in  which  Relation 
this  Authour,  and  all  other  Spanijh  Hiftorians,  do  agree.  That  infinite  treafure 
of  Gold  and  Silver,  which,  he  fays,  was  heaped  up  with  intention  to  be  carried 
to  Cozco,  and  there  worked ,  was  the  furplufage  of  what  remained,  after  all  the 
Royal  Palaces  were  furnilhed,  and  adorned  in  the  manner  we  have  before  related. 
This  may  not  feem  incredible  to  thole  who  have  accounted  and'obferved  thofe 
vaft  and  immenfe  quantities  of  Gold  and  Silver,  which  have  been  tranfported  from 
my  Countrey  into  Spain,  there  having  palled  over  the  Bar  of  St.Lucar,  in  the 
Year  i  ty  j,  in  the  fpace  of  eight  Months,  onely  five  and  thirty  Millions  in  Gold 
and  Silver. 

CHAP.    III. 

Of  the  Servants  of  the  Court ,    and  thofe  who  carried  the 
Kings  Chair.,  or  Sedan. 

THE  Servants  deftined  for  the  Services  of  the  Court  were  many  in  number, 
fuch  as  Sweepers,  Carriers  of  Water ,  and  Cleavers  of  Wood,  Cooks, 
Butlers,  Porters,  Keepers  of  the  Ward-rope,  and  of  the  Jewels,  Gardiners  and 
Stewards  of  the  Houlhold ;  in  (hort,  there  were  as  many  Officers  and  Servants  re- 
tained in  this  Court,  as  in  the  moft  magnificent  and  fplendid  Palaces  of  our  Kings, 
or  Emperours :  But  herein  there  was  fomething  different  from  our  Courts  5  for 
here  particular  Men  had  not  the  charge  of  an  Office  committed  to  them  •,  but  it 
was  the  care,  or  incumbence  of  two  or  three  Provinces  to  provide  fufficient  Men 
for  every  Office,  fuch  as  were  faithfull,  diligent  and  dexterous  for  the  place  •■,  and 
fuch  a  number  of  them,  as  that  they  might  take  their  turns  by  Days,  or  Weeks, 
or  Months,  as  often  as  they  fhould  think  fit  to  exchange  them.  This  being  part 
of  the  Tribute  which  was  exacted  from  every  Province,  great  care  was  taken  in 
the  choice  of  able  Men  ;  for  that  the  default,  or  crime,  of  every  particular  perfon, 
refle&ed  on  the  whole  Province,  who  made  themfelves  anfwerable  for  his  good 
behaviour,  and  were  accordingly"  punlthed  with  fuch  feverity,  as  all  offences  a- 
gainft  the  Royal  Majefty  did  require.  And  fince  we  have  fpoken  of  Hewers  of 
Wood,  we  mu(t  not  underftand,  as  if  thefe  were  fent  into  the  Mountains  to  cut 
and  fell  Trees  •,  but  fuch  Timber  or  Wood  as  was  brought  by  the  Vaffals  in  pay- 
ment of  their  Tribute,  was  received  by  thefe  Officers,  and  by  them  and  their  Af- 
firmants laid  up,  and  (lowed  in  the  Houfes  for  that  purpofe :  The  like  may  we 
underftand  of  all  other  Offices,  wherein  there  was  no  iervile  labour  appointed  ; 
it  being  a  gentile  employment  to  ferve  the  bwa  in  fuch  capacity,  and  to  be  near 
his  Royal  Perfon,  which  was  the  greateft  honour  and  happinefs  that  any  one  could 
afpire  unto. 

Thofe  who  were  qualified  to  be  Servants  and  Officers  in  the  Court,  were  peo- 
;  pie  of  the  Neighbourhood,  and  parts  adjacent,  within  five  or  fix  Leagues  of  the 


i  go  Royal  Commentaries.  Book  VI. 

City  of  Cezco ,  and  were  the  Generation  or  Children  of  thofe  Fathers  whom  the 
firft  hca,  Munco  Capac,  fent  abroad,  to  inftrucl:  and  reduce  the  wild  Salvages  of 
thofe  times  to  a  Humane  manner  of  living  5  and  to  whom,  as  a  particular  note 
and  favour  of  diftin&ion  from  the  more  rude  and  uncivilized  Nations,  he  be- 
ftowed  the  Honour  and  Title  of  Ucat ,  with  privilege  to  wear  the  Habit  and 
Wreath  belonging  to  the  Royal  Perfon.  As  we  have  declared  at  the  beginning 
of  this  Hiftory. 

The  Sedan -men  that  were  appointed  to  carry  the  hca  in  his  Chair  of  Gold  up- 
on their  Shoulders,  were  always  chofen  out  of  two  Provinces,  which  have  the 
fame  Name,  and  border  one  upon  the  other,  being  both  called  Rucana ;  but  for 
diftin£rion  fake,  one  was  called  Hatm  Rut-ana,  or  Rue  ana  Major :  the  Inhabitants 
thereof  are  a  ftrong,  nervous  people,  healthy  and  well-complexioned,  and  about 
fifteen  thoufand  Inhabitants  in  number.  Thefe  people  had  a  cuftome  to  train  up 
the  Young  Men  at  about  twenty  years  of  Age  to  carry  Chairs  fteady,  and  with- 
out tottering  or  {tumbling  •,  for  in  cafe  any  Man  mould  be  fb  unfortunate  as  to 
fall,  or  {tumble,  in  carrying  the  Am,  the  Chief  or  Cape  of  thefe  Sedan-men  was 
obliged  to  punifh  him  withfome  notorious  difgrace,  and  cafhiere  him  from  farther 
fervice  of  the  Inca  5  as  is  pra&ifed  alfo  in  Spain  5  and  as  a  certain  Hiftorian  reports, 
the  misfortune  of  fuch  a  failure  was  punimed  with  Death.  This  Service  was  the 
Tribute  which  this  people  paid  the  Inca  5  who  being  many  in  number,  took  their 
turns,  fo  that  the  attendance  was  the  lefs  grievous ;  and  in  regard  it  was  a  Angular 
honour  to  carry  the  Inca's  Perfon,  his  weight  feemed  no  burthen  5  of  which  fb  much 
care  was  taken,  that  left  by  mifchance  any  of  the  Chair-men  mould  {tumble,  or 
fall,  there  were  twenty  four  or  twenty  five  Men  attending  on  each  fide  ready  to 
catch  the  feat,  and  prevent  the  fall. 

The  Provifion  of  Victuals  for  the  Court,  efpecially  of  Flefh,  was  very  great, 
becaufe  that  all  thofe  of  the  Royal  Family  refiding  in  the  City,  were  fupplied  out 
of  the  King's  Kitchin :  Howfoever,  there  was  no  great  confumption  of  Bread 
made  of  Mayz ,  becaufe  no  other  provifion  was  made  thereof,  than  what  was 
fufTicient  for  the  immediate  Attendants  in  the  Family  •-,  for  all  Houfes  and  Fami- 
lies had  their  feparate  Allowances  of  Bread  laid  up  in  their  Store-houfes,  as  we 
have  before  mentioned.  All  forts  of  Game,  fuch  as  Deer,  Stags,  Wild  Goats, 
and  the  like,  were  not  ordinarily  killed  for  common  provifion  of  the  Court,  or 
the  Tables  of  the  Cttraeas,  or  Lords,  but  were  referved  for  Sports  and  Hunting, 
which  they  called  Chacu  -.,  and  the  Fledi,  and  Wool,  and  Skins  of  fuch  Game  as 
was  taken,  was  afterwards  diftributed  amongft  the  Poor  and  Rich  :  of  which  we 
ihall  treat  in  a  particular  Chapter. 

The  Drink  fpent  in  the  Court  of  the  Inca  was  great  •-,  for  in  regard  that  their 
courtefie  was  fuch,  as  to  make  every  one  drink  that  came  thither ;  whether  they 
were  Curacat,  or  Commoners,  or  came  upon  bufinefs,  or  on  vifits,  or  comple- 
ments 5  there  was  no  fet  or  eftablifhed  Allowance  for  it ,  but  the  entertainment 
was  free  without  meafure  or  account ,  and  the  quantity  confumed  was  almoft  in- 


Book  VI.  Royal  Commentaries.  ioi 

C  H  A  P.    IV. 

Of  the  great  Halls,  and  Rooms  of  State,  and  other  things 
belonging  to  the  Court. 

IN  many  of  the  King's  Palaces  were  long  and  fpatious  Galleries,  of  about  two 
hundred  paces  in  length ,  and  about  fifty  or  fixty  in  breadth ,  wherein  they 
often  danced  and  celebrated  their  Feafts  at  thofe  feafons  of  the  year,  when  the 
Rains  and  bad  weather  incommoded  them  in  the  open  Air.  I  remember  that  in 
Cozxo  I  faw  four  of  thefe  Galleries,  which  when  I  was  a  Child,  were  ftill  in  be- 
ing, and  not  ruined :  One  of  them  was  in  Ama.ruca.ncha.  Street,  where  Hernando  Pi- 
carro  then  lived,  and  is  now  the  Jefuits  College:  The  other  was  in  Cafima  Street, 
but  now  built  and  converted  into  Shops,  the  Rent  of  which  belonged  to  my 
School-fellow  John  de  Cillorho :  Another  was  in  Collcampata  Alley,  where  the  Inca 
Pau/fa,  and  his  Son  Don  Carlos,  who  alfo  was  my  School-fellow,  had  a  Rent  in 
Houfes :  This  Gallery  was  the  leaft  of  all  the  four,  and  the  biggeft  was  that  of 
Cajfana,  being  capable  to  receive  three  thoufand  perfbns.  It  is  wonderfull  to 
confider,  where  it  was  poffible  for  them  to  find  Timbers  fb  long  and  fquare,  as 
were  fit  for  the  Roofs  of  fuch  Edifices.  The  fourth  Gallery  is  now  turned  into 
the  Cathedral  Church.  One  thing  is  remarkable,  that  the  Indians  of  Peru  in 
building  their  Houfes,  did  never  raife  one  Story  above  another,  nor  did  they  join 
one  Room  to  another ,  but  always  left  fome  fpace  or  diftance  of  one  Chamber 
from  the  other,  and  perhaps  a  whole  Court- Yard,  or  Quadrangle,  between,  un- 
lefs  fometimes  to  their  large  Halls  they  built  at  the  corners 'fomeClofets,'or  with- 
drawing Rooms,  for  better  convenience  $  and  in  the  Divifions  they  made  of  their 
feveral  Offices,  they  railed  Walls  of  Apartment  to  keep  them  private  one  from 
the  other.  It  is  farther  alfo  obfervable,  that  when  they  had  built  the  four  Walls 
of  Stone  or  Brick  for  a  Houfe  or  Chamber,  they  erected  Pillars,  or  Polls,  in  the 
middle  of  it,  for  fupport  of  the  Roof  •-,  for  they  knew  not  how  to  crofs  their 
Beams,  or  Rafters,  or  how  to  faften  them  with  Nails,  or  Wooden  Pins,  but  laid 
their  Timbers  loofe  upon  the  Walls,  faftning  them  onely  to  each  other  with  Spart, 
or  Cords  made  of  Straw,  or  Rufhes,  as  ftrong  as  our  Hempen  Ropes.  Thefe 
main  Beams  they  crofled  with  Rafters ,  faftning  thegi  one  to  the  other  •,  on 
which  they  laid  a  covering  of  Straw  fo  thick,  that  the  Thatch  was  a  Yard  deep, 
extending  its  Eves  above  a  Yard  over  the  Walls,  fo  as  to  be  a  Pend-houfe  to  them 
to  preferve  them  from  the  Rain.  I  remember  that  in  the  Vally  of  Jucay  I  once 
(aw  one  of  thefe  large  Rooms,  which  was  about  feventy  Foot  fquare,  covered  in 
form  of  a  Pyramid  •,  the  Spire  of  which  was  twelve  Rod  high,  though  the  Walls 
were  not  above  three,  having  two  little  Chambers  on  each  fide,  This  Building 
was  not  burnt  by  the  Indians,  when  they  made  their  general  Insurrection  againft 
the  Spaniards ;  for  though  they  destroyed  many  other  Houfes  of  pleafure  in  that 
Vally,  the  Ruines  of  which  I  have  feen  5  yet  they  fpared  this  Structure  out  of  re- 
fpect  to  their  Incas,  who  had  frequented  this  place,  being  a  large  and  open  Square, 
or  Quadrangle,  which  ferved  for  a  wide  and  fpatious  Theatre  whereon  to  repre- 
fent  their  (hows  and  fports  at  the  times  of  their  principal  Feftivals. 

Befides  the  Walls  of  Stone,  they  made  alfo  Walls  of  Clay,  which  they  for- 
med in  Cafes  or  Moulds,  for  that  purpofe,  mixing  the  Clay  with  Straw  for  bet- 
ter binding.  The  Moulds  they  made  as  little,  or  as  large  as  they  pleafed  in  mea- 
fure,  or  proportion  to  the  Wall  $  the  ihorteft  were  about  a  Yard  long,  and  about 
the  fixth  part  of  a  Yard  broad,  and  of  a  like  thicknefs ;  which,  after  they  had 
well  dried  in  the  Sun,  they  laid  them  one  upon  another  in  order  •-,  and  after  that 
they  had  lain  two  or  three  Years  under  covering  from  the  Sun,  and  the  Water, 
fo  that  they  were  fully  dried  •,  they  then  ufed  them  in  their  Buildings,  as  we  do 
our  Bricks,  cementing  them  with  the  fame  Clay,  well  tempered,  and  mixed  with 



Royal  Commentaries.  Book  VI. 

They  knew  not  how  to  make  Mud- Walls,  nor  did  the  Spaniards  ufe  other  than 
Clay,  in  making  their  Sun-burnt  Bricks.  In  cafe  any  of  thefe  great  Houfes  which 
we  have  mentioned  mould  by  any  accident  have  been  burnt,  they  did  not  build 
again  upon  the  fame  Walls;  becaufe,  as  they  faid,  the  Straw  which  ftrengthened 
arid  bound  the  Clay,  and  made  it  firm,  and  folid,  being  confumed  by  the  fire,  the 
Wall  muft  neceiTarily  be  weakned,  and  the  Clay  become  loofe ,  and  unable  to 
bear  the  weight  of  the  roof  and  covering  which  was  laid  upon  its  but  this  was 
but  an  erroneous  conceit  of  theirs,  for  I  have  feen  and  obferved  feveral  of  the 
Walls  of  thofe  Houfes,  which  have  been  burnt,  that  have  remained  firm  and  fo- 
lid as  before. 

So  foon  as  the  King  happened  to  dye,  they  prefently  locked  the  door  of  the 
Chamber  where  he  did  ufually  fleep,  with  all  the  Ornaments  and  Riches  of  Gold 
and  Silver,  which  furnifhed  it,  or  were  found  therein  at  the  time  of  his  death; 
and  this  Chamber  was  in  this  manner  kept  always  locked,  that  none  mould  enter; 
for  that  place  being  ever  afterwards  efteemed  facred,  was  not  to  be  prophaned  by 
the  Feet  of  any;  onely  the  room  was  without-fide  kept  and  maintained  in  good 
repair.  The  like  Ceremony  was  obferved  in  the  Chambers  of  all  the  other  Royal 
Palaces,  where  the  IMA  had  repofed  and  flepr,  though  it  had  been  but  the  fpace 
of  one  night,  as  he  travelled,  or  in  a  journey  where  ne  pafled :  And  then  imme- 
diately they  fell  to  building  other  Chambers  for  the  living  Succeflbur,  in  place  of 
thofewhich  had  been  (hut  up  at  the  death  of  the  late  King. 

All  the  Veflels  and  Services  of  Gold  and  Silver,  which  Delonged  to  the  former 
Ma,  fuch  as  Cups,  Jarres,  or  Goblets  of  Gold,  in  which  he  drank,  as  alfo  all  the 
Dimes  and  Plates  of  his  Kitchin,  with  Cloths,  and  Jewels,  appertaining  to  his  Perfon, 
were  all  buried  and  interred  in  the  fame  Grave  with  him  •,  which  abfurdity  pro- 
ceeded from  an  opinion  they  had,  that  the  Inca  would  have  occafion  of  fuch  Uten- 
fils  and  Services  in  the  next  World.  All. the  other  Ornaments  of  Majefty  and 
State  which  belonged  to  the  Chambers,  Gardens,  Baths,  and  the  like,  were  the 
Inheritance  of  the  Succeflbur,  and  converted  to  his  ufe  and  Service. 

All  the  Wood  and  Water  which  was  confumed  in  the  Ws  Court  at  Cozeo, 
was  brought  thither  by  the  People  of  the  four  Divifions,  (called  Tavantinfnyu)  be- 
ing the  Inhabitants  neareft  adjacent  to  the  City,  that  is  within  fifteen  or  twenty 
Leagues  about.  The  Water  which  they  ufed  for  their  beverage,  (which  in  their 
Language  they  call  Aca)  was  a  fort  of  heavy  water,  and  fomething  brackHh;  and 
indeed  they  did  not  much  defire  a  fweet  and  light  Water,  for  they  were  of  opi- 
nion it  made  them  lean,  and  would  not  (tick  by  the  ribs,  but  eafily  corrupted  in 
the  Stomach  \  for  diis  reafon  the  Indians  not  being  curious  in  their  Waters,  did 
not  delight  in  fountains,  or  clear  Springs-,  nor  indeed  was  there  any  good  Water 
near  the  City  of  Cozco.  When  my  Father,  after  the  War  of  Francifio  Hernandez, 
Giroa,  in  the  Year  i  j>  5.  aid  — 56.  was  Governour  of  the  City,  they  then  brought 
their  Water  from  Tidatica,  which  water  was  excellent  good,  arifing  about  a  quar- 
ter of  a  League  from  the  Ttawn,  to  the  chief  Market-place  ■■,  from  whence,  as  I 
hear,  they  have  now  turned  it  by  a  Conduit  pipe,  to  the  Square  of  St.  Francifio ; 
and  inftead  thereof  they  have  brought  another  Fountain  to  that  place,  of  exquifite 
Water,  running  with  a  plentifull  ftream. 


Book  VI.  Royal  Commentaries.  193 

C  H  A  P.    V. 

Of  the  manner  how  they  bit  erred  their  Kings  5  and  that  the 
Obfequies  and  Rites  of  Burial  continued  for  the  fpace  of 
a  whole  Tear. 

THE  Rites  of  Burial  which  they  performed  for  their  Kings  were  folemn,  and 
of  long  continuance.  In  the  firft  place  they  embalmed  their  Bodies  with 
fuch  rare  Art,  that  (as  we  have  faid  before)  in  the  year  1  ss9-  they  were  fo  firm 
and  plump,  that  they  feemed  to  be  living  Flefh.  Their  Bowels  were  interred  in 
a  Temple,  which  was  fituated  in  the  Countrey,  called  Tampu,  upon  the  Banks  of 
a  River,  below  Tucay,  about  five  Leagues  diftant  from  the  City  of  Cozco,  where 
were  many  ftately  Edifices  of  Stone.  Of  which  Pedro  de  Cieca  fpeaking  in  tie 
94th  Chapter  of  his  Book,  faith  that  it  was  reported  for  certain,  how  that  in  fome 
places  of  tne  Palace,  or  Temple  of  the  Sun,  the  Stones  were  joined  or  cramped 
with  melted  Gold,  which  with  the  cement  they  ufed,  were  well  fixed  and  conso- 
lidated together. 

When  the  Inca,  or  fome  principal  tunic*  dyed ,  the  Servants ,  who  were  his 
greateft  Favourites,  and  the  Wives,  that  were  the  mod:  beloved  by  him,  did  ei- 
ther kill  themfelves,  or  offer  themfelves  tobe  buried  alive  iri  the  Tomb  of  their 
Mafters,  that  fo  they  might  accompany  tH'em  into  the  other  World,  and  renew 
their  immortal  Services  in  the  other  Life,  which,  as  their  Religion  taught  them, 
was  a  corporeal,  and  not  a  fpiritual  Being  •,  whereby  it  may  appear,  that  whan 
fome  Hiftorians  write  relating  to  this  matter ,  namely,  that  they  killed  the  Ser- 
vants after  the  death  of  their  Mafters,  is  a  miftake  -,  for  that  would  have  been,  a 
piece  of  Tyranny,  and  Inhumanity,  above  the  capacity  of  humane  Nature-,  for 
under  this  pretence  one  Man  might  lawfully  kill  another,  and  remove  him  out  of 
the  way  who  was  hatefull  to  him,  or  ftood  in  opposition  to  his  Defigns  or  Inte- 
reft.  The  truth  is,  they  needed  no  Law  or  compuHion  to  enforce  them  to  follow 
the  Fate  of  their  Matter-,  for  when  he  was  dead,  his  Servants  crouded  fo  faft  af- 
ter him,  defiling  death,  that  the  Magiftrates  were  forced  fometimes  to  interpofe 
with  their  Authority,  and  perfuade  them,  that  for  the  prefent  their  Mafter  had  no 
need  of  more  attendance,  but  that  in  due  time,  when  they  naturally  yielded  to 
their  own  Mortality,  it  might  then  be  feafonable  enough  for  them  to  repair  to 
their  Services  and  Offices  in  the  other  World. 

The  Bodies  of  their  Kings,  after  they  were  embalmed,  were  feated  before  the 
Image  of  the  Sun,  in  the  Temple  at  Cozco,  to  whom  they  offered  Sacrifices,  as 
to  Demons,  or  Men  of  Divine  Race.    For  the  firft  month  after  the  death  of  the 
Inca,  the  whole  City  bewailed  their  lofs  with  loud  cries  and  lamentations,  and 
every  Parifh,  or  quarter  of  the  Town,  went  out  in  their  feveral  Divifions  into  the 
fields,  carrying  the  Trophies  of  the  Inca,  his  Banners,  and  Arms,  and  Garments, 
and  whatfeever  was  to  be  buried  in  the  grave  with  his  Bowels  -,   with  their  lighs 
and  lamentations  they  mentioned  and  repeated  the  mighty  Ads  that  he  had  done 
in  the  Wars,  and  the  good  Acts  of  Charity  and  Beneficence  that  he  had  fhewed 
to  them  and  their  Neighbourhood.    After  the  end  of  the  firft  month,  they  then 
commemorated  the  Death  of  their  Inca,  at  the  Full  and  New  of  the  Moon,  and 
fo  continued  till  the  end  of  the  firft  Year,  when  they  concluded  the  folemnity 
with  full  pomp  and  ftate,  appointing  Men  and  Women  pradifed  in  the  Art  of 
Cries  and  Lamentations,  who,  like  excellent  Tragedians,  aded  their  parts  of  for-^ 
row  in  the  moft  formal  and  pafuonate  manner  imaginable ,  finging  the  Ads  of 
the  dead  Kin™,  in  forrowfull  Tones  and  Accents.    What  we  have  faid  hitherto, 
'  was  the  part  onely  of  the  Commonalty ,  belides  which  the  Court  and  Nobility 
performed  the  Obfequies  with  as  much  difference  to  thofe  of  the  people,  as  there 

C  c  was 

jQA  Royal  Commentaries.  Book  VI. 

was  of  Eminence  in  their  condition,  and  of  Wealth  and  Politenefs  in  the  manner 
of  their  living. 

What  was  pra&ifed  in  the  City  of  this  kind  was  alfo  imitated  in  the  Countries, 
the  refpeftive  Curacas  ftirring  up  the  people  to  demonftrate  by  their  outward  ge- 
stures and  aftions,  their  inward  forrow  and  paffion  for  the  death  of  their  Inca. 
With  theie  Cries  and  Lamentations  they  went  to  vifit  all  the  places  within  their 
Province,  where  at  any  time  their  Inca.  had  pitched  his  Camp,  or  made  his  abode 
or  residence,  though  but  for  a  night -,  and  there  they  all  with  loud  Lamentations 
repeated  the  Favours,  and  Honours,  and  Benefits  that  he  had  performed  for  them 
in  that  place.  And  thus  much  ihall  ferve  to  have  faid  touching  the  Funeral  of 
the  IncM,  in  imitation  of  which,  fomething  of  this  nature  was  performed  in  ho- 
nour of  their  Caciques,  of  which  I  remember  to  have  feen  fome  pallages  in  the 
time  of  my  infant  Years  •,  for  in  the  Province  of  the  Jguecbuas,  I  once  faw  a  mul- 
titude of  people  gathered  in  a  field,  to  lament  the  Death  of  a  Cacique,  carrying 
his  Garments  upon  Poles,  in  fafliion  of  Banners,  or  Enfignes;  my  curiofity  promp- 
ted me  to  ask  them  what  all  that  noife  and  tumult  meant ;  to  which  they  anfwe- 
red  me,  that  it  was  the  Funeral  Lamentation  of  Huamam-paltya,  for  fo  they  caU 
led  the  deceafed  Cacique. 

CHAP.    VL 

Of  the  General  and  Solemn  Huntings  which  the  Kings  made 
in  all  parts  of  their  Kingdom. 

"V  H  E  Kings  of  Peru  enjoyed ,  with  their  other  parts  of  Greatnefs  and  State, 
A  certain  days  appointed  for  Solemn  and  General  Huntings,  called  in  their 
Tongue  Chacu.  And  herein  it  is  to  be  obferved,  that  all  forts  of  Game  were  for- 
bidden to  be  killed,  unlefs  Partridges,  Pidgeons,  Doves,  or  lefler  Birds,  for  the 
Service  and  Table  onely  of  the  Incas,  who  were  Governours,  or  of  the  Curacas  5 
nor  was  thus  much  permitted  neither,  but  under  a  limited  quantity,  and  by  com- 
mand and  order  alio  of  the  Juftice. 

This  prohibition  was  obferved  under  the  fame  penalties  that  all  other  obfer- 
vances  of  their  Law  were  enjoined ,  and  herein  they  were  rigorous,  and  fevere, 
left  Men  betaking  themfelves  to  the  pleafure  of  the  Field,  mould  delight  in  a  con- 
tinued courfc  of  fports,  and  fo  neglect  the  neceflary  provifions  and  maintenance  of 
their  Families. 

By  which  ftritt  reftraint  the  Game  both  of  Birds  and  Beafts  was  fo  common, 
and  in  abundance,  and  tame,  that  they  entred  even  into  their  Houfes  -,  where 
though  they  could  not  kill  them,  yet  howfoever  they  might  affright  and  drive 
them  out  of  their  Fields  and  Paftures ;  for  that  though  the  Inca  was  Matter  of 
the  Game,  yet  he  loved  his  Subjects  better  than  to  have  them  prejudiced  by  Laws 
which  were  made  for  the  good,  and  not  for  the  detriment  of  his  People. 

At  a  certain  feafon  of  the  Year,  after  breeding-time  was  over ,  the  Inca  ap- 
pointed a  place  for  Hunting,  where  either  his  own  pleafure  directed,  or  where 
was  moft  convenient  for  his  Affairs,  either  of  War  or  Peace  5  and  there  he  ap- 
pointed 20  or  30000  Indians  to  encompafs  all  that  fpace  of  Land,  which  was  de- 
signed for  the  Hunt ;  half  of  whom  taking  to  the  Right-hand,  and  the  other  half 
to  the  Left,  were  to  beat  twenty  or  thirty  Leagues  round,  by  the  fides  of  Ri- 
vers ,  and  Brooks ,  and  through  woody  and  mountainous  places ,  wherefoever 
the  limits  and  bounds  of  th_e  chafe  did  extend ,  but  by  no  means  were  they  to 
touch  or  encroach  on  other  Lands ,  which  were  laid  out  for  the  Hunt  of  the 
following  year.    Thus  they  went  beating  and  peeping  into  every  bufh,  and  when 


Book  VI.  Royal  Commentaries.  io^ 

they  faw  or  met  any  game,  they  hooped  and  hollowed  to  give  notice  thereof  to 
their  Companions,  and  fo  marched  along  till  they  came  fo  to  ftraiten  the  hearts 
on  all  (ides  with  a  narrow  compafs,  that  they  could  come  and  take  them  up  with 
their  very  hands. 

What  fierce  Beafts  they  encountred,  as  they  beat  the  Woods  and  Mountains , 
fuch  as  Lions,  Bears,  Foxes,  Mountain-Cats,  which  they  call  Ozcollo,  as  alfo  Ser- 
pents and  venomous  Creatures  they  killed  before  they  came  within  the  Field,  or 
Circle  of  their  Hunting.  We  make  no  mention  here  of  Tygers,  becaufe  there 
were  none  in  thofe  Countries,  but  onely  in  the  vail:  and  horrid  Mountains  of  An- 
tu.  What  number  of  Game  they  might  kill  at  fuch  a  Hunting,  is  uncertain, 
that  happening  according  to  the  Countrey,  and  their  fortune  •,  forlometimes  they 
killed  twenty,  thirty  or  forty  thoufand  head  of  Beads,  fuch  as  Stags,  Fallow  Deer, 
the  Hhmoch  which  yields  a  fort  of  courfe  Wool,  and  the  Vim™,  which  is  a  Goat 
with  very  fine  Wool ;  with  many  other  Creatures,  which  afforded  not  onely  pro- 
fit, but  fport  and  paftime  in  the  taking  of  them.  Such  in  thofe  times  was  the 
abundance  of  their  Game  \  but  now  it  is  faid,  that  fuch  havock  hath  been  made 
by  the  Guns  which  the  Spaniards  ufe,  that  there  is  fcarce  a  Huanacw,  or  Vicuna  to 
be  found  •-,  but  what  are  affrighted  into  the  Mountains,  and  inacceffible  places, 
where  no  path  or  way  can  be  made. 

All  the  Game  being  thus  furrounded  and  encompafled ,  they  took  up  with 
their  hands.  The  Female  Deer,  whether  red  or  fallow,  they  fuffered  to  efcape, 
becaufe  they  had  no  Wool ,  but  old  and  barren  Does  they  killed :  they  let  go  al- 
fo as  many  Males  as  were  thought  neceflary  to  ferve  the  Females,  and  all  the 
reft  they  killed,  and  divided  their  Flelh  amongft  the  Commonalty,  likewife  ha- 
ving (horn  the  Huanaau  and  the  Vicuna ,  they  let  them  efcape ,  keeping  an  exacl 
account  of  all  thefe  wild  Cattel,  as  if  they  had  been  tame  Flocks ,  noting  them 
in  their  Sjnpts,  which  is  their  Book  of  Regifter,  diftinguifhing  the  Males  from 
their  Females  in  exadt  and  orderly  manner.  They  likewife  noted  the  Number 
of  the  Beads  they  killed,  as  well  fuch  as  were  fierce  and  hurtfull,  as  thofe  that 
were  tame  and  ufefull,  that  fo  knowing  the  direft  Numbers  that  remained,  they 
might  the  better  fee  at  their  next  Hunting  feafon,  how  their  ftock  was  multiplied 
and  increafed. 

The  courfe  Wool  of  the  Huanacm  was  distributed  amongft  the  common  peo- 
ple •,  and  that  of  the  Vicuna,  becaufe  it  was  very  fine,  was  referved  for  the  Incai 
who  divided  it  alfo  amongft  the  Incas  of  his  Kindred  :  For  befides  them,  no  other 
upon  pain  of  Death  might  prefume  to  wear  it,  unlefs  in  favour  •,  fome  part  there- 
of was  given  to  a  particular  Curaca,  who  upon  no  other  terms  could  pretend  to 
that  honour  and  privilege.  The  Flefh  of  the  Huanacm  and  Vicuna  was  diftribu- 
ted  amongft  the  common  people,  with  whom  the  Curacas  would  vouchfafe  to 
take  fome  part,  as  alfo  of  the  Venifon  ■■,  not  that  they  wanted  it,  but  to  (hew 
their  compliance  and  familiarity  with  thfe-people ;  and  that  they  who  laboured'  in 
the  Hunting,  did  not  fcorn  to  receive  their  (hare  of  the  prey. 

Thefe  general  and  folemn  Huntings  were  appointed  every  fourth  Year  in  the 
refpe&ive  Divifions  5  for  the  Indians  were  of  opinion,  that  in  fuch  time  the  Wool 
of  the  Vicuna  would  be  at  its  full  growth ,  and  that  the  wild  Cattel  would  have 
time  to  increafe ;  and  would  be  lets  affrighted  at  the  approach  of  Men,  than  if 
they  were  every  year  teafed  and  hunted :  Howfoever,  they  hunted  in  one  place  or 
other  every  year  •,  but  with  fuch  method  and  order,  that  the  Provinces  being  divi- 
ded into  four  parts,  each  divifion  took  its  turn  but  once  in  four  years. 

In  this  orderly  manner  and  method  the  Incas  appointed  the  times  of  Huntings 
as  well  for  the  pleafure  and  delight,  as  for  the  profit  of  his  people  5  it  being  an 
opinion  amongft  them,  that  the  Pachacamac,  or  the  God  and  Creatour  of  all  things, 
had  commanded  that  the  fame  care  fhould  be  taken  of  the  wild,  as  of  the  tame 
Flocks  •■,  and  that  they  were  to  deftroy  the  hurtfull  and  devouring  Beafts,  as  they 
were  to  cut  and  root  out  noxious  Weeds  or  Herbs  out  of  their  Corn,  and  Fields 
that  were  fown.  And  fince  we  obferve  the  order  which  thefe  Incas  directed  in 
their  very  Huntings,  which  they  called  Chacu  5  how  can  we  doubt,  but  that  thefe 
people  maintained  the  like  in  matters  of  Government,  and  things  of  greater  im- 
portance ,  and  were  not  fo  brutilh  and  falvage  as  the  World  hath  figured  them. 
It  is  farther  to  be  noted,  that  the  Bezar-ftone  brought  from  that  Countrey,  ( in 
the  goodnefs  whereof  there  is  great  difference )  was  taken  from  fome  of  thofe 
wild  cattel,  which  we  have  before  mentioned. 

Cci  According 

lq$  Royal  Commentaries.  Book  VI. 

According  to  the  fame  form  and  method  the  hcas,  who  were  Vice-Kings, 
praftifed  and  regulated  their  Huntings  in  their  refpeftive  Provinces,  at  which 
they  were  for  the  moft  part  perfonally  prefent  •,  not  onely  for  pleafure  and  recrea- 
tion, but  to  infpeft  and  overfee  the  juft  and  due  diftribution  of  the  Venifon  ta- 
ken  in  Hunting  amongft  the  common  people  •?  and  fee  that  thoie  alfo  who  were 
old,  or  fick,  or  infirm,  mould  have  their  ihare  and  juft  proportion.       ■ 

Unlefs  it  were  the  ColUu,  the  Commonalty  m  general  were4o  poor  in  Cattel, 
that  they  feldom  or  never  eat  Flefti,  but  what  was  difpenied  to  them  oy  the  Cha- 
rity and  Beneficence  of  their  Caracas  s,  unlefs  (bmetimes  they  killed  a  few  tame 
Conies  which  they  kept  and  fed  in  their  Houfes,  called  by  them  Coy:  So  that  the 
ima.  and  the  Cmmcm,  took  great  care,  that  an  equal  divifion  mould  be  made  a- 
mongft  the  Commonalty  of  all  the  Venifon  which  was  taken  in  Hunting  :  the 
which  Flelh  they  cut  out  into  large  flices,.  (called  Cktrqui)  and  then  dried  them 
in  fuch  manner,  that  they  were  not  fubjeft  to  corrupt  ■-,  and  being  abftemious  and 
frugal  in  their  diet,  their  provifion  ferved  them  for  the  whole  year  round,  untill 
the^next  feafon  of  Hunting  returned  again. 

In  drefling  their  Meat,  they  ufed  all  forts  of  Herbs,  whether  fweet,  or  bitter,  or 
fower,  or  of  any  quality,  but  fuch  as  were  poifonous  or  hurtfull :  The  bitter  Herbs 
they  did  ufually  boil  in  two  or  three  feveral  Waters,  and  then  dried  them  in  the 
Sun ,  and  ufed  them  at  thofe  feafons  when  green  were  not  to  be  procured.  And 
fo  fond  they  were  of  green  Herbs,  that  they  would  eat  the  Duck-weed  which 
grows  in  Ponds ;  which  after  they  had  well  warned  and  dried,  they  would  eat  in 
the  feafon  j  as  alfo  Herbs  raw  or  crude,  fuch  as  Lettuce  and  Radiihes,  which  were 
efteemed  fubftantial  Dimes,  rather  than  Salads,  or  Sauces  to  provoke  an  appetite. 

CHAP.    VII. 

Of  the  Tofts,  and  the  t)ifpatches  which  they  carried. 

TH  E  Ports,  or  Carriers,  who  were  intruded  with  the  charge  of  carrying  the 
King's  Orders  and  Commands  were  called  Cha/qui  $  and  thefe  alfo  brought 
the  News  and  Advices  to  the  Court  from  the  moft  remote  Provinces :  In  fettle- 
ment  of  which  Pofts ,  they  ordained  and  appointed  four  or  fix  nimble  Indian 
Boys  to  be  laid  at  the  end  of  every  quarter  of  a  League,  and  lodged  under  a  Stall 
like  that  of  our  Centinels,  to  defend  them  from  the  Sun  and  Rain.  Thefe  had 
the  charge  of  carrying  the  Meffage  from  one  Poft  to  another,  and  to  take  their 
turns  in  running  •,  and  alfo  of  fallying  out  to  fee  or  difcover  at  a  diftance  the  co- 
ming of  a  Poft,  that  fo  they  might  be  ready  to  take  his  meftage  without  lofs  of 
time.  And  thefe  Stalls,  or  Lodges,  were  raifed  fomething  high,  and  placed  with 
that  advantage,  that  they  might  be  feen  at  a  diftance,  and  not  farther  than  a  quar- 
ter of  a  League  one  from  the  other  •■,  being  fo  much  as  they  faid ,  a  Man  may  be 
able  to  run  in  full  breath  and  ftrengch. 

The  word  Chafqm  fignifies  changing ,  or  giving,  or  taking ,  for  they  gave  and 
received  their  Meflages  interchangeably  one  from  the  other.  They  were  not 
called  Cacha,  for  that  fignifies  a  Meflenger,  and,  as  they  ufed  it,  an  Ambafladour, 
whom  they  fent  to  Sovereign  Lords  and  Princes.  The  Advices  which  the  Cbafqui 
carried  were  by  word  of  mouth ,  for  the  Indians  did  not  underftand  Letters : 
Wherefore  the  Meflages  were  ordered,  and  difpofed  in  fuch  lfiort  and  condfe 
words,  as  were  eaiily  apprehended  and  remembred.  He  that  brought  the  Mef- 
fage, before  he  came  to  the  Lodge,  cried  loud,  and  called  out  as  he  ran  to  give 
warning  of  his  coming,  as  our  Pofts  wind  their  Horn  to  give  notice  at  the  Stage 
of  their  near  approach  5  and  when  he  was  come,  he  then  delivered  his  Meflage 
to  the  other  Poft-boy,  repeating  the  words  two  or  three  times,  untill  he  had 


Book  VI.  Royal  Commentaries.  197 

rightly  underftood  them ,  and  taken  the  words  fo  perfe&ly,  as  to  be  guilty  of  no 

If  there  were  any  other  Meflages,  they  were  committed  to  writing,  and  not  to 
word  of  mouth  :  Writing,  I  mean,  not  fuch  as  we  deliver  and  exprefs  in  Letters, 
but  in  Knots  made  up  in  different  threads  of  various  colours,  which  ferved  for 
cyphers,  which  were  well  underftood  by  the  Inca  and  his  Governours :  For  by 
thefe  Knots  and  Colours  of  thread,  they  fpecified  what  number  of  Souldiers,  whac 
Garments,  what  Provifions,  and  what  other  neceilaries  were  to  be  furniihed, 
and  put  into  a  readinefs  for  the  fervice  of  the  Army.  Thefe  knotted  threads 
which  the  Indians  called  JHftiprt,  were  the  Cyphers  which  they  ufed  in  all  their  Ad- 
vices, and  the  Figures  in  their  Accounts :  of  which  we  lhall  treat  more  at  large 
in  the  following  Chapter.  But  as  to  thefe  Chafqui,  or  Pofl-boys,  when  at  any 
time  any  extraordinary  bufinefs  was  in  a&ion ,  they  encreafcd  them  often  to  ten 
or  twelve  in  number  at  every  Stage.  And  to  make  thefe  Pods  the  more  ready 
and  quick;  if  at  any  time  an  extraordinary,  occafion  happened,  they  gave  their 
Signal  in  the  day-time  to  them  by  making  a  fmoak,  and  in  the  night-time  by  the 
flame  of  a  Beacon;  which  being  difcovered  at  a  diflance,  it  ferved  as  a  warning 
to  every  Stage  to  have  their  Ports  in  a  readinefs,  and  to  watch  night  and  day  for 
the  coming  of  this  Meflage.  But  thefe  Beacons  were  never  fired  but  on  fome 
great  occafion  of  Rebellion,  or  Infurredion  of  a  Province ,  that  fo  the  news  of  it 
might  fpeedily  arrive  at  Court  in  the  fpace  of  two  or  three  hours,  though  it  hap- 
pen five  or  fix  hundred  Leagues  from  thence  •,  the  which  ferved  to  give  an  Alla- 
rum  untill  fuch  time  as  the  particulars  of  the  News  arrived  with  greater  certainty. 
And  this  was  the  Office  and  Ufe  of  the  Chafqui. 


That  they  made  their  Reckonings  and  Accounts  by  Threads 
and  Knots  ;  and  that  the  Accountants  were  Men  of  great 
faith  and  integrity. 

QVim  fignifies  as  much  as  Knots,  and  fometimes  Accounts  5  in  ordering  of 
which,  the  Indians  Dyed  their  Threads  with  divers  colours  ;  fome  were  of  one 
colour  onely,  fome  of  two,  others  of  three,  or  more;  which,  with  the  mixed  co- 
lours, were  of  divers  and  various  fignifications.  Thefe  firings  were  twifled  of 
three  or  four  Threads,  and  about  three  quarters  of  a  Yard  in  length  ;  all  which 
they  filed  on  another  firing  in  fafhion  of  a  Fringe.  And  by  thefe  colours  they 
underftood  the  number  and  meaning  of  every  particular :  By  the  yellow  they  fig- 
nified  Gold,  by  the  white  Silver,  by  the  red  Souldiers  and  Armies,  and  fo  of  other 
things  diftinguifhed  by  their  colours. 

But  as  for  other  things  which  could  not  be  fo  diftinguifhed  by  Colours,  they  de- 
fcribed  them  by  their  order  and  degrees  of  quality  and  goodnefs:  For  as  we  in  Spain 
take  every  thing  in  their  degrees  of  companion,  fo  they  having  occafion  to  men- 
tion Corn,  do  nrft  nominate  Wheat,  then  Barly,  then  Peafe  and  Pulfe,  &c  So 
when  they  gave  an  account  of  Arms ;  the  fir  ft  mentioned  were  the  mod  Noble , 
fuch  as  Lances,  next  Darts,  then  Bows  and  Arrows,  Pole-axes  and  Hatchets,  and 
fo  forward.  So  when  they  had  occafion  to  number  the  people  and  feveral  Fami- 
lies :  The  firft  were  Aged  Men  of  feventy  years  and  upwards,  then  Men  of  fifty, 
and  fo  to  feventy,  then  of  forty  ■■,  and  fo  from  ten  to  ten ,  untill  they  came  to 
fucking  Children :  The  which  Order  alfo  was  kept  in  numbring  their  Women. 

Then  amongft  thefe  groffer  firings ,  there  were  others  which  were  more  fhorr; 
and  flender  adjoining  to  them ;  and  thefe  were  Exceptions  to  the  other  more  ge- 

jog  Royal  Commentaries.  Book  VI. 

neral  Rules;  for  in  the  account  made  of  Men  and  Women  married,  there  was 
another  firing  annexed  to  it,  which  fignified  Widows,  and  Widowers  of  fuch  an 
age-,  all  which  accounts  ferved  onely  for  one  Year. 

Thefe  Knots  expreSIed  numbers  in  their  feveral  orders,  as  by  units,  tens,  hun- 
dreds, thousands,  tens  of  thoufands,  but  feldom  went  fo  far  as  to  hundreds  of 
thoufands;  but  in  cafe  they  mould  have  had  occalion  to  have  arifen  to  fo  great  a 
number,  no  doubt  but  their  Language,  which  is  full  and  copious,  would  have 
found  words  fufficient  to  exprefs  that  fum ,  and  the  greateft  number  to  which 
Arithmetick  could  arrive.  All  which  Accounts  were  made  by  Knots  on  firings, 
one  underneath  the  other,  and  knit  on  a  cord,  as  the  knots  are  on  the  Girdle  of 
St.  Francis. 

At  the  top  of  the  cord  the  greateft  number  was  placed,  as  the  tens  of  thoufands, 
under  that  ftood  the  thoufands,  and  laft  of  all  was  the  place  of  the  units-,  all  which 
were  placed  direftly  with  exactnefs  one  under  the  other ,  as  our  good  Accoun- 
tants, well  skilled  in  the  Art  of  Cyphering,  are  ufed  to  let  and  place  their  figures. 
The  Indians  who  kept  the  2a}pm ,  or  to  whofe  charge  the  keeping  of  Accounts 
was  committed,  were  called  ^uipamaju,  and  were  efteemed  Men  of  good  repu- 
tation, and  chofen  for  that  Service,  on  good  aflurance  and  proof  of  their  fidelity 
and  honefty  ;  and  though  the  Simplicity  of  thofe  people  in  that  Age  was  with- 
out any  mixture  of  malice ,  and  that  the  ftri&nefs  of  the  government  admitted 
no  cheats,  or  frauds  on  any  fcore  whatfoever  ;  yet  notwithstanding  great  care  was 
taken  to  chufe  Men  for  this  work  of  approved  Ability,  and  of  a  tried  and  expe- 
rienced Faithfulnefs  and  Probity.  For  indeed  Offices  were  never  amongft  them 
chofen  for  favour,  nor  bought,  or  fold,  becaufe  that  Money  was  not  current  a- 
mongft  them  •,  but  it  was  Vertue  and  Merit  onely  which  purchafed  a  Truft  and 
Office :  And  though  buying  and  felling  was  not  known  to  them,  yet  it  was  or- 
dinary for  them  to  truck  or  barter  their  provifions  of  Food  one  for  the  other.; 
but  nothing  elfe  either  of  Garments,  Houfes,  or  Inheritance. 

The  QuipHcamayus,  or  Accountants,  being  honeft  and  faithfull,  (as  we  have 
faid)  ferved  in  the  nature  of  Regifters,  of  which  there  were  four  at  leaft  appointed 
for  every  Lineage,  or  People,  how  little  foever  it  were;  and  in  cafe  the  Countrey 
was  great,  they  entertained  twenty  or  thirty,  for  though  one  Accountant  might 
have  ferved  the  turn,  yet  to  avoid  all  miftakes  and  frauds ,  they  judged  it  requi- 
site to  constitute  many  in  an  Office  of  fuch  importance. 

CHAP.    IX. 

What  it  was  that  they  fet  down  and  placed  in  their  Accounts  jl 
and  how  they  underfiood  them. 

ALL  the  Tribute  that  was  yearly  payable  to  the  Ma,  was  palled  to  account, 
as  alfo  what  every  Family,  according  to  their  degrees,  and  qualities,  were 
to  pay.  The  people  likewife  which  went  to  the  War  were  numbred  •,  and  Bills  of 
Mortality  were  kept  of  as  many  as  dyed ,  and  were  born ,  or  mifcarried  by  any 
accident  5  which  were  all  noted  in  the  months  wherein  they  happened.  In  Short, 
they  noted  every  thing  that  could  fall  under  Numeration,  as  now  many  Battels 
or  Skirmishes  were  fought,  how  many  AmbaSIadours  had  been  fent  to  the  Inca, 
and  how  many  Anfwers  the  King  had  been  pleafed  to  return  thereunto.  But 
what  the  fubftance  of  thofe  EmbaSFies  was ,  or  what  were  the  particulars  of  the 
King's  Difcourfe,  or  what  occurrences  paSled  in  way  of  Hiftory,  were  too  various 
to  be  exprelled  by  the  barrennefs  of  their  Knots,  which  ferved  onely  for  numbers, 
but  not  for  words;  wherefore  to  fupply  this  defect  they  framed  certain  historical 
Hieroglyphicks,  which  ferved  for  Monuments ,  in  an  obfcure  manner,  of  what 


Book  VI.  Royal  Commentaries.  inn 

had  occurred  in  War  and  Peace  5  as  alfo  of  EmbaiTies  from  foreign  Princes,  and 
the  feveral  Negotiations  with  them  5  which  Work  was  the  Office  of  the  j^ipu- 
mayas,  who  made  fome  fhort  and  concife  Memoir,  leaving  the  reft  to  the  remem- 
brance of  the  Age,  who  by  tradition  conferved  the  fame  to  fucceeding  Genera- 
tions:   And  herein  every  Province  was  particularly  attent,  and  carefull  to  con- 
fcrve  the  Hiftory  of  its  own  Countrey  ,  for  on  that ,,  and  on  the  Actions  of 
their  Anceftours,  they  much  efteemed  and  valued  themfelves.    The  Amautas,  or 
Philofophers,  for  a  farther  help  to  Hiftory,  did  compofe  certain  Novels,  or  Fa- 
bles, mixed  with  true  paflages,  which  they  made  fo  familiar ,  and  eafie  to  the 
capacity  of  Children ,  and  common  People ,  that  they  attentively  hearkened  to 
them,  and  were  fo  pleafed  with  them,  that  recounting  them  one  to  the  other 
in  common  Difcourfe,  and  way  of  Converfation ,  they  fo  inculcated  them  into 
the  minds  of  the  hearers,  that  the  Tale  becoming  common,  was  transferred  from 
one  Generation  to  another.    The  Poets  likewife,  whom  they  call  Haravkm,  were 
great  Confervators  of  Hiftory  •,  for  they  in  verfe,  and  in  fhort  and  compendious 
Sentences  couched  the  A&ions  of  their  King,  fuch  as  the  Embaffies  he  received, 
the  Anfwers  he  gave,  the  Battels  he  won,  and  the  Triumphs  he  celebrated;  and 
that  wherein  the  Sluipm,  and  the  Amautas  came  fhort,  was  all  fupplied  by  the 
fancy  of  Poets,  whole  Verfes  ferved  for  Sonnets,  and  Ballads,  which  they  fang 
at  their  Feftivals,  and  on  the  days  of  Triumph.    All  which  notwithftanding  were 
faint  Reprefentations  and  imperfect  Confervatories  of  true  Hiftory,  in  companion 
of  the  Reports  we  deliver  to  faithfull  Writings  and  Letters,  which  perpetuate 
the  memory  of  A&ions  to  all  Ages-    Howfqever  we  may  here  obferve  the  inge- 
nuity of  that  people ,  who  allayed  and  offered  at  fomething  like  our  Letters, 
though  it  were  by  Knots,  and  Novels,  and  Hieroglyphicks,  and  Verfes-,  fuch  is 
the  delire  of  Mankind  to  perpetuate  their  Beings  in  the  memory  and  minds  of 
all  Ages.  ' 

When  any  Curaca ,  or  Noble  Perfon ,  defired  to  knowr,  and  be  informed  of 
things  palled,  and  matters  occurring  in  their  Provinces,  they  prefently  fent  to  the 
guipicamajus  to  be  fatisfied  in  their  demands  5  and  they,  or  their  Under-Officers, 
who  kept  the  Regifters,  making  fearch  into  their  Knots  and  Cyphers,  made  fuch 
Anfwers  as  appeared  in  their  Regifter. 

By  the  fame  Rule,  they  anfwered  the  Enquiries  made  of  Laws,  and  Rites,  and 
Ceremonies,  which  were  expreffed  by  the  colour  of  their  Knots-,  and  of  what 
punimment  was  inflicted  for  fuch  and  fuch  Crimes.  By  the  fame  Rule  alfo  they 
were  put  in  mind  of  the  Sacrifices  and  Ceremonies  which  were  to  be  performed 
at  the  feveral  Feftivals,  celebrated  in  honour  of  the  Sun  -,  with  what  provision 
was  made  for  Orphans,  and  Widows,  and  Poor,  and  Travellers,  and  of  all  other 
matters  which  were  committed  to  the  cuftody  of  Tradition :  For  thefe  feveral 
Knots  ferved  to  put  them  in  mind  of  all  particulars,  which  they  defired  to  have 
remembred  j  for  as  we  by  the  number  Ten  remember  the  ten  Commandments, 
and  by  other  numbers  call  to  mind  the  Sacraments,  good  Works,  and  Ads  of 
Mercy,  which  we  learn  in  our  Catechifm,  fo  thefe  Indians,  by  thefe  Knots,  and 
Strings,  and  Colours,  remembred  more  perfectly  what  their  Fathers  had  delive- 
red to  them  by  Tradition  ,  which  they  regarded  with  refpect  and  reverence  due 
to  the  facred  Confervatories  of  that  Law ,  and  Idolatrous  Religion,  which  they 
profefled;  for  without  this  help,  having  no  Writings,  they  would  certainly  have 
been  as  ignorant  of  their  own  Hiftory,  as  the  Spaniards  themfelves  are,  or  any 
other  Strangers,  or  Aliens.  The  knowledge  which  I  had  of  their  £>uipns,  and 
Knots,  I  gained  by  the  means  of  fome  Indians,  who  ferved  my  Father,  and  of 
certain  Caracas,  who  came  every  Midfummer  and  Chriftmas  to  the  City,  to  pay 
their  Tribute  ■,  and  thefe  Curaca*  defired  my  Mother  that  me  would  prevail  with 
me  faithfully  to  examine  their  Accounts,  and  read  the  Acquittances  which  the 
Spaniards  had  given  them,  for  they  were  jealous  of  their  actings,  and  repofed  much 
more  confidence  in  me,  than  in  them-,  which  when  I  had  perufed,  and  read  to 
them,  they  compared  them  with  their  Knots,  and  finding  them  to  agree,  they  re- 
mained fatisfied.  And  by  this  means  I  came  to  have  fome  knowledge  in  their 
way  of  Accounts. 


2oo  Royal  Commentaries.  Book  VI. 

CHAP.    X. 

The  Inca  Pachacutec  vifits  fever al  parts  of  his  Empire,  and 
conquers  the  Nation  of  Huanca. 

THE  Inca  Viracocha  being  dead,  Pachacntec,  his  legitimate  Son  and  Heir,  fuc- 
ceeded  in  the  Empire,  and  having  folemnly  performed  the  funeral  Rites  of 
his  Father,  he  refided  for  three  Years  at  his  Court,  attending  to  the  due  admini- 
stration of  his  Government.  Afterwards  he  took  a  progrefs  into  all  parts  of  his 
Dominions,  pafling  orderly  from  one  Province  to  another  •,  and  though  the  pre- 
fence  of  the  Inca  might  feem  of  no  moment,  in  regard  the  Lords,  and  Governours 
were  fo  diligent,  and  faithfull  to  their  truft,  that  the  Inca,  in  all  the  way  he  travel- 
led, received  no  complaints  from  the  people  of  Aggrievances  and  Oppreffions, 
laid  illegally  on  them  by  their  Rulers  •,  for  the  frequent  appearance  of  the  Inca  at 
certain  times,  did  fo  overawe  the  Minifters,  that  they  were  fearfull  to  a<5t  any 
thing  which  was  not  permitted  to  them  by  Law  or  Equity.  Moreover  the  ap- 
pearance of  the  Inca  perfonally  before  his  Subje&s,  gave  them  the  opportunity  to 
prefer  their  Petitions,  and  offer  their  Complaints  by  way  of  immediate  Addrefs, 
which  was  much  more  beneficial  to  the  Subjects,  than  to  have  their  Aggrievances 
made  known  by  a  third  hand,  which  by  favour  or  friendship  might  diSguiSe  the 
laments,  and  make  Injustices  appear  lefs  than  they  were,  to  the  prejudice  of  the 
Plaintiffs  ^  and  herein  fuch  care  was  taken,  that  never  any  people,  who  lived  by 
the  mere  Light  of  Nature,  and  Law  ofReafon,  did  ever  furpafs  the  equitable 
proceedings  of  the  Mas  •?  which  indifferency,  and  unbiased  judgment ,  gained 
them  that  love  of  their  people,  that  even  to  this  day,  and  to  many  future  Ages, 
will  their  Memory  be  fweet  and  pretious.  At  the  end  of  three  Years  this  Inca 
returned  again  to  his  City,  and  left  he  fhould  feem  to  fpend  all  his  time  in  Peace 
and  Repole,  he  judged  it  convenient  to  attend  at  length  unto  military  Exercifes, 
and  gain  the  Reputation  of  a  Souldier  by  War,  as  well  as  of  a  civil  and  juft  Go- 
vernour  in  the  time  of  Peace-,  to  this  end  he  raifed  an  Army  of  thirty  thoufand 
Men,  with  which  together  with  his  Brother  Capac  Yupanqui,  a  valiant  Man,  and 
worthy  of  that  name,  he  marched  through  all  the  Divifion  of  Chinchafuju,  un- 
til! he  came  to  PtBca,  which  was  the  utmoft  extent  on  that  fide  of  their  Con- 

There  he  remained  himfelf,  whilft  he  fent  his  Brother  with  an  Army  well  fur- 
nifhed  with  all  provisions  of  War,  into  the  Province  called  Saafa,  which  the  Spa- 
niards corruptly  call  Xanxa ,  which  is  a  moft  pleafant  Countrey,  containing  about 
thirty  thoufand  inhabitants,  all  of  the  fame  Lineage  and  Name  olHuanca.  They 
boafted  themfelves  to  be  defcended  from  one  Man,  and  one  Woman,  which  they 
fay  had  their  Original  from  a  Fountain ;  they  were  a  fort  of  fierce  and  warlike 
people,  fleaing  thofe  whom  they  took  in  the  Wars,  the  Skins  of  which  they  fil- 
led with  Allies,  and  hanged  them  up  in  their  Temples,  for  Trophies  of  their 
Victories  i  with  the  Skins  of  fome  they  made  Drums,  being  of  opinion,  that  the 
found  of  them  would  terrifie  and  affright  their  Enemies.  Thefe  though  they  were 
a  fmall  people,  yet  had  well  ftrengthened  and  fortified  themfelves ,  for  being  all 
of  one  Nation,  they  united  their  Interefts  to  encroach  on  the  Lands  and  Territo- 
ries of  their  Neighbours  •,  and  to  make  that  good  which  they  had  acquired ,  they 
fortified  themfelves  in  fuch  places  of  Defence ,  as  were  accuftomary  in  thofe 

In  the  times  of  their  ancient  Gentilifm  before  they  were  reduced  under  th 
power  of  the  inca,  they  worshipped  the  Image  of  a  Dog  in  their  Temples,  eatinj 
the  Flefh  of  Dogs  for  the  greateft  rarity  and  delicacy  in  the  World  $  fo  that  it  i 
believed  their  Appetite  to  Dogs-flefh  was  the  original  of  their  Devotion,  which 
was  fo  great  to  that  Beaft  $  that  the  moft  folemn  Feafts  and  Entertainments  were 


Book  VI.  Royal  Commentaries.  2d 

ferved  with  many  Dimes  of  Dogs-flefh  ;  and  to  demonftrate  their  great  refpecT: 
to  Dogs,  they  made  a  fort  of  Trumpet  with  their  Heads,  which  they  founded 
for  their  mod  pleafant  Mufick,  at  times  of  their  moft  folemn  Feftivals,  and  Dan- 
cings-, and  in  their  Wars  they  ufed  the  fame  to  terrifie  and  affright  their  Ene- 
mies, for,  faid  they,  our  God  caufes  thefe  two  different  Effe&s  by  the  fame  In- 
ftruments ;  in  us  it  raifes  Joy  and  Delight,  and  in  our  Enemies  Horrour  and  Con- 
fternation:  But  all  thefe  Superftitions  and  Errours  were  quitted,  and  rooted  out 
by  the  better  Inftruftion  and  Rudiments  of  the  Inca-?  howfoever  to  indulge  their 
humour  fo  far  as  was  warrantable,  they  permitted  them  in  place  of  Dogs-heads  to 
make  their  Trumpets  with  the  Heads  of  Deer,  or  Stags,  or  any  other  Wild-beaft, 
as  they  pleated,  which  afterwards  they  ufed  at  their  Feftivals  and  Balls,  and  times 
of  rejoicing  $  and  becaufe  the  Flelh  of  Dogs  was  fo  extremely  pleating  and  fa- 
voury  to  them,  they  gained  the  Sirname  of  Dog ;  that  whenfoever  Hxaxca  was 
named,  they  added  Sir-reverence  the  Dog.  They  had  likewife  another  Idol, 
in  figure  and  fbape  of  a  Man,  which  was  an  Oracle  through  which  the  Devil 
Fpake,  and  returned  Anfwers  to  all  Demands,  which  uttering  nothing  that  was 
in  contradiction  or  difparagement  to  the  Religion  which  the  hcas  profefled,  was 
ftill  conferved,  and  left  undemolifhed,  though  the  Idol  of  the  Dog  was  broken 
down  and  confounded. 

This  confiderable  Nation,  and  the  moft  kindly  affectionate  to  Dogs,  the  hca 
Capac  Tttpanqui  fubdued  by  fair  terms,  and  prefents,  rather  than  by  force  5  for  this 
was  always  the  Mafterpiece  of  the  hcas ,  who  made  it  their  Profeffion  to  take 
the  Bodies  of  Men,  by  captivating  firft  and  alluring  their  Souls  and  Minds.  AH 
things  pafling  in  this  manner  fmoothly  with  the  Huancas  ,  and  every  thing  being 
fettled  in  peace  and  quietnefs,  the  hca  divided  their  Nation  into  three  Divifions, 
the  better  to  divide  and  fuperfede  the  old  Feuds  and  Difputes  amongft  them,  ari- 
fing  about  the  Boundaries  and  Limits  of  their  Land :  The  firft  Divifion  they 
called  Saufa,  the  fecond  Mana  vllka ,  and  the  third  Llacfapallanca.  The  attire  of 
their  Heads  was  ordered  not  to  be  altered  in  the  form  and  manner  of  it,  but  dif- 
ferenced onely  for  diftincHon  fake,  by  variety  of  colours.  This  Province,  which 
anciently  was  ailed  Huanca,  was  by  the  Spaniards,  I  know  not  for  what  reafon, 
named  Httancavilka,  without  confidering that  there  is  another  Province,  called 
Hnanca  vilka,  not  far  from  Ttmqiz,  and  three  hundred  Leagues  diftant  one  from 
the  other:  This  latter  is  fituate  on  the  Sea-coaft,  and  the  former  far  within 
the  Land ,  the  which  we  here  intimate  to  the  Reader,  that  fo  he  may  know  in 
the  perufal  of  this  Hiftory  to  diftinguifh  one  from  the  other,  that  when  we  (hall 
come  to  relate  many  ftrange  occurrences  in  the  Countrey  of  Huancavilka,  he  may 
not  be  confounded  by  mif  taking  it  for  Hna»ca. 

D  d  CHAP. 

202  Royal  Commentaries.  Book  VL 

T    ■  "     — 


CHAP.    XL 

Of  Other  Provinces  which  the  Inca  fubdued;  of  their  Man- 
ners and  Cu/ioms,  and  the  feverity  they  ufed  again  ft  thofs 
who  were  guilty  of  Sodomy. 


BY  the  fame  good  policy  the  Inca  Capac  Tupanqui  allured  and  invited  feveral 
other  Provinces  to  fubmiffion  and  Obedience,  which  extend  themfelves  on 
both  hands  of  the  common  road ;  amongft  which  the  Provinces  of  principal  note 
and  confideration  were  Tarma  and  Pumpu,  which  rhe  Spaniards  call  Bombon,  being 
very  fertile  Soils,  and  abounding  with  all  forts  of  ^ruic.  1  hcfe  being  allured  by 
fair  Words,  and  Promifes,  gently  fubmitted  to  the  affcble  and  courteous  treat,- 
ment  of  Capac  Tupanqui  ?  howfoever  thefe  people  being  wariike,  and  fierce  by 
Nature,  did  not  entirely  yield  to  the  perfuafions  of  their  Enemies,  but  wkhftood 
them  in  fome  Battels  and  Skirmifhes,  though  the  Defeacc  they  made  was  ren- 
dred  more  faint  than  was  expected,  by  the  Wheedles,  and  rine  Words,  and  Gifts 
of  the  Inca. 

The  Inhabitants  of  thefe  Provinces  of  Tarma  and  Tompu,  and  the  borderers  up- 
on them,  did  in  fignal  of  Matrimony,  feal  the  Agreement  with  a  kifs,  the  Bride- 
groom kifling  the  Bride  on  the  Fore-head,  or  the  Cheek.  Widows  could  not 
marry  within  the  Year,  and  more  the  Hair  of  their  Heads  for  a  fign  of  Mour- 
ning. The  Men  on  their  fading  days  neither  ate  Flem,  nor  Pepper,  nor  Salt,  nor 
accompanied  with  their  Wives :  Such  as  were  Priefts,  or  aadi&ed  themfelves 
much  to  religious  Worfhip,  fafted  the  whole  Year  in  this  kind  of  Abftinence. 

In  this  manner  the  Inca  Capac  Tupanqui  reduced  the  Provinces  of  Tarma  and 
Pompu,  with  many  others,  lying  Eaft  ward,  near  Ant  is -^  the  Natives  of  which 
lived  like  Salvages,  without  Order,  or  Government,  or  Religion  •■,  and  as  Brutes, 
and  Wild-beafts,  were  difperfed  through  the  Woods  and  Mountains,  killing  one 
the  other,  as  they  cafually  mnet,  or  encoutred,  without  knowing  or  aligning  any 
caufe  or  reafon  for  their  Slaughters  •,  thefe  Men  lived  in  a  ftate  of  common  War, 
becaufe  they  were  ignorant  of  the  ufefulnefs  of  Peaces  and  having  no  Lord  01 
Ruler,  had  confequently  no  Name,  their  Countrey  being  onely  diftinguifhed  by 
the  Climate  or  Pofition  of  the  Place  under  fuch  a  degree,  running  thirty  degrees 
North  and  South,  and  as  many  Eaft  and  Weft.  Thefe  were  with  great  facility 
reduced  to  the  Obedience  of  the  Inca;  for  being  a  fort  of  poor  fimple  Animals 
which  were.eafily  allured  by  the  good  was  offered  them,  were  willing  to  embraa 
the  Religion  and  Manners  which  were  taught  them,  and  to  fuffer  themfelves  to  b< 
carried  to  any  Place  or  Colony,  where  the  Inca  mould  think  fit  to  tranfport  them 
Of  thefe  People  nothing  offers  farther,  nor  of  any  other  Province  worthy  to  b< 
related,  untill  we  come  to  the  Countrey  of  Chucurpu ,  which  was  well  peoplec 
with  a  warlike  Nation,  barbarous  and  fierce  in  their  Nature  and  manners;  and  a 
an  evidence  hereof,  and  in  a  conformity  to  this  humour,  they  worfliipped  a  Tyge 
for  their  God. 

The  Fiercenefs  and  natural  Bravery  of  this  Nation  made  them  to  fcorn  all  pro 
pofals  of  Accommodation,  and  bid  Defiance  to  their  Enemies-,  fo  that  Capac  In 
panqui  being  put  by  his  Art  of  gentle  Iufinuations,  was  forced  to  have  recourfe  ti 
his  Arms,  and  engaging  in  fevetal  Skirmifhes,  wherein  above  four  thoufand  iwL 
*ns  were  flain,  they  at  length  yielded  and  fubmitted  themfelves  to  the  invincibl 
Prowefs  and  force  of  the  Inca,  which  yet  had  not  {o  great  an  influence  over  their 
as  had  the  gentle  Temper  and  compaffionate  Bowels  of  the  Inca-,  for  they  bein; 
fenfible,  that  when  it  was  in  the  hand  of  the  Inca  to  have  deftroyed,  and  totall 
exterminated  them ,  yet  even  then  he  ufed  a  tendernefs  towards  them ,  offerin 
them  the  conditions  of  an  advantageous  Peace-,  with  a  fenfe  of  which  being  i 
part  overcome,  they  affented  to  an  Accommodation,  receiving  the  inca  Pachaa 

Book  VI.  Royal  Commentaries  203 

tec  for  their  fupreme  Lord  and  Matter ,  embracing  his  Laws  and  Cuftoms,  and 
forfaking  their  God  the  Tyger,  they  were  ever  after  contented  to  adore  the  Sun, 
and  live  after  the  manner  of  his  Followers  and  Worfhippers. 

This  fierce  and  refolute  people  having  received  Conditions  and  Terms  of  Peace, 
and  fubmitted  themfelves  to  the  Obedience  of  the  Inca,  Capac  Ynpanqui,  efteemed 
his  fuccefs  herein  to  be  a  great  piece  of  his  Art,  and  an  Etfed  of  his  good  Con- 
duct, as  well  as  of  his  Fortune-,  for  had  they  peififted  in  that  obftinate  refolution 
of  dying  as  one  Man,  the  deftru&ion  and  {laughter  of  this  whole  People,  would 
have  blafted  that  good  opinion  which  the  World  conceived  of  the  Gentlenefs 
and  Mercy  of  the  I»ca  5  and  on  the  other  fide  for  the  Inca,  on  confideration  of  Com- 
panion and  good  Nature,  to  have  defifted  from  his  Conquefts,  and  left  them  free, 
would  have  argued  Cowardife,  or  want  of  power  to  fubdue  them  •,  fo  that  ufing 
force ,  and  fair  terms,  equally  between  thefe  two  extremes  all  matters  were  re- 
conciled, and  the  Province  of  Chucurpu  received  into  friendship :  And  fo  consti- 
tuting Teachers  to  inftrudt  them  in  Religion,  and  Governours  to  rule  them  accor- 
ding to  Law ;  Garrifons  and  Souldiers  were  (et  over  them,  to  conftrain  and  con- 
tinue them  in  their  Obedience.  Thence  taking  the  right-hand  from  the  great 
Road,  with  the  fame  good  Fortune  and  Conduct,  he  reduced  two  other  Pro- 
vinces, large  and  populous,  the  one  was  called  Ancara,  and  the  other  HuayUas,  in 
which,  as  in  the  others,  he  left  Teachers,  and  Governours,  and  Souldiers,  to  keep 
them  in  Awe  and  Obedience.  In  the  Province  otHuayllas  fbme  accufations  were 
brought  againft  certain  Perfons ,  who  fecretly  pradtifed  that  abominable  fin  of 
Sodomy,  which  wickednefs  having  not  been  as  yet  known  amongft  the  Indians  of 
the  hilly  Countries,  though  in  the  Plains  it  had  fome  times  been  (ecretly  pradi- 
fed,  gave  fuch  a  general  fcandal  to  all  that  heard  of  it,  that  they  detefted  the  So- 
ciety of  the  Huay/las,  and  in  common  Reproach  and  Derifion  of  that  Nation 
would  commonly  feoff  at  them,  and  fay,  Aftaya  Hnayllas,  which  is  as  much,  as 
faugh,  be  gone  Huayllas,  thou  (linked,  and  art  loathfome-,  fuch  deteftation  had  the 
Indians  of  this  fin,  though  it  were  a&ed  in  (ecret,  and  had  already  been  feverely 
punifhed  by  the  Inca  Capac  Tupanqui  ■-,  who  having  performed  what  we  have  rela- 
ted, and  made  fufficient  provifion  for  fecurity  of  his  Conquefts ,  which  reached 
feventy  Leagues  in  length.  North  and  South  $  and  all  the  Plains  in  breadth  to  the 
foot  of  the  fnowy  Mountain,  he  thought  it  convenient  after  three  years,  fince  the 
time  he  had  departed  from  Cozto,  to  return  again  to  the  City,  where  his  Brother 
Pachacutec  received  him  with  favour  and  kindnefs,  commanding  the  People  to  re- 
joyce  for  the  fpace  of  a  whole  Moon,  (for  the  Indians  make  the  account  of  their 
Months  by  Moons)  and  to  celebrate  their  feftival  with  triumphal  (ports  for  the 
victories  obtained. 

Ddi  CHAP. 

%0a  Royal  Commentaries.  Book  VI. 

CHAP.     XII. 

Of  their  Edifices,  and  Laws,  and  new  Conquers  obtained 
by  the  Inca  Pachacutec. 

THE  Holy-days  or  Feftivals  being  over,  the  Officers  of  the  Army,  Caracas 
and  common  Souldiers,  were  rewarded  according  to  their  refpective  de- 
grees and  qualities,  and  merit  of  their  valour  --,  for  the  Actions  of  particular  Per- 
fons  were  taken  notice  of,  and  as  every  one  fignalized  himfelf  fo  was  his  Reward. 
Then  did  the  Inca  refolve  again  after  fome  few  months  to  vifit  his  Dominions, 
which  were  always  pleafed  and  enlivened  with  the  Blefiing  and  Favour  of  his 
Prefence.  In  the  more  famous  Provinces  where  he  paffed,  he  commanded  rich 
and  magnificent  Temples  to  be  erected,  wherein  the  Indians  might  with  the  more 
awe  and  reverence  adore  the  Sun;  and  likewife  founded  Houfes  for  the  felect 
Virgins-,  for  thefe  two  were  always  Neighbours,  and  where  one  was,  the  other 
was  built  by  it.  This  great  care  which  the  Incas  took  to  have  their  Subjects  in- 
cited in  their  Devotion,  was  a  farther  endearment  of  them  to  their  Kings-,  for 
it  made  them  not  onely  religious ,  but  gave  them  the  privileges  of  Naturaliza- 
tion, and  being  Citizens  of  the  City  of  Cozco.  Befides  thefe  Temples  lie  buik 
Fortrefles  and  Caftles  on  the  Frontiers,  and  Royal  Palaces  in  the  Vallies,  and  in 
the  places  of  beft  Air  and  moil:  delightfull  fituation,  and  in  thofe  parts  which 
were  in  the  common  Road  and  way,  at  fuch  diftances  as  were  mod  convenient 
for  the  Mas  to  take  up  their  Lodgings  and  Refidence ,  when  they  travelled  or 
marched  with  their  Army :  He  alio  built  Magazines,  and  Store-houfes  in  every 
Province,  for  the  provifion  and  maintenance  of  the  People  in  years  of  Dearth  and 

He  ordained  many  Laws  and  Statutes,  indulging  to  every  People  and  Nation 
their  own  ancient  Cuftoms ,  in  fuch  things  as  did  not  contradict  or  interfere  witti 
the  Religion  eftabMied,  or  oppofe  the  rules  of  common  honefty,  by  which  gen- 
tlenefs  the  people  lived  without  Tyranny  or  Compulfion ,  not  being  fenfible  of 
any  unpleafant  alteration,  but  fuch  as  tended  to  their  good  and  benefit,  leading 
them  from  a  beftial  to  a  rational  and  moral  Life,  which  was  the  great  defign  and 
intention  of  the  Jticas. 

Having  in  this  Vifit  and  Travails  fpent  three  Years,  he  returned  again  to  Cozco% 
where  having  pafled  fome  Months  in  joy  and  feftivals,  he  confulted  with  his  Bro- 
ther, who  was  his  chief  Minifter,  and  others  of  his  Council,  concerning  the  en- 
tire Conqueft  of  the  Provinces  of  Chinchafayu,  for  there  were  no  other  Countries 
on  that  fide  remaining  to  be  fubjected  to  their  Dominion ;  for  on  the  other  quar- 
ter, towards  Antifuyu,  bordering  on  the  fnovvy  Mountain,  there  was  nothing  dif- 
covered  befides  Rocks,  and  Precipices,  and  inacceflible  places. 

The  hca,  Capac  Yupanqtu  having  fo  well  acquitted  himfelf  with.Prudence  and 
Valour  in  his  late  Expedition,  it  was  refolved,  that  he  (hould  again  take  upon 
himfelf  the  Command  and  Conduct  of  the  Army;  and  that  his  Nephew,  called 
Tttpanqm,  who  was  Prince,  and  Heir  apparent ,  a  Youth  of  about  fixteen  Years 
old,  (hould  accompany  him  in  die  War,  it  being  the-cuftome  for  young  Men  of 
that  Age,  to  take  up  their  Arms,  and  make  their  firft  Campaign ;  according  to 
the  Ceremony  practifed  in  Htiaracu,  (as  we  (hall  hereafter  more  particularly  Dif- 
cooi  fe)  "that  fo  they  being  initiated ,  <and'  exenSfed  in  military  Difcipline ,  and 
Arts,  might  btcom€  experienced  and  valiant  Captains  in  their  more  mature  years. 
To  this  intent  fifty  thoufand  Souldiers  being  levied,  and  put  in  a  pofture  of  War, 
the  Uncle  and  Nephew  marched  with  the  Van,  which  was  one  third  of  the  Ar- 
my towards  the  Province  called  Clmcwpa,  which  was  the  ultimate  extent  of  the 
Empire  on  that  fide. 




Book  VI.  Royal  Commentaries  .205 

Thence  were  the  ufual  Summons  difpatched  to  the  Inhabitants  of  the  Province 
called  Pine*  j  who  finding  themfelves  in  no  condition  to  refift  the  power  which 
marched  againft  them  ;  and  being  well  informed  of  the  happinefs  of  thofe  people, 
who  became  Vaflals  to  the  Inca  s  they  readily  accepted  the  Propofitions  of  Peace, 
with  this  Complement,  That  they  rejoiced  to  receive  the  Blelfings  of  the  Ixca's 
protection,  and  to  be  numbred  with  thofe  Subjects  who  were  under  his  Domi- 
nion and  Empire.  Thus  the  Incas  entred  that  Province,  from  whence  they  fent 
the  like  Summons  to  the  Neighbouring  Countries,  of  which  Haaras,  Pifcopampu, 
and  Cunchucn  were  the  chief.  But  thefe,  inftead  of  following  the  example  of 
TincH,  unexpectedly  took  other  counfels,  and  confederating  one  with  the  other, 
refolved  to  join  in  the  common  defence  \  agreeing  to  fend  this  Anfwer,  That 
they  would  rather  dye,  than  receive  new  Laws,  new  Cuftoms,  or  a  new  Reli- 

5 ion  s  for  they  were  fo  well  fatisfied  with  thofe  Gods,  which  they  and  their 
^.nceftours  had  from  all  Ages  ferved  and  adored  $  that  they  had  no  need  to  change 
them  for  that  fpecious  fhew  of  Religion,  by  which  the  Inca  had  allured  and  de- 
ceived the  Neighbouring  Nations,  and  ufurped  a  Tyrannical  Power  and  Domi- 
nion over  them. 

Having  given  this  anfwer,  and  knowing  themfelves  unable  to  refift  the  Inca,  in 
open  Field,  they  retired  to  their  ftrong  holds  and  faft  places ,  being  refolved  t6 
defend  the  narrow  and  difficult  Pafles  J  and  to  that  end,  with  all  diligence  and 
care,  they  Victualled  their  Gamp,  making  the  beft  provifions  they  were  able  a- 
gainft  a  long  fiege. 


The  Inca  fubdues  the  Rebellious  Provinces  by  Famine,  and 
Strategems  of  Wan 

THE  General  Capac  Yupanqui  received,  without  the  leaft  furprize,  this  rude 
and  obftinate  Anfwer  from  his  falvage  Enemies ;  for  being  a  Perfon  of  great 
Prudence  and  Conftancy,  he  had  learned  how  to  bear  with  the  fame  equality, 
as  well  the  good  as  unfortunate  fuccefles,  and  not  to  be  moved  into  paflion  by  the 
wild  and  furly  Anfwers  of  an  untaught  and  immoral  people.  But  not  to  defpife 
the  weaknefs  of  an  Enemy,  which  was  retired  into  their  ftrong  Holds,  he  divi- 
ded his  Army  into  four  Battalions,  each  of  which  confifted  often  thouiandMen,